« ForrigeFortsett »
ground. The acconnt of each province is prefaced subject. Though the products of various districts by a general sketch of its characteristics, and a notice are sometimes mentioned, there is no general account of its inhabitants, after which the country itself is of the vegetation ; and the climate and winds, notwithdescribed in minute detail. It will readily be under- standing their intimate connection with geography, stood that such a work is useful for reference, and are hardly noticed. Yet these questions have been for consultation on special points, but is hardly suit- fully discussed in Neumann and Partsch's Physiable for continuous reading. Dr. Lolling is sternly kalische Geographie von Gricchenland. The origin self-denying in excluding all such elements as might and meaning of names of places, too-a subject which infuse brightness into his subject, or contribute to has been worked out by E. Curtius for the promonmake it interesting. Places which are important in tories of Greece in his Beiträge zur Geographischen history, or distinguished by beauty or grandeur, Onomatologie der griechischen Sprache, and by Angerreceive no more attention than those that are less mann in his Geographische Namen Altgriechenlande conspicuous. Delphi is dismissed in four sentences, is almost entirely ignored. There is one part of Dr. the waterfall of the Styx in one. The discovery and Lolling's work, however, which deserves the highest clearing out of the tunnel of Eupalinus at Samos, praise. This is the bibliographical notices, which described by Herodotus, though it is one of the most are appended to each section, and include numerous remarkable pieces of archaeological exploration in monographs and contributions to magazines, which modern times, is not even mentioned ; but a reference might otherwise escape notice, and also a selection of is given to an article by Fabricius in the Mittheilungen those of the earlier works on the subject which still des deutschen archäologischen Institutes in Athen, retain their value. In compiling summaries of this which gives full details respecting it. An exception, sort it is impossible to arrive at perfection; and we however, is made in favour of Athens, to the topo- are surprised under the head of Macedonia' to find graphy of which a separate monograph is devoted. no mention of such important works as Von Hahn's The extreme compression of statement in some cases Reise von Belgrad nach Salonik and Reise durch die is liable to produce confusion in the reader's mind. Gebicte des Drin und Wardar, and Barth's Reise Thus, in the account of Arcadia we are told that the durch das Innere der Europäischen Türkei. But modern name of the Alpheius is Ruphias, and, in the omissions like this are rare, and the wonder is that next sentence, that that of the Ladon is Ruphia. they are so few. We cannot help remarking, in conA few words of explanation would have made it clear, clusion, that the author makes much too light of Sir that the name Ruphia is applied to the Ladon until E. H. Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography, when it joins the Alpheius, and afterwards to the combined he speaks of it as a mere compilation from earlier waters of the two rivers. To say the truth, though works. To us it seems the greatest contribution to we are unwilling to appear ungrateful for so sound a the subject that has appeared in modern times. piece of work, yet we are doubtful whether such a
H. F. T. delineation was needed, since the same subject had already been worked out in Barsian's Gcographie von
Henri Kiepert, Manuel de Géographie Griechenland, in which work, also, references to
Ancienne, traduit par Émile Ernault. 6 frcs. ancient authors are given, while they are altogether excluded from the present treatise. What we espe- This is a pleasantly written and printed translation cially miss in Dr. Lolling's work is any attempt of Kiepert's smaller geography, of which an English to give a résumé of general points connected with version already exists. The only special feature of it Greek geography. Of the eleven pages to which his is that the section referring to France has been taken introductory remarks are confined, all but three are from Kiepert's larger work, and a few patriotic cordevoted to the sources of our information on the
rections made by M. Longnon.
NOTES ON AP. Rhod, with reference to Liddell and épetud kathprvov and this has led Matthiac to reject Scott :-AP. RH. I. 378, 379.
