« ForrigeFortsett »
at Athens, the licensed sojourners' whose from honorary decrees voted to foreign protection and status was secured by the dikasts, or ambassadors, might be accumupayment of a small tax, as contrasted with lated without limit (see Keil, Schedae Epigr. the ξένοι, or ξένοι παρεπιδημούντες, who were p. 26). In St. Peter the construction is strangers, merely sojourning in a town too ēXovies TV avagtpoorv, but in all the inshort a time to care to secure the rights of stances I have observed in inscribed decrees Metoukia. The same meaning attached to the the verb is moucio bal. I add one more exterm uétolkos at Iulis in Ceos (Dittenberger, ample from a Prienean inscription, because Sylloge, No. 348), Tegea (C.I.G. 15136), it illustrates another New Testament word and apparently at Argos (C.I.G. Nos. 14, dvéykdytos, which is a common one in Greek 19). But the same status was more often decrees : τοις μεν παραγενομένους άνδρας designated by πάροικος, as at Carpathos επήνεσεν επί τε τω σωφρόνως και ανεγκλήτως (Dittenberger, 331); Carthaea in Ceos παρεπιδημήσαι, κ.τ.λ. (C.I.G. 2357); at Thespiae and Acraephia (C.I.G. 1631, 1625) ; at Ilium Novum
προστάτις. . (C.I.G. 3595 the Sigean Inscription When St. Paul says of Phoebe that she at Cambridge); at Teos (C.I.G. 3049); had been his mpootátis at Corinth (Rom. at Priene (C.I.G. 2906), and at Ephesus xvi. 2 : kai yèp aútò a poOTátis Toll éyánon (Le Bas, Voyage Arch. iii. 136a the Ox
kai čuoù aŭrod), we are again reminded of ford decree about Mithridates). Con
Greek political life; the upoorátns at Athens cerning the other cities we have as yet no
was the political sponsor of the μέτοικος. In evidence ; but it is observable that the some Greek cities a definite board of apoc. term rápolkos seems to grow more frequent rátai appear to have existed, charged with the further we go eastward. This all
similar functions towards aliens; it was so lends new meaning to the terms πάροικος, , at Rhodes, at Cnidus, at Calymna, at Iasos, -Eiv, -ía, as used in the LXX. and New at Iulis in Ceos, and at Amphipolis. In Testament; they were words borrowed by Graeco-Roman times oportátns was the rethe Jews from the language of Greek cognised equivalent of patronus, unless the politics. For the term ξένοι, Or ξένοι παρ- Latin word was simply Graecisell as πάτρων, , επιδημούντες, Or επιδημούντες ξένοι, Acts xvii. or less commonly márpwvos : occasionally we 21, and émio. 'Pwpaiol, Acts ii. 10 (temporary even find matpóviora. Schürer (Die Gemeindesojourners who have not yet secured the verfassung der Juder, p. 31) reminds us rights of πάροικοι or μέτοικοι), it is enough to that the Roman Collegia had their Patroni, refer to C.I.G. 3521 (Pergamon), 1338 and suggests that St. Paul's use of the word (Amyclae), 2347k (Syros), 2286, 2288 (Delos),
προστάτις (in a very general and indefinite Hermes vii. 133 (Sestos). I forbear to
sense') was suggested by the Patroni of enlarge upon the later usage of the word
Collegia. I do not, however, find mpootátns εκκλησία η παροικούσα εν-,
ever used in Greek in this sense of patronus. 'Αναστροφή.
And I prefer to think that St. Paul's use
of the word was derived immediately from But St. Peter combines Tápolkol and
its common political sense. The Christians παρεπίδημοι with the word αναστροφή, and
at the port of Corinth were in the position of this combination the inscriptions afford
of resident aliens in the presence of Graecocurious illustration : C.I.G. 1193 (Hermione), Roman society, and even in respect of the [έπαινέσαι τους πρεσβευτές επί τε τα ένδαμία
Jews established there; and Phoebe may και τ[α] αναστροφα [απ]εποίηνται αξίως εκατέρων well have been a woman of some social TÔV Tolíur (Hermione and Asine); C.I.G.
