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which gives the tree an awkward and vacant appearance. The other method is to train a perpendicular shoot from the centre, and furnish the sides with branches at right angles from the main stem: this last appears to me the most simple, and the best ; because it leaves no blank in the tree, and is the most easy to be accomplished.

In proceeding to form a tree of this description, select a plant of one year old from the graft, with three even shoots if possible : when planted, place five short stakes in the line the espalier is intended to be trained,one in the centre, and two on each side,- at a foot distance from each other; training the centre shoot perpendicularly to the centre stake, and the two side shoots horizontally to the four others : these must be kept at their full length till the plant has been established a year. If then it appears to be in a state of vigour, cut back the three branches; the two side ones to six inches, and the centre one to nine or ten. When the young shoots are produced from these, train the extreme or strongest one from each of the side branches horizontally. The centre shoot will have produced three shoots at least; the uppermost of which must be continued perpendicularly, and the two next beneath trained horizontally, one on each side. This will then form the espalier. This process must be continued from year to year till the tree has arrived at its intended height, which is generally about five feet.

If the centre shoot produces three others annually when cut down to nine inches, it will require seven years to complete the seven series of horizontal branches : but sometimes it happens that the centre shoot possesses sufficient vigour to produce two series, or five branches, by shortening it to eighteen inches instead of nine; so, this advantage may be seized.

Should the tree, after having been planted a year, not possess sufficient vigour to throw out three shoots

if

from the centre branch, all the three branches must be cut back to two or three eyes, and a single shoot trained from each: the year following proceed as directed at first : this will cause a delay in forming the tree.

After this, the horizontal shoots must be trained at length, shortening the supernumerary ones so as to form natural spurs, as directed for the open dwarfs : the spurs, also, must be treated in the same manner.

In training the espalier, it will of course have been found necessary, after the second year, to increase the number, as well as the size, of the stakes : they should be clean and straight, regularly placed, and supplied to the extent required by the tree.

If the large-fruited kitchen apples, upon crabstocks, are intended to be grown as espaliers, the branches should be trained at twelve inches distance from each other, instead of nine.

INDEX TO APPLES.

A

Acklam's Russet

- 163 Belle Bonne Adams's Pearmain

115 Belledge Æsopus Spitzemberg 116 Belle Grideline Alexander

22 Belle Grisdeline Alfriston

46 Bell's Scarlet American Newtown Pippin 103 Belvoir Pippin Anis

169 Bennett Apple Aporta

22 Benwell's Pearmain Arbroath Pippin

6 Bere Court Pippin Aromatic Russet

- 164 Best Bache Ashmead's Kernel

165 Biggs's Nonesuch Aurore

93 Birmingham Pippin Bache's Kernel

194 Blenheim Orange Baltimore

- 117 Blenheim Pippin Barcelona Pearmain · 118 Bonnet Carré Bardin

88 Borovitsky Baxter's Pearmain

- 119 Borsdorff Beachamwell Seedling 67 Borsdörffer Beauty of Kent

47 Bossom Bedfordshire Foundling

- 120 Bowyer's Russet

. 121

68 69 69

62 • 69* · 193 • 122

17 - 194

70 71 72 72 113

1 73

73 · 123 - 166

35

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Braddick's Nonpareil • 167 Coul Blush

130* Brandy Apple • 91 Court de Wick

79 Breedon Pippin - 124 Court of Wick Pippin 79 Brickley Seedling 74 Courtpendu

80 Bringewood Seedling 75 Courtpendu de la Quintinye 88 Broad-end - 109 Courtpendu plat

80 Brown Apple of Burnt Island 169 Coustard

· 125 Brummage Pippin 71 Cowarne Red

· 196 Bursdoff 73 Cray Pippin

48 Calville Blanche d'Hiver - 113 Dainty

. 28 Calville d'Angleterre 130 Darling Pippin

- 131 Calville d'Eté 14 D'Espagne

- 159 Calville Rouge - 162 De Ratteau

· 159 Calville Rouge d'Eté 14 Devonshire Quarendon 8 Calville Rouge d'Hiver 162 Ditchingham Pippin Calville Rouge de Micoud 18 Dr. Ashmead's Kernel • 165 Cambridge Pippin 120 Dr. Harvey's Apple - 140 Canadian Reinette