378, 379 as spurious. But there is really no diffiύψι δ' άρ' ένθα και ένθα μεταστρέψαντες ερετμα
culty in these lines as Wellauer observes ad. loc., and πήχυιον προύχοντα περί σκαλμοίσιν έδησαν. .
the second explanation of E. M. helps us to the
meaning of metaoTp. ép. in 378. The launch of Argo These lines have been made rather difficult by an is being described." After she has been placed upon interpretation of Et. Magn. adopted by L. and S. sub the rollers it is necessary of course to move her into verb. thxulos, as follows : ‘II. as Subst. τμοπωτήρ the water. With this object the oars are placed on Ap. Rh. i. 379, cf. E. M. 671, 8.' Turning to E. M. each side with their handles projecting a cubit's length we find πήχυιον προύχοντα, Απολλώνιος. οι μεν, , beyond the rowlock (uetaot. e. f. tp.) and are there μικρών ιμαντίδιον το συνέχoν την κώπην τρος τον σκαλ. temporarily fastened to the thole-pins.
In this way μον όπερ 'Αττικοί πηχυαλέα καλούσι. οι δε, το όπισθεν the Argonauts have each a cubit's length of oar handle μέρος της κώπης όπερ κατέχων ο ναύτης κωπηλατεί. to push at and they stand in order on each side and of whatever value the first explanation may be in push accordiugly, as is described 380 foll. Then itself it is pretty certain that whxuiov has not the when Argo has reached the water, the oars are released meaning of Tpon wthp here, and I can only account from their peculiar position and affixed to the tholefor the statenient by supposing that l. 379 having pins in the usual manner. The second explanation been taken from the context, it became necessary to given by E. M. then really points to the words uetaassign some new meaning to an xulov. It is however στρέψαντες ερετμα and not to πήχυιον while the first translated by Beck ‘lorum prominens scalmis alliga. explanation seems, as Merkel remarks, to be made runt,' and also by Shaw, though his opinion is not of for the occasion. TÝ Xuiov occurs three times in Ap. niuch weight. But in 392 we read okasuois 8 åuqis Rh. in its usual meaning of anxvalov viz. iii. 854,
1207 (where it answers to tuyobolov of Od. x. 517) and iv. 1510. There is unfortunately a gap in the Schol. to Ap. Rh. here or perhaps L. and S. would not have taken E. M. as their guide.
'àuhputos not to be drawn out i.e. tedious ripas, Ap. Rh. ii. 221.' This seems rather contradictory. In the line quoted åp. goes with és Téros and means 'not to be drawn to an end' and so 'tedious,' &téierτον και διηνεκώς επιμένον, απέραντον Schol. adding that the metaphor is από των μηρυομένων ερίων. If the Homeric ιστία μηρύεσθαι gives the proper meaning of the word j. a different metaphor is suggested.
FŐKnios, ov and Ap. Rh. 1, ov.' A mistake through following Brunck's reading in ii. 935 from an inferior MS., and in iii. 769, iv. 61, 1247, even Brunck has the word of two terminations. L. and S. usually follow Brunck's reading in citing Ap. Rh. though his text is now quite discredited.
μαιμάω c. gen. xeipa paluão ay pórov, eager for murder Soph. Αj. . 50, 80 μαιμώωσαι εδητύος Ap. Rh.ii. 269.' In the line of Ap. Rh. quoted to does take the gen. but it is elsewhere used by him absolutely as in Hom., but in Soph. pórov evidently depends on étéoxe as Prof. Jebb points out.
υποφήτωρ = υποφήτης. υπ. αοιδής Μούσαι Αp. Rh. Ι. 22, rather υποφήτωρ is here the correlative ofυποφήτης. The Muses are the suggesters of the song to the poet, and so in iv. 1381 he calls himself úrakovds sliepidww. The poet is Μουσών υποφήτης and προφήτης.
R. C. SEATox.
Josephus often refers to him, but without mentioning the title of the work from which he quotes.