position and of wealth, who employel ler 1331 (Sparta), επαινέσαι δε αυτών και επί τα influence (after her baptism) to protect and ένδαμία και αναστροφα, α]πεποίησαι εν τα befriend the Church of which she was a TóÀ: C.I... 1339 (Messenia), “Tauvéal ... διάκονος. . [επί τα ενδ]αμία και αναστροφα α πε[ποίηται,
πολίτευμα. . K.T.d. : Keil, Syll. Inscr. Boeot. No. IVb, οίτινες παραγενόμενοι τάν τ[ε] παρεπιδαμίαν και
It has been often remarked that whereas αναστροφάν εποιήσαντο αξίως εκατ[ε]ραν ταν at Philippi, a Roman colonia, the citizens πολίων : C.I.G. 3053 (Cnossos), αποσταλθέντες
were proudly conscious of their political πάρ Τηΐων προτί τας εν Κρήτη πόλιας, και δια- status (Acts xvi. 21), St. Paul in his letter τρίψαντες τον πλείστον χρόνον έν τα αμα πόλει
to the Philippian Church employs twice over ου μόνον ταν από τας αναστροφάς ευταξίαν
a strong political metaphor ; i. 27: átíws [απ]εδείξαντο καλώς και ευτάκτως
1 See Part iii. of Greek Inscriptions in the British ενδεδα[μήκασι), κ.τ.λ. Instances like these
Muscum, No. 420.
του ευαγγελίου του Χριστού πολιτεύεσθε, and as Baoulers on the Prienian temple, and iii. 20: ημών γάρ το πολίτευμα εν ουρανούς the title was assumed by Antigonus, Lysiútápxel I have not, however, seen it noticed machus, Seleucus and Ptolemy in 306 B.C. in this connexion that the word molitevpa is It was under the Alexandrian monarchy used in the famous Jewish decree from the that the version of the LXX. had its origin, Cyrenaica (C.I.G. 5361) for the Jewish and it was the policy of the Syrian kings community at Berenice. This decree is which shaped the history and character of dated B.C. 13, so that the word todíterma later Judaism. The term Baolleús therefore had been adopted from Greek civic life into was instinct with present meaning and full Jewish usage, before the Apostle employed of absorbing associations when the Jews it for the heavenly citizenship of the Church. first learned it as the translation of their Another inscription found at Pompeii, but vernacular title. The LXX. may almost be certainly of Egyptian origin, and dated said to revel in the terms βασιλεύς, βασιλεία, B.C. 3, exhibits the same word πολίτευμα βασιλεύω, &c. employed of an association of Phrygians, whom we must suppose to have resided in
Μετοικίζειν, μετοικεσία. some Egyptian town or district in the en- Before I pass on from the mention of joyment of their own laws, religion, and royalty, let me note that the idea and administration of justice. Their priest de practice of transporting whole populations dicates a statue to Phrygian Zeus. The to please a monarch's whim were quite inscription reads as follows (C.I.G. 5866c): familiar to the subjects of the Diadochi, Γάιος Ιούλιος Ηφαιστίωνος
though they seem to veil the fact under the υιός Ηφαιστίων ιερατεύσας
terms συνοικίζεσθαι, παροικίζεσθαι (see the του πολιτεύματος των Φρυ
Teos inscription, my Manual, 149, $ 9, $ 14).
I have already observed that a resident alien γων ανέθηκε Δία Φρύγιον, κ.τ.λ.
was in most places out of Attica called a πάροιΚτίσις. .
κος : accordingly the word μετοικίζω was ready Krious, so commonly used in the New to be appropriated for the sense of 'change Testament for the Creation, and Kriotńs
of abode. In this sense petOLKÍŠEolai is used (Creator,' 1 Pet. iv. 19) are terins which
in the same inscription $ 9; and the verb, had previously belonged to political history.
with its cognates μετοικία and μετοικεσία, Kruts was the term for the Founder of a
were ready at hand in ordinary Greek when city (as oikuotr's was of a colony), and the
the LXX. had to describe the events of the title was frequently given in later days to
Captivity. kings and emperors, and even to private
Φρουρά, φρουρείν. persons, who had been great benefactors to
Another element of the history of those a city. Kríocs was the term for the founding days was the garrisoning of the Greek cities
a city (Polyb. ix. 1, § 4); compare Krigets, by the kings. Thus the history of Athens a geographical poem by Apollonius Rhodius,
after Alexander until the advent of the a title which Mommsen thinks may have
Romans was a long struggle to be rid of suggested to Cato the idea of his Origines Macedonian garrisons. The same thing was (Book iii. ch. 14, vol. ii. p. 477, English
true of the cities of Asia Minor in the days Translation).
of Lysimachus, the Seleucidae and the Βασιλεύς. .
