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refuse of Covent-Garden, and all the other London markets, the sweepings of all the streets, the dung from all the stables, in London, Westminster and their vicinity, large as the aggregate mass must be may continue to be wanted for local uses within a limited distance. The same may be faid of the produce of all other large cities and towns. But manure, where wanted for distant newly-enclofed fields, must be found and made,—and farming science and ingenuity can sufficiently furnish them: The means are abundant, and the use of them understood. Our old father, Jethro Tull, has maintained, (though rather extravagantly,) that almost all the necessary nutriment of lands in tillage may be derived, by certain management of the natural soil, from atmofpheric influence : and after great allowance for the enthusiasm of his ideas, though professedly formed in practice, it must be admitted that much aid is to be derived from a due application of his principles, especially in the drill husbandry, wherever that mode can be advantageously used. Numerous other sources are however to be found. The paring and burning system is applicable to many surfaces, foils, and situations; and an excellent mode of commencement in culture it frequently is.

It furnishes a powerful manure for first crops. A first crop,

however used, in farming practice, mostly produces manure for a second; and succeeding crops, judiciously taken, increase it. The doctrine of intermediate green, boing, and ameliorating crops, answering many purposes of manure, is now generally understood. The burning to ashes of numerous weeds and trumpery from the surface, the refuse carth from making and cleansing of ditches, added to stable dung, and lime where it abounds, for compost; the careful preservation of all other soil of the farm-yard, including the running of urine from stables, and from cattle in farm-yards, into proper receptacles; the dung and urine of sheep, and some other depaftured cattle abroad: all these are constant and growing means of manure in good husbandry. They are the natural effects of judicious farming progress. But there is one very important doctrine, which, if not universally founded in fact, is not uncommonly so, viz. that a manure at least not improper for the surfaces of lands is generally furnished by nature in an under-stratum; and may not unfrequently be found, at no inconvenient depth, under the respective surfaces. Such are limestone for burning into a most powerful agent, and marl, a well-known worker of wonderful im. provements : These two are often found, also, in detached beds or strata, of easy access, and almost inexhaustible dimensions.

On the whole, the idea of insuperable difficulty, from want of sufficient manure, is to be considered as unfounded in fact and experience ; and, consequently, to be placed out of the question on this important subject.

VOL, XIII,

Happy should I be to find that my old friends, whose character, and whose remarks in general, I so highly respect, are led, by these my statements, to dismiss their apprehensions respecting my visionary enthusiasm; that they may think my brain is not wholly turned, by this national topic ; but that my head and heart are soberly working together for a good end! My worthy censors and myself are perhaps grown too grey, in our respective stations, to admit of our living to see the great improvements that may hereafter result from a General Inclosure Bill, and a consequent most extensive cultivation. But those improvements will be made : They must take place, if the greatest social and political good of our country be ever pursued in earnest. The unprofitable commons and wastes near London have too long been shamefully negle&ted. I hope and trust the time is approaching, when they will be made to wear a far different face. It would be auspicious; and in proportion to their publicity, must furnish an influential example. I most certainly should rejoice to see it, on general ground of advantage to my country. But there is one particular pleasure, which I might poflibly derive from it, of no common description,--and that is, the opportunity it might afford me of inviting my old friends, che Monthly Reviewers, to relax a little from their learned stadies, and meet me, with a few other friends of the Bath and West of England Society, on the reclaimed and cultivated region of Hounslow-Heath, that former scene of plunderers, gibbets, and barbarism ! There we would survey, with rural delight, a new Creation of pleasant little Farms, Cottages, and happy Cotragers; a lively epitome of what this nation, -of what a renovated world might be! There, on a redeemed spot, we would congratulate each other, as in the day of prosperity, on the happy scenery around us ; and then, adjourning to a neat new Inn, (no baseless fabric of a vision !) with all the fober dignity suitable to our characters, we would partake together of a civic feast!! For the honour of the Bath and West of England Society, our literary London associates should be handsomely treated on the occafion; not as at a sumptuous city banquet, with turtle and venison, and fill from Billingsgate ; but (in a style becoming decent farmers and patriotic writers) with “ sweet and favoury meat," the produce of the surrounding fields, with a dish of barn-door fowls, and the best ale that could be procured! If the luxury of wines were set before us, they should be generous and of good flavour. But we should not need either a Dignum to sing, or a political toast-master to raise unseemly mirth and clamour: our object should not be a day of riot and intemperance ; not,

“ The inspiration of the sparkling bowl ;" But, “ The feast of reason, and the flow of foul."

And thus we might set an example to the awakened land-owners, and best patriots of numerous other improved districts, of rational rejoicing in the domestic prosperity of our country.

WILLIAM MATTHEWS. Hetling-House, Bath, Jan. 1, 1813.

ARTICLE IV.

Report of a Committee appointed to conduct the

Trial of Ploughs, for the Premiums of the
Society, at Deptford Farm, June 13, 1811.

IN
N executing the commission with which the

Society entrusted us, we had the pleasure of witnessing more zeal, exertion, and freedom from prejudice, than has usually fallen to the share of Committees conducting Ploughing Matches. The late experiment at Deptford Farm was honoured with a numerous and highly respectable attendance. Besides which, the number of Ploughs fent in com. petition for the Premiums was more than in any other instance in the Society's annals. Eight ploughs entered the field, and these were not merely the ploughs of the country, but ploughs of different construction, which excited much interest among the spectators, and caused much calculation on the part of the judges. And, what is worthy of notice,

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