2. Where did Strabo write his Geography ! Scholars long, assumed that Strabo after visiting Rome (29 A.D.) and making a long sojourn in Egypt returned home to his native city of Amasea in Pontus, and there wrote his Geography. This involved various difficulties. For instance, Strabo knows but little about the countries lying east of Pontus. In fact Herodotus writing 400 years earlier has better inform. ation respecting the Caspian. On the other hand he introduces various incidents relating to Italy which must have occurred very shortly before his death. He likewise makes use of the work of an anonymous writer whom he calls ο χωρογράφος, and whose work lie seems to indicate by the term xwpoypapia. As all distances quoted from this source are given in miles it is inferred that the writer was a Roman. Some had thonght that the chorography referred to the great work. of Agrippa, but as the latter died in 12 B.C. and as the work was not completed until after his death, it would have been impossible for Strabo to have seen it, assuming the supposed date of his sojourn at Rome to be correct. Now Mullenhoff (Ueber die Weltkarte und Kosmographie des Kaisers Augustus, p. 2) first suggested that Strabo wrote at Rome; but offered no proofs. Niese (Hermes 1878, p. 36) sought to prove this hypothesis by three passages (VII, 290, XIII, 590, XIII, 609). But the inference that Strabo was at Rome because he used the terms évodde and deüpo in reference to that city is hardly tenable, as it is his habit to use these words in im. mediate reference to the place of which he is at that moment treating as in VI. 257, 281. But we can find much more reliable evidence in the passage (V. 236) where he describes the Tomb of Augustus : αξιολογώτατον δε το Μαυσώλειον καλούμενον επί κρηπίδος υψηλής λευκολίθου προς το ποταμό χώμα μέγα, , άχρι κορυφής τους αειθαλέσι των δένδρων συνηγεφές: επ' άκρη μεν ουν εικών εστι χαλκή του Σεβαστού Καίσαρος, υπό δε το χώματι θήκαι εισιν αυτού και των συγγενών και οικείων, όπισθεν δε μέγα άλσος περιπάτους θαυμαστους έχον εν μεσω δε τα πεδία και της Καύστρας αυτού περίβολος και ούτος λίθου λευκού, κύκλο μεν περικείμενον έχων σιδηρούν περίφραγμα, εντός δ' αιγείροις κατάφυτος: This has all the appearance of being the description of an eyewitness, the evergreens, the iron palings, the poplars would hardly have been put in, if Strabo had beeu writing far away in Pontus. Augustus died 14 A.D. It seems then that Strabo was living at Rome after that date.
In fact it is probable that he returned to Rome from Egypt. At all events there was no reason why he should return to Pontus; with the fall of Mithra. dates the fortunes of his family were broken. The reason why his information respecting the region of the Caspian is so scanty is now obvious, and there can be little doubt that “the chorography” is the famous work of Agrippa.
As we find Strabo at Rome so shortly before the time when in the course of nature he must have died, it is not unreasonable to conjecture that he died there.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO STRABO's BIOGRAPHY,
1. Writings. In all recognised books of reference two works are given to Strabo, viz. the Geography (rewypapué) in 17 books, which is still extant, and an Historical work ('IoTopikà 'tourhuara) now lost.
Now it will hardly seem credible if I state that Strabo himself distinctly mentions two separate historical works of his own. Yet such however is the fact. The oversight of scholars can only be accounted for by supposing that, as the passage occurs in Bk. XI. 515, readers do not as a rule advance so far in the work. It is as follows : είρηκότες δε πολλά περί των Παρθικών νομίμων εν τη έκτη των ιστορικών υπομνημάτων βίβλω, δευτέρα δε των μετά Πολύβιον, παραλείψομεν ενταύθα μη ταυτολογείν δόξωμεν κ.τ.λ. From this it is perfectly plain that the Ιστορικά υπομνήματα, and the Τα μετά Πολύβιον are two distinct works. To the first of these two works he evidently refers in Bk. II. 70: και ημίν δε υπήρξεν επί πλέον κατιδείν ταύτα υπομνηματιζομένοις τας Αλεξάνδρου πράξεις. Now the History of Polybius extended down to 146 B.C. : therefore Strabo's continuation would not begin before that date. It is plain then that in this work there could have been no place for a description of the exploits of Alexander (336-323 B.C.), but, as the word υπομνηματιζομένοις implies, they were comprised in his 'Trouvhuata. Suidas s.v. Monúbios (a reference which I owe to Sir E. H. Bunbury's Ancient Geography says: Ιστέον ότι διαδέχεται την Πολυβίου ιστορίαν Ποσειδώνιος Ολβιοπολίτης, σοφιστής" έγραψε δε και Στράβων 'Αμασιεύς τα μετά Πολύβιον έν βιβλίοις μγ'.