Ptolemies. Let me e g. call attention to a Before going further let us remind our- curious decree from Priene published by me selves of the obvious fact, that Hellenism in the Hellenic Journal, 1883. Now tho was made familiar to the Jews of Palestine word for garrison is uniformly φρουρά, and the Dispersion by means of the Syrian $povpeîv, the soldiers are fpovpoi. The verb and Egyptian monarchies. In tracing back occurs in its literal sepse in 2 Cor. xi. 32 : therefore the Greek political words of the έν Δαμασκώ ο εθνάρχης 'Αρέτα του βασιλέως LXX. and New Testament, we need not εφρούρει την Δαμασκηνων πόλιν πιάσαι με always go back at once to Attic law and (when the R.V. seems less accurate than the Athenian literature : it is even more neces- A.V. Marquardt, Röm. Alterth. iv. p. 247 sary to fix our attention upon the political takes the word in its strict sense). I do not antiquities of Asia Minor and the shores of wish to dogmatise nor to impose this one the Levant. In this connexion observe that meaning upon opoupeîv semper et ubique ; one element of this Hellenism had been, but a glance at the literature and documents from the first, powerful and enlightened of the Hellenistic period will show that the monarchies. Alexander inscribed himself word in this sense was in perpetual use, and
can hardly have been employed in the New Phil. iv. 7: και η ειρήνη του Θεού η υπερέTestament without a reminiscence of it. χουσα πάντα νούν φρουρήσει τας καρδίας υμών øpoupá = garrison, 2 Sam. viii. 6, 14; και τα νοήματα. . i Paral. xviii. 13; 1 Macc. ix. 51, xi. 66, xii. 34, xiv. 33; povpelv = to garrison,
Are we in these passages to maintain the Judith iii. 6; 1 Esdras iv. 56; similarly
figure of a garrison keeping ward over a φρούριον and φρουρός in LXX. IndeedI
town, or are we to adopt the idea of soldiers think the meaning of garrison is universal
keeping guard either. to prevent escape, or in the Old Testament. The passages in
to protect the weak? It is significant that the Epistles are these :
Schleusner refers only to Symmachus' version
of Ps. lxxxviii 9 and Wisdom xvii. 15 for Gal. iii. 23 : υπό νόμον έφρουρούμεθα συν- this sense of custoditus, clausus quasi in carκλειόμενοι εις την μέλλουσαν πίστιν αποκα- cere’: he compares Gal. iii. 23, but I confess λυφθήναι. .
that even here I prefer the notion of a 1 Ρet. 1. 5: εν δυνάμει Θεού φρουρου- garcisoned town. In the other two passages μένους διά πίστεως εις σωτηρίαν ετοίμην απο- there seems little doubt that this is the καλυφθήναι. .
E. L. Hicks. (To be continued.)
THE GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS AND ENGLISH LITERATURE.
Those who are interested in the establish- found a remarkable agreement.'1 Mr. Collins ment at Oxford of a school of English litera- goes even further : What is expected from ture may be grateful to the indefatigable (the Hebdomadal Council] has during the Mr. Collins for having at any rate promoted last three months been proclaimed definitely the discussion, and so bastened on the prac- and imperiously by the voice of the whole tical stage of the subject. The man who nation. 2 And then he arrays his authorities, simultaneously and persistently works two first on the question of establishing the new such divergent oracles as the respectable study, secondly on the question of the divorce Quarterly and the vociferous Pall Mall, at from Classics. any rate gets the matter talked about. And An examination of the documents is far a good deal more talk will probably be from confirming these large conclusions. required at Oxford before the time will have The Pall Mall Extra which is substantially arrived for legislation. Meanwhile it may the compilation of Mr. Collins, contains not be superfluous to point out that Mr. forty-five letters from eminent (or rather Collins's cloud of witnesses do not give quite eminent) men, of which the words, or in a such a clear unanimous lead as has sonetimes few cases the substance, is given. Of these been assumed, and that his own proposal is forty-five, the opinions on the first question open to grave objection,
may be classified as follows :If the interesting person known as the
Favourable to a new Honour examination . 13 general reader' were asked about the recent
Unfavourable to a new Honour examination 13 controversy, he would probably regard it as Not prepared to express an opinion
8 established that the Universities were shame- Vague approval of the study fully behind hand in the recognition of
2 English Literature, and that all competent
45 opinion united in demanding the new study, and in insisting that it should not be divorced
Judgments might differ as to the classifrom Classics. Not much less than this is
fication of a few of these witnesses : but one claimed by the Pall Mall Gazette : ‘Everybody may feel confident that none would differ was agreed on the necessity of removing the
very widely from the distribution of votes national disgrace of an English university in given above. On the second question, though which English is not studied'...'should
there is more agreement, there is also a good it be associated with the Greek and Latin deal of vague language, and a large number classics, or rather (as is the case at Cam- express no opinion at all. The difficulty of bridge) with tlie other literatures of modern
1 Pall Mall Extra on English Literature, p. 2. Europe? on this question also there will be
Quarterly Review, No. 327, p. 245.
