advantage of a lever, and alternations of more and less, are respectively experienced. A horse of infe. rior power, or of a medium kind, ought not, for the same reason, to draw more than i cwt. Otherwise the cattle are injured, or a proper day's work is not done. In my experiments, likewise, I find, that an additional weight to the plough is similar to the additional weight in one scale, when, before, the beam was on an equipoise; and a ploughman unnecessarily leaning on his plough makes it harder work for the horses, and they are much distressed in consequence of it. I calculate, by the Index Engine, that a person leaning on the plough, at the rate of cwt. is nearly equal in ploughing to half of the draft of a horse. In determining this, I have fastened weights on each handle of the plough, where the hands are usually placed, and according to the weights on the handles, fo is the effect on the draft of the horses. This ought to be well understood, and duly guarded against by all agriculturists; otherwise the loss sustained by an unskilful ploughman, in the management of his one plough only, I compute to be equal to half the expense of a horse ; and which, at the rate of 125. per week, will amount to 311. 45. per annum, besides the injury done to the cattle. Mr. Tugwell, in his improved plough, has provided a remedy in this case, by fixing the hinder part of his plough higher than is usually done ; so that if the ploughman lean with an undue stress on


it, it immediately lifts the point, and makes it mount above the ground. This plough, when properly made, performs well. I use several of the Bever. stone, and one Southampton plough invented by Mr. Tickell; they are all light and good. For several years I used the heavy ploughs, where lighter ones would have answered equally well, and at much less expence. The first light plough I used was the Beverstone; but I had immediately to encounter the prejudices of my servants, and fome of my neighbours. I still however remained convinced of the correctness of its principle, and that the horses, in a heavy plough and on light foil, had an unnecessary weight to draw.

My convictions influenced me to expostulate somewhat in this way.

Does the schoolmaster use a carving knife to make his pen, and prefer it to one that is smaller and more appropriate? In other cases, light work requires light instruments. Why then not adopt the fame principle in aratrical pro. cess? Were I to compel a labourer to dig with a spade that had on it a few pounds of unnecessary weight, I should be charged with cruelty ; but dumb animals are frequently treated with more cruelty than this, by unnecessary toil, and sometimes by the owners forgetting that it is the character of “ a merciful man to be merciful to his beast."

The number of horses to be used in all ploughs must, of course, depend on the nature of the soil; but impartial examination will soon discover the advantage of light ploughs in light foils, and which I compute to be full one-fourth ; or that 9 horses, in 3 light ploughs, in a light foil, are equal to 12 horses, in 3 heavy ploughs, in the same soil.

But it is necessary for a good farmer to be both a man of judgment and practice, and to be well acquainted with the construction of his implements, and manner of using them; and ploughs require to be adjusted in all their different parts with the greatest regularity and precision. People in general are usually prepofseffed in favour of the customs and manners of their forefathers, and averse to the adoption of any thing new ; and this, connected with the designs of ignorant and self-interested mechanics, (fearing their profits will be lessened,) and who may have intentionally altered and spoiled the original plans of the inventors, have doubtless, in frequent instances, been the means of the public being imposed on, and many useful ploughs having been rejected without a fair trial.

I remain, Sir,
Respectfully, your humble servant,


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T the last Annual Meeting of the Bath Agri

cultural Society, I was honoured with the premium for cultivating the white Poppy. When I gave the statement of my crop, I thought it per: fectly consistent with article 21st in your Premium Book, as well as with article 28th in the 10th vol. of the Society's Papers; nor did I understand that the chief object of the Society, or that of Dr. Cogan in particular, was to ascertain the quantity of oil that could be obtained from a given quantity of land and feed under various circumstances, rather than, as stated in the Premium Book, "for cultivating the white Poppy,” for which only I claimed the premium ;


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nor indeed did I understand it, until it was objected to the first premium being awarded me, because I did not also claim the second, and because I was in the habit of cultivating them too; which I candidly told you last year, and judged myself from that circumstance none the less capable of giving you the information required, nor the less entitled to be honoured with the premium. I have now no other motive for sending you the specimen of poppy oil which accompanies this, than that of promoting the object of the Society, and to furnish it with that particular information, of which my statement last year was supposed by the minority to be then defective.

You was last year informed that the quantity of feed per acre, if a good crop, would amount to about four facks, Winchester measure, each fack weighing nine score and 12 pounds. My crop this year does not exceed two facks per acre; therefore I will make the calculation on what may be considered an average crop, say three facks.

The feed I have now crushed and pressed, and have the pleasure of laying before you the results of my experiments, as accurately as in my power to give them : it is much more productive of oil than might a priori be expected, a quarter part of its weight being capable, by good management, of being converted into oil, without the use of hot plates for its expression. If testimonials are desired, I can produce them from the most respectable characters.

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