Pernhardy seems hardly justified in removing this passage from the text in his edition of Suidas (Halle 1853). Certainly as far as Strabo is concerned it is in complete harmony with the passage quoted above.
Plutarch ( Lucullus 28 ) refers to Strabo's Mcmoirs and also in Sulla 26 to Strabo as an historian, but without quoting the name of any work.
CATULLUS, Ixiv. 22-24.
O nimis optato saeclorum tempore nati
“censoremne,” which Casaubon wished to read, explaining it " vel eone tibi places quod.” Heinr. conj. censorem fatuum,” which he thinks may stand for Claudius.'
I would suggest ‘censorem velulum.' 'Do you pride yourself
on passing in review in your purple knight's cloak before some wizened censor ?'
H. B. STANWELL. [Is it not possible to take ve and vel as expressing two distinct alternatives, or because you have a kinsman who is a censor, or because you are yourself a knight:' in full, censoremve quod tuum salutas, vel quod trabeate censorem salutas I–J. B. M.]
The third line is given according to Munro s restoration. The turn of the last line is not a Latin one. I know of no instance of epanalepsis of this sort, where the epithet is in one clause (meo), the noun (carmine) in another. Two nouns are clearly demanded and long ago I suggested mero for mco. The correction seemed to me so obviously right as to need no demonstration, but as it has been neglected I wish to add some illustrations which I hope will recommend it to Mr. Ellis. Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero.
Hor. Carm. iv. 5, 33. Ter tibi fit libo, ter dea casta mero-Tibull. iv. 6, 14. Sic noctem patera, sic ducam carmine.
Prop. iv. 6, 85. Libatum fundens ad tua sacra merum.
Prop. ii. 17, 38. Superis...tura merumque damus. -Ov. Ep. 21, 91. Festa dies Vereremque vocat, cantusque merumque : haec decet ad dominos munera ferre deos.
Ov. Am. iii. 10, 47. Et 'bene nos patriae, bene te pater optime Caesar,' dicite, suffuso per sacra verba mero.
Ov. Fast, ii. 637. Da mihi tura, puer, quodque pio fusum stridat in igne merum. Ov. Trist. v. 5, 11 (on his mistress's birthday).
CATULLUS, xxii. 12, 13.-The difficulty of this passage is well known. U gives it as follows
qui modo scurra Aut siquid ac retristius videbatur. May not the right reading be aure tritius ? This suggested itself to me on reading Longin. Act. Rhet. p. 137, Bake, της δ' ευρυθμίας το γνώρισμα δηλον τω συνειθισμένο το τών ευρύθμων και αποτετορνευμένων και στρογγύλων αποδέχεσθαι λόγων, και τετριμμένα τα ότα προς την σύνθεσιν τών τε σεμνών και αρχαίων λόγων ών κατέλεξα τους ευρετάς και πρώτους φήνοντας τα παραδείγματα της καλλιλογιάς.
Cicero uses tritae aures of the trained ears of a Plautine critic, Vitruvius (ii. i. 6) tritiores manus of hands acquiring by practice increased dexterity in building. Longinus' Tetprévos rd &ta exactly expresses aure tritior, ‘more practised of ear,' i.e. for detecting the true ring of genuine wit and distinguishing it from anything inconsonant, as bad taste or rusticity.
JUVENAL, Sat. XI. 106.
ac nudam effigiem clipeo venientis et hasta
pendentisque dei do not seem capable of a satisfactory interpretation. To join clipeo with venientis, and to render coming with shield,' seems to strain the powers of the ablative case to the utmost. The comment of Servius on Georg. iv. 484, Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis, to the effect that vento is equivalent to cum vento, is not generally accepted : and if we should adopt it, it may be doubted whether the 'accompanying ablative' there bears any very close analogy to the ablative quoted from Juvenal.