classifying is greater than before, but we may Epic, Lyric, and Didactic poetry, beginning perhaps arrange the writers as follows :- with the classical examples and pursuing the Favourable to combination with classics. 21
study through the best English works--be Unfavourable
4 no doubt describes a course of reading which No opinion expressed.
19 could not fail, if properly handled, to be Unclassed
interesting and instructive. But the objec
tions to the scheme, both theoretic and prac45
tical, he seems very imperfectly to appreciate. But even the comparative support given by
It is perhaps convenient to begin with the twenty-one who, by a liberal interpre
a short sketch of what his proposal is. tation, are classed as favourable, is easily seen on a closer examination to be of very
The three languages, Greek, Latin, English, little value. Some of them are unfavourable
are to be studied strictly together. The
school is to be an Honour Final School, to an Honour examination : some mean by
apart from the existing examinations. The associating English with Classics the insertion
subject is to be divided into three, Poetry, of a few English books in a classical exami
Rhetoric and Criticism. First, Poetry. In Dation : some intend English to be a subsequent study when the classical studies are
the classical part the student will be asked ended : and a still larger number give no
to translate with elucidatory comments' bint of what they mean. A consensus, so
pieces from the leading poets, from Homer
to Theocritus, and from Lucretius to Prulimited, of opinions so incoherent and inde
dentius. The leading English poets of all finite, does not even begin to be a support to the very precise views of Mr. Collins, who periods must be read, and prescribed wishes to run the three languages, in teaching
masterpieces critically studied.' Rhetoric is and examination, absolutely parallel to the
to include · Historical composition regarded
as Rhetoric :' but the books he leaves to the last. It is of course possible that when the time
Board of Studies to prescribe. In Criticism, comes for action, it may be found that many
the student is to work at the history of
the literatures' and likewise master the of these eminent persous are in favour of Mr. Collins's scheme. It is, however, equally
leading ancient treatises on literature, to
which is to be added Lessing's Laocoon. possible that they may be found to be the
In this scheme we think the general voice opposite. But the real conclusion which the
of practical educationists will find several student of these documents arrives at, is the unsatisfactoriness of this method of agitation.
grave defects. In the classical part there is A circular of inquiries, issued by an enter
at once immensely too much, and considerably prising journal, and accompanied or preceded
too little. There is for example in Latin by broad hints of the answers desired, leads poetry alone, besides Plautus and Terence, to many undesirable results. Some eminent
the 1400 pages of the Corpus Poetarum,
with Prudentius superadded. In Greek, men refuse to answer, and imbibe a distaste for the whole question. Some give oracular
besides Homer, Hesiod, the Poetae Scenici,
the Idyllists and the Lyricists-a list which and non-committal replies : an unworthy
no one would wish to diminish if there were occupation for the writer, and a needless
time for it—we must also add Apollonius irritation to the reader. Some express hasty
Rhodius, and some at least of the Alexandrine and ill-considered opinions, which commit
didactics. The Greek list would include the writers prematurely, and likewise give
some, and the Latin much, which is not firstscope to misrepresentation. And the enthusiast, who has evoked these reluctant and
rate literature : and all the while Livy,
Tacitus, Thucydides and Herodotus are only often extemporised views, is perhaps insen
treated as Rhetoric; and Pliny, Cicero's sibly led into imagining a unanimity which
letters and treatises, and the whole of Plato,2 ultimately proves fallacious. The one
are omitted. Imagine a scheme of literature advantage is, as we have said above, that discussion is promoted. But it may well be | Later than the prescribed period, but specially doubted if from such unripe discussion there included by Mr. Collins. is much substantial gain.
