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ENGLAND.

PRELIMINARY GENERAL EXAMINATION.- December, 1862.

WEDNESDAY, December 17th.-Morning, 111 to 1.

MECHANICS.

Examiner-Rev. T. J. POTTER, M.A.

1. Two weights, of 3 lbs. and 4 lbs. respectively, balance at the ends of a straight lever 10 inches long. Find the distance of the fulcrum from either end.

2. A person sitting in one scale of a weighing machine presses with a stick against a point in the beam between the end and the fulcrum : show that he will appear to weigh more than before.

3. Describe the screw. If a power of 50 lbs, is exerted at the end of an arm of 3 ft., and the distance between two threads of a' screw is į inch, find the pressure produced, assuming the circumference of a circle to be 3114 times its diameter.

- 226os. 4. Find the centre of gravity of a plane triangle.

5. What is meant by “ mechanical advantage" ? Show, by reference to any of the mechanical powers, that “what is gained in power is lost in velocity.”

6. How is the accelerating effect of a force measured ? What is the measure of the acceleration of gravity ?

7. What effect is produced upon the time of oscillation of a pendulum by lengthening or shortening it? Explain how a person, by alternately standing upright and crouching down in a swing, can increase his speed.

8. When a stone, whirled round in a sling, is released, in what direction does it fly off? Give other illustrations of the effect of centrifugal force.

9. Upon what causes does the variation in the force of gravity at different places on the earth's surface depend ?

ENGLAND.

PRELIMINARY GENERAL EXAMINATION.- December, 1862.

Wednesday, December 17th.-Morning, 114 to 1.

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY.
Examiner-CHARLES SCHAIBLE, M.D., Ph.D.

I. BOTANY, 1. Explain the various systems and methods of classifying plants.

2. Designate by their scientific names, and arrange under their proper class, order, or family, according to one of the systems of classification, the following plants :-cherry-tree, willow, wheat, aspen, apricot-tree, tea, poplar, coffee, rose-tree, violet.

3. State the essential characters of the three classes, Exogens, Endogens, and Acrogens.

4. Describe the distinctive characteristics of the natural orders, Leguminosae and Cruciferae.

5. Describe the following plants, under the several heads of genus, species, locality, parts ; viz. roots, trunk, leaves, blossoms, and fruits ; time of inflorescence, utility to man :-oak, chestnuttree, tea-plant, hop-plant, vine, rhubarb, pea, Indian corn.

II. ZOOLOGY. 1. Explain briefly the classification of the animal kingdom, and state the distinguishing characters of the principal groups of animals.

2. Make a table of, and characterize, the Birds. 3. State the principal differences between Mammalia and Birds.

4. Designate by their scientific names, and arrange under their several orders, classes, and sub-kingdoms, the following animals :camel, stork, rhinoceros, snail, seal, butterfly, frog, bee, duck, deer, lark, sheep, buffalo, blackbird.

5. Describe some of the animals mentioned in No. 4, under the following heads :-genus, species, organization, shape, size, abode food, usefulness to man,

ENGLAND.

PRELIMINARY GENERAL EXAMINATION.-- December, 1862.

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1. How is oxygen gas made, and what are the decompositions undergone by the several compounds from which it is usually obtained ? How may the presence of oxygen in a gaseous mixture be ascertained ?

2. Describe the flame of a candle or gas-jet. Upon what circumstances does the luminosity of flame depend? What is the principle of the miner’s safety-lamp ?

3. Give the names and chemical formulæ of the different oxides of iron. How would you distinguish between a proto-salt, and a per-salt of iron in solution ?

4. Describe the manufacture of sulphuric acid, referring particularly to the chemical changes which take place in the process.

5. What are the tests for soda, potash, lime, and magnesia ?

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