Nor is the passage given as parallel, venit et agresti capitis Silvanus honore, an exact parallel at all : for honore (combined with agresti) is a qualifying or decriptive ablative, taken closely with Silvanus, as the rhythm of the verse shows, and not in connection with venit. But in the line from Juvenal, the rhythm determines that clipeo and hasta go closely with the participle. And this should disprove the possibility of taking nudam with clipeo et hasta ; although we are reminded that Ovid (Fasti iii. ad. init.) represents the War God as unarmed when he visited Rea Silvia.
Now the Cod. Pithoeanus and the Scholl. concur in the reading venientis ; but inferior MSS. give fulgentis. If the line be set up in uncials
CLIPEOVENIENTISETHASTA it is easy to see that the three letters underlined may well represent the conjunction QVE, the final 0 of clipeo having fallen out from its similiarity to the uncial Q. This emendation would leave clipeoque ni. entis et hasta; and that ni-entis represents nitentis may be inferred from the reading of the later MSS. fulgentis, which probably came in from the margin, where it was placed as a reminder that nitentis was to be referred to nỉteo and not to nitor. The line, as corrected, will then run
ac nudam effigiem clipeoque nitentis et hasta
pendentisque dei; and all difficulties of interpretation will disappear.
PERSIUS, Sat. III. 29.
Censoremve tuum vel quod trabeate salutas ?' Conington's note on this line is as follows :• Ve...vel is apparently an unexampled tautology. Many MSS. have “
censoremque," which does not help the sense, and is itself less likely. One has
W. W. MERRY.
CLASSICAL EDUCATION IN GERMANY.
(Translated from the German original.)
disappeared : we have official schemes of instrucSir, —You ask me for a paper for your Review
tion, and regulations for Abiturienten, which exert
their influence on all the schools of one particular dealing with Classical Studies in Germany, as you have had one dealing with Classical Education
State and leave scarcely any noticeable peculiarities. in France, and you refer me to the Article by my
The spirit of each school is, however, in reality French Colleague in the July number of the Classical
that of its Head-Master, or (especially in South Review as to the lines which my paper should follow.
Germany) that of the whole staff of teachers. But
we have various kinds of schools with various I will endeavour to imitate his clear and thorough exposition, and will answer the same questions as he
aims and plans of instruction : of these only two has done, though not perhaps in the same order : for
demand our attention, the Gymnasium and the Real. the order depends partly on the nature of the subject
gymnasium, at both of which classical studies are matter, and this differs in each case. A writer dealing
pursued, though to a different extent. But there is with education in France has this advantage that,
à further difference : beside the complete Gymnasia apart from the different nature of different schools,
and Real-gymnasia, with nine, in Würtemberg ten, the whole Republic is thoroughly centralised : while
classes, stand the Progymnasia and Real-progymnaria, in Germany one has to consider not only the different
with seven or six classes, which therefore do not kinds of schools, but also the different plans of
provide instruction for the two or three last years at instructiou in the separate States. I do not indeed
school : again, below these, and apart from them, complain of this want of unity, except as a difficulty
are the so-called Latin schools, principally in Würin the way of one writing on the state of education ;
temberg, which only extend to the Tertia, and on the contrary I see in it a great advantage to our
therefore have not the four or five highest classes :
the study of the ancient languages is here also essencountry and people. It is no loss to have various modes of operation within the same system of national
tially the same as in the lower classes of a complete education ; it is indeed a gain, especially when the
Gymnasium. The fact is that these incomplete schools different races have found that which suits them best
make all sorts of concessions to the local exigencies in these different forms of the common national ideal
of small towns ; consequently their achievements fall of education, and have shaped it to suit their own
considerably behind those of the complete schools in character. Besides, too much must not be made of
many respects, but, on the other hand, they raise the this variety : since the establishment of the German
general level of culture among the people of such little Empire in 1870 we have not indeed attained complete
towns in a satisfactory way: uniformity, but we have to some extent agreed as to
A boy generally enters the Gymnasium when he the leading principles. At a meeting of delegates
has completed his ninth year-in Würtemberg, of the governing bodies of all higher schools in the