76 Dr. Helsham's Pippin 12 Capendu 80 Dolgoi Squosnoi

16 Caraway Russet • 169 Dowell's Pippin

49 Carrel's Seedling 154 Downton Pippin

50 Caroline Apple 77 Drap d'Or

84 Catshead

- 125 Duke of Beaufort's Pippin 51 Cat's-Head • 125 Dumelow's Crab

81 Charles Apple - 99 Dumelow's Seedling

· 81 Chester Pearmain - 126 Dutch Codlin

52 Christ's Golden Reinette 82 Dutch Mignonne

82 Christie's Pippin

19 Earl of Yarmouth's Pear. Claremont Pippin 83 main

- 152 Claygate Pearmain · 127 Early Crofton

3 Cobbett's Fall Pippin • 159 Early Julian

2 Cobham Apple 20 Early Nonpareil

• 168 Coccagee

- 195 Early Red Juneating 13 Cockagee - 195 Early Red Margaret

13 Cockle Pippin

- 128 Early Striped Juneating 13 Codling 53 Easter Pippin

83 Cole Apple

21 Elton Golden Pippin 50 Col. Harbord's Pippin - 129 Elton Pippin

50 Concombre ancien - 159 Embroidered Pippin

84 Contin Reinette - 77* Emperor Alexander

22 Cornish Aromatic - 78 Engelsche Konings of Cornish Gilliflower - 130 Kings-Pepping

- 156 Cornish July Flower - 130 English Codlin

53 Costard - 125 English Pippin

. 93

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D

130*

79 79 80 88 80 125 196 48 28

131

159 159

8 35 55 10 -2 16 19 50 SH 51 31 1 2 2

: 141

Eve Apple
Eyer's Greening
Fail-me-never
Fall Pippin
Fall Pippin, Cobbett's
Fall Pippin, Sudlow's
Fameuse
Farleigh Pippin
Farley Pippin
Fearn's Pippin
Fenouillet Gris
Fenouillet Jaune
Fenouillet Rouge
Five-crowned Pippin
Flower of Kent
Forest Styre
Forman's Crew
Formosa Pippin
Fouldon Pearmain
Foxley Apple
Fox Whelp
Franklin's Golden Pippin
Frank Rambour
French Codlin
French Crab
Frith Pitcher
Friar
Fry's Pippin
Fulwood
Ganges
Garnon's Apple
Garter
Glace de Zélande
Glace Rouge
Glory of the West
Glory of York
Gogar Pippin
Golden Drop
Golden Harvey
Golden Lustre
Golden Noble
Golden Pearmain
Golden Pippin
Golden Reinette

13 Golden Russet

- 170 85 Golden Vining

- 142 • 86 Grange Apple

- 202 · 159 Gravenstein

- 138 159 Grey Leadington

54 24 Green Newtown Pippin 94 36 Grüne Reinette

- 175 · 132 Grummage Pippin

71 - 132 Grosse Reinette d'Angleterre 76 - 87 Hagloe Crab

• 203 - 169 Hampshire Yellow

- 57 84 Hanwell Souring

- 139 88 Hardingham's Russet

- 180 · 97 Harvey Apple

- 140 23 Hawthornden

- 27 - 197 Herefordshire Pearmain · 156 · 133 Hicks's Fancy

168 - 155 Hoary Morning

28 - 134 Holland Pippin

95 - 198 Hollow-crowned Pippin · 199 Horrer's Pearmain

- 134 24 Horsham Russet

- 171 25 Hubbard's Pearmain - 142

52 Hughes's Golden Pippin - 29 - 83 Hughes's New Golden Pippin 29

59 Hunt's Duke of Gloucester 172 - 200 Hunt's Nonpareil · 172 79 Irish Peach Apple

3 89 Irish Pitcher

59 · 135 Irish Russet

- 186 - 80 Iron-stone Pippin

83 - 201 Isle of Wight Orange - 206

11 Isle of Wight Pippin • 206 - 118 Janurea

. 76 52 Jubilee Pippin

- 55 - 155 July Flower

· 130 90 Juneating

4 79 Kentish Pippin

· 143 91 Kerry Pippin

30 - 136 Keswick Codlin

56 92 Kinellan Apple

-144* - 137 King of the Pippins

57 26 Kirke's Golden Pippin 93 Kirke's Lord Nelson

96

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Kleiner Casseler Reinette · 118 Norfolk Paradise

- 148 Knight's Codlin 43 Norfolk Pippin

- 115 Knight's Golden Pippin 50 Norfolk Storing

110 Knight's Pippin

50 Northern Greening - 149 Knightwick Pippin

79 Nutmeg Cockle Pippin - 128 Knobby Russet • 173 Nutmeg Pippin

· 128 Lamb Abbey Pearmain . 144 Oake's Apple

33 Langton Nonesuch - 32 Old Nonpareil

• 175 Large Fal Pippin . 159 Old Pearmain

- 161 Lemon Pippin - 145 Old Quining

205 Loan Pearmain

- 204 Old Royal Russet . 176 London Pippin 97 Orange Pippin

- 206 Longville's Kernel

58
Ord's Apple

150 Lucombe's Seedling 98 Orgeline

6 Magdalene 5 Orjeline

6 Malcarle 99 Ortley Apple

151 Mank's Codlin 59 Oslin Apple

. 6 Margaret

6 13 Ostin Pippin

5 Margaret

152

Oxnead Pearmain Margaretha Apfel 13 Padley's Pippin

34 Margil · 100 Parmain d'Eté

64 Martin Nonpareil • 174 Parmain d'Hiver

- 161 Marygold • 206 Parmain Double

- 156 Matchless

- 104
Parmain Royal

156 Mela Carla

99 Parmain Royal de long Mela Janurea • 76 durée

- 156 Mineer's Dumpling

. 102 Passe Pomme de Canada - 185 Minchall Crab . 101 Patch's Russet

· 177 Minshul Crab

· 101
Paternoster Appel

82 Motteux's Seedling 67 Pawsan

- 207 Nelson's Codling

60 Pennington's Seedling - 178 Never fail 86 Pépin d'Or

26 New Rock Pippin - 146 Pépin Parmain d'AngleNewtown Pippin · 103 terre

161 Newtown Spitzemberg . 104 Petit Jean

- 153 New York Pippin 147 Philadelphia Pippin

35 Nom-pareil - 175 Phillip's Reinette

79 Nonesuch 32 Pile's Russet

- 179 Nonsuch

32 Pine Apple Russet - 180 Nonpareil - 175 Pinner Seedling

- 154 Non-pareille

- 175 Pitmaston Nonpareil 181 Norfolk Beaufin

· 105 Pitmaston Russet Nonpareil 181 Norfolk Beefin - 105 Pomme de Caractère

84 Norfolk Colman - 110 Pomme de Laak

82

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