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are as full of venom as a toad, and as full of malice to Christ as an egg is full of meat.
* And I stood on the sea sand,' Rev. xii. 18.
Now John affirmeth that he stood upon the sea fand to behold the beast which riseth out of the sea in the next chapter, or else because the Greek word (eftathtus) may be of the third perfon, which is, he stood; that is, the dragon stood; it may bear thar sense, that the devil stood upon the sea sand, as it were working and framing out of the sea his chief instrument, which is the bealt now following to be spoken of. !
CHA P. XIII.
W E have heard in the former chapter
V the description of the church, and of her arch-enemy the devil, and of the battle betwixt them, with the suceefs there. of. Now in this chapter we are to hear of the dragons two great instruments, whereby he fighteth against the woman, that is, the Roman empire, and the Papacy. For by these two, as it were his two hands, he, hath in all ages, from the apostles time to
NUMB. II. X
'this day, most cruelly assailed and afflicted the church. Therefore the main defign of this chapter is to describe at large these two beasts, together with all their beastly proceedings. So that this chapter may fitly
he divided into two principal parts. . First, A description of the Roman ino. narchy, when it was at the highest pitch, unto the eleventh verse...
Secondly, A description of the Papacy, when it was in his pride and exaltation, in all the verses following unto the end of this chapter.
. In the first of these two main branches the Roman empire is diversely described:
First, The pedigree thereof. · Secondly, Of her seven several governments.
Thirdly, Of her great and out-stretched power.
Fourthly, Of her victories.
After this is set down the wound which was made in the empire, with the curing of the same.
Lastly, is set down the great and admirable power and authority of the Roman empire, which ruled over a great part of
the world, and had many nations subject · unto it, especially when the Popes were the heads thereof.
In the second main part is Papacy, very lively described.
T'irst, From the pedigree thereof, which is of the earth.
Secondly, From the civil and ecclesiastical power thereof, which is pretended to come from Christ, although in truth it is of the devil.
After this is set down, that the Papacy should be as mighty, and perform as much in the service of the dragon, against God, as ever the empire of the Heathen could do, both by authority, and force; and especials
ly by lying wonders. · Then it is shewed that as the Papacy did in substance of matter set up, and restore again the old Roman tyranny to be wor. fhipped and wondered at; so hath it framed an hierarchy or ecclesiastical government, after the very form and president of the ancient Roman tyranny, which is indeed so like it, that it is called the lively image thereof: and he hath by his clergy and their jurisdiction, put such life and spirit into this image, that it fpake with authority and power in all countries and kingdoms; in so much, that whosoever would not submit himself thereunto, and both profess and practise Popery, and yield himself wholly to the Papacy, he should die for it. ?
Last of all, is described and discovered
from the numerative letters of the name of the second beast, both who he was, and froin whence he shall fpring.
And I saw a beast rise out of the sea, “having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns were ten crowns, and up
on his heads the name of blafphemy, Rev. xiii. 1.
First, we are to understand that a beast in the scripture doth signify a kingdom, or monarchy; and that not in refpect of the civil power thereof, which is of God, as it is written, there is no power but of God;' Rom. xii. 1. but in respect of the tyranny, cruelty, ambition, pride,' and other such like beastly qualities thereof, which are of the devil: and therefore this beast is faid to afcend out of the bottomless pit, Rev. xvii. 8.
This word beast is thus taken in the feventh of Daniel, where the three great inonarchies of the Babylonians, Medes and Persians, and of the Grecians, are com. pared for their pride, rapine and cruelty, to a lion, a bear, and a leopard, Dan: vild 17. The angel in that chapter faith expressly, that these beasts were kings, that is, kingly governments or dominions. .
By the beast in this place is meant the Roman monarchy, not in regard of the civil power thereof, but efpecially in Te
spect of the tyranny of it, in oppressing the church.
By the sea here is meant the trouble. some state of the nations; as it is taken, Rev. Iv. 6. and chap. ii. i. For from the boiling and broiling estate of the former kingdoms and heathen nations, which were as a raging fea, did the Roman empire. spring up, as all histories do witness. And the prophet Daniel doth plainly teach, that through the division of the Greek empire, which fell out in the fucceffors of Alexan. der the Great, especially betwixt his two captains Ptolomeus and Seleucus, this Roman monarchy by degrees made a head, till at last it came to this pitch, which now we shall hear of, Dan. x, 11.
By the seven heads of this beast, are the seven several governments of the Roo! man empire. 1, By Kings." zdly, By Consuls., 3dly, By Decemviri. Atbly, By Dictators. Sthly, By Triumviri. 6thly, By Emperors. And Lastly, by Popes, as hereafter shall more plainly appear, Rev. xvii. 9. i
By the ten horns of this beast is meant the great power and large dominion of the Roman empire; or, as the angel himself doth expound it, thereby is nieant ten kings, that is, many kingdoms which fhould be subject to the Roman monarchy, and where