with its ten-year course, a year earlier-so that under German Empire held at Dresden in 1872, the principle
orulinary circumstances the boy leaves school at eighwas established that the leaving certificates( Abiturien
teen to go to the University. But this, the normal, ten-Zeugnisse) of all German schools should be made course is gradually becoming exceptional, and the of eqnal valuie, provided that the schools conformed
arerage age for leaving school is in most states to certain external conditions. To carry this
principle considerably higher. The condition of admission into
the lowest class is the possession of the power of into practice a Commission was appointed of delegates from the different states-Reichsschulkommission
reading and writing and of making correct calculawith no power to exercise direct interference with tions with any numbers up to 1,000. Where this the educational authorities in the different states, but,
knowledge is acquired is not of consequence to the on the other hand, with power to name the schools
Gymnasium : in small towns it is without exception which are authorised to grant certificates for Abit
attained in the common schools, in large towns either urienten and ? Einjährig-Freiwillige. The Commis
with private teachers or in elementary schools consion thus gained a certain right of watching over
structed for the purpose or in preparatory schools education ; and in like manner the schools which
connected with the Gymnasia ; this connexion how. grant these certificates are led to reform and
ever is no advantage. The number of pupils in themselves more uniformly than before. With re
each class of the Gymnasium differs with time and gard to the differences which continue to exist in
place : it ought not to exceed 40 or, at most, 50 in spite of an ever-increasing uniformity, I shall only
the lowest classes, 30 in the highest. The number of
school hours in the week is also not the same in the be able to notice points which are of real importance.
different States : it varies between 28 and 35 in the With regard to the instruction in the Gymnasium, it makes no difference, so far as the study of the
various classes. The chief subjects in strictly human. classical languages is concerned, whether it is a
istic Gymnasia-as distinguished from Real-gymState - gymnasium, or a Commune-gymnasium, a
nasia—are German, Latin, Greek, and Mathematics: secular or an ecclesiastical institution. That de- subjects of secondary importance are History and pends on the plan on which the school was founded :
Geography, Natural Science, French, Religion, Draw. it is also a question of finance, and in part
ing, and Gymnastics. English and Hebrew are a personal question : but the instruction and the optional. In some South German schools Philosophy arrangement of the school is the same in all cases.
(Logic and Psychology) is among the compulsory The peculiarities of different schools depending on
subjects. The system of having different teachers for the Head-Master's personality have almost entirely
different subjects was formerly carried too far: now,
however, we are trying to give each master, at all 1 Abiturienten are those pupils of the highest class, who events in the lower classes, as many lessons and through an examination are qualified for the University.
subjects as possible in his own class. But of the ? Einjährig-Freiwillige are those who throngh the certificate of some higher school have obtained the right of doing military
opposition of the two systems I had better speak service for one year instead of three.
We have here only to do with the teaching of the to some extent too lengthy: it will for this reason two ancient languages.. I shall speak first of Latin give way before long to a simpler and shorter book, in the Gymnasium, adding a few words on the study which in its turn will accompany the pupil through of this subject in the Real-Gymnasium. Greek I all the classes. shall treat in my next letter. Latin is begun as soon From the grammatical part of the teaching I as the pnpil enters the lowest class (Sexta): the proceed to the translations and written exercises. number of hours given to it in this class in each Exercises in translation, both written and viva voce, week is in Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine 7, in Würtem- from German into Latin and from Latin into German, berg 12, in Prussia 9. The total number of hours in generally go with grammatical instruction through the week devoted to Latin by the Gymnasium the first two school years. In these classes and amounts, if the hours given to the subject in all the generally in those above them as far as the Tertia the classes be added together, to 71 in Alsace-Lorraine pupils have printed translation books before them. (the lowest), 102 in Würtemberg (the highest), 77 in Ostermann's are, as far as I know, the commonest. Prussia.