? Mr. Collins seeins to feel this objection at one
point, for he proposes to admit no one to the English In Mr. Collins's own scheme, there is much
school who has not obtained a third in Greats (Quar that is at first sight attractive ; and particu- terly, p. 259). But this quite impossible and suicidal larly in the glowing passage (which we proposal—for the result would be prohibitory to the unfortunately have not space to quote)
new studies-is inconsistent with his other suggestion
that Literature should stand to Greats in the same where he describes the literature student
relation as the old Law and History School (p. 258), mastering successively Oratory, the Drama, where no such restriction was dreamt of.
which includes seventeen books of Punica classics would be relegated to the position of and the Hymnus Jeiunantium, and which Divinity in Honour Moderations : with the ignores the Gorgias, the Republic, and the same fatal results to the study. The object Symposium !
would be to scrape through ; men would read In English the case is still stronger. the minimum : and examiners would be reThere the division into Poetry and Rhetoric luctant to plough. The real force of teachers
--even with the strained interpretation of and taught would be thrown into the English. Rhetoric which includes History-is even
The fact is that it is quite possible to agree more fatal to a real representation of the with Mr. Collins's reiterated dogma, that Literature. A scheme of English literature English should be taught in connection which excludes Wycliffe, Malory, More, with classics,' and yet to object wholly to Ascham, Sidney, Hooker, Bacon, Burton, the special meaning which he attaches to it, Milton's prose works, Hobbes, Locke, much that the students of English shall be forced of Taylor, Barrow, South ; Bunyan, Cowley's for their Final Examination to read up large prose, Walton, Evelyn, Pepys, Steele, masses of Greek and Latin authors. What Addison, Berkeley, Defoe, Swift, Jobnson, the student really wants is to be familiar in Goldsmith, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, -with a general way with the Origins of Literature certain small exceptions that might find a among the Greeks and Romans, as part (and place under Rhetoric or Criticism-such a though it be the largest, yet not the only scheme, is, to use an expression Mr. Collins part) of the literary influences that have himself has adopted, 'a fraud upon letters.' acted on English authors. It is quite as inIt may be noted as a final touch of the irony dispensable that he should have a general of fate, that under Mr. Collins's system it idea-and the more the knowledge is firstwill be still open to a graduate in the school hand the better, in this case also of the of literature, to be ignorant whether Arcadia foreign modern literary influences, to which and Oceana are poetry or prose.
our great writers owe so much. The French, Quite as grave again are the practical the Italian, the German, even the Scandinaobjections to the classical examination. The vian and the Spanish influences, are all, in classical books are just the Moderations various degrees and at various epochs, of studies over again, with the addition of first-rate importance for the thorough study the silver age. All the arguments that the of English. A study which should treat • modernisers’ urge against continuing on English literature as a simple product of at college the same round of classical studies classics, besides being to the last degree misthat so many had wearied of at school, lie leading, would tend to repeat the old blunder with much greater force against a final from which we are only just escaping, of school where the examination consists in educational narrowness.
To realise in pracLatin and Greek translations with elucida- tice what is true in the idea of teaching tory comments. The student has been all his English ‘in connection with classics,' it life translating with elucidatory comments. would be quite sufficient that the students He wants to plunge, we will suppose, into of the new subject should have passed his favourite study, Modern Literature: and through, at school and college, the ordinary with what eyes will he regard the necessity classical course. They would even then start of giving so many hours a week to keep up the far better equipped for appreciating the Homer, Aeschylus, Tacitus, and Juvenal of classical influence, than for understanding Mods, not to speak of the Silius Italicus and any of the others. And simple practical Prudentius whose acquaintance he now makes considerations point the same way. The for the first time? And there is a still more obvious plan would be to open the new serious objection in the character which the Literature School to those wlio had passed classical part of such an examination would Classical Moderations. The school would certainly assume. There would not be time then stand on the same footing as Modern for both classical part and English part to History, Law, Theology, and Literae Hube thoroughly done, and the weight would maniores : the only difference being that the be thrown into that side of the study which early training in this case would be more was new. The classical translations would specially appropriate to the final study. And be regarded as the lower thing, which had as Canon Percival says in his reasonable and to be done up to a certain standard: but to weighty letter, it cannot be seriously mainwhich it was waste of time to devote much tained that by such an arrangement ‘any paids. In short the classical part would in- detriment would accrue to scholarship or evitably become the Pass part: the English, learning or to the reputation of the university the Honour part of the examination. The as a home of the higher education.'