Latin and German pieces are given in nearly equal The aim of the teacher of Latin is stated in the proportion. The necessary words are at the same Prussian Educational Scheme of March 31, 1882, as time learnt by heart, being either printed beside each follows : “[To secure) a sound knowledge of Latin passage, or, as by Ostermann, in a separate book Accidence and Syntax. That the pupil should gain arranged with reference to the grammar. These a vocabulary sufficient for the understanding of the vocabularies are, with justice, much blamed, because writings of the classical period (excepting those which they give many words which the pupil does not meet deal with technical matters), a vocabulary which he in his later reading. Statistics of the words which will retain for his later special studies and which will occur in school reading are urgently needed : they form a foundation for the understanding of the modern would also be helpful in rendering the school-gramlanguages derived from Latin.—The reading of a mar simpler. With reference to the translation selection of the most important works of classical passages there is a question which has been much literature which are suited to the pupil's powers; a debated of late, whether it is well to retain the grammatically accnrate understanding of these works is hitherto common method of having sentences placed to be demanded : the pupil is to advance to a grasp side by side without any internal connexion, or and appreciation of the subject matter and the style. whether it would not be better to have connected The writing of Latin, within the range of thought passages of some interest and value, and especially covered by the reading, without serious incorrectness selections from history. The latter plan seems at and with some ease is also required."
first sight to have the advantage; yet its claims rest Let us begin with the tenching of grammar. The in part on a misunderstanding of the aim of the accidence is, speaking generally, completed in the teaching of Latin and on a failure to understand first two school years. The regular accidence falls to the gradual development of the youthful mind. the Sexta, the irregular to the Quinta, so far as they The language is at first the one and only aim, and can in practice be kept distinct. In the Quarta the therefore it is a mistake to place beside it as an aim work of the two lower classes is repeated and the the increase of historical knowledge. Again, to the Syntax begun, the chief rules being given in an young beginner the language itself is, in fact, elementary form. The lower and upper Tertia have interesting enough : the strange word, the strange to go over the same ground with more thoroughness form awake and arrest his attention; and moreover and depth, the former perfecting the treatment of the attempt to translate is still so difficult for him to the Cases, the latter that of the Moods and Tenses make, that he has little attention left for the subjectin principal and subordinate sentences. But the matter ; or else his interest in the subject-matter knowledge gained in these classes is not so sure as draws off his attention from the form of expression. to make it unnecessary to repeat the work in the But this proposal is founded on an idea concerning Secunda and Prima in a more thorough and intelligent the instruction of the beginner in Latin, which is form, an opportunity thus occurring for pointing out still more opposed to the method at present in use. the underlying historical connexion of the facts. It is said that the analytical-inductive method should Style is seldom taught in special lessons : opportu- be used in place of the synthetic ; that, accordingly, nities enough for the treatment of the subject occur in the Latin sentence, the passage for translation should connexion with grammar, reading, and written exer- be taken as the medium and starting point of gramcises. I have spoken of the teaching of grammar first, matical instruction. This plan can boast great and by itscıf, for various reasons: first, it forms in success in the teaching of French, especially in the lower classes an important and almost independent Baden. It is, to my mind, the only right method of subject : then, the idea is more and more gaining teaching modern languages. But then the only ground that Latin is to be always 'der grammatische object is to be able to understand the foreign Knecht :' grammatical discipline in itself belongs to language as soon as possible : in the case of Latin, the teaching of Latin. German grammar is put in the on the other hand, the aim is to gain a sound and background and is scarcely taught at all now in thorough grammatical discipline, for which the onemany schools, but the instruction in it is put into sided and exclusive application of the analytical the Latin lessons, except that part of the subject method is neither advantageous nor sufficient. Accordwhich is directly connected with German reading. ingly the proposals of H. Perthes which point But, lastly, my chief reason for treating grammar in this direction have been rejected by most German separately : the higher one gets in the school, the school-masters. Nevertheless this movement has been less is the Latin reading to be mis-used as a gramma- of great use to the cause of Latin instruction : a closer tical exercise, or regarded as a collection of syutax- connexion between reading and grammar : & recogexamples : rather it is to be pursued for its own sake nition of the analytical method of procedure, and of and for the interest of the subject. It follows that the necessity of its application in details, even when grammatical instruction can only be regarded as rela- the former method is in general retained ; the tively independent of reading through all the classes. attaching of less importance to mechanical drill in There is no Grammar which is used in all German grammar and unintelligent learning of vocabularies; schools : that of Fr. Ellendt, revised by M. Seyffert, the paying of greater attention to these questions of is the most common. It cannot be denied that it is method and the recognition of the importance of