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XLV. - - * ...— the theatre, and the rough voices of the Barba

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chant was confined to four modes, while the more perfeót harmony of —the Gregorian comprised the eight modes or fifteen chords of the ancient music. He observes (p. 332.) that the connoisieurs admire the preface and many passages of the Gregorian office. to . . . . . . . 71 John the deacon (in Wit. Greg. l. ii. c. 7 ) expresses the early contempt of the Italians for tramontane finging. Alpina scilicet corporavocumsuarum tonitruis altisone perstrepentia, susceptae modulationis dulcedinem proprie non resultant quia bibuli gutturis barbara feritas dum inflexionibus et repercussionibus mitem nititur edere cantilenam, naturali quodam fragore quasi plaustra per gradus confuse sonantia rigidas voces jačtat, &c. In the time of Charlemagne, the Franks, though with some reluctance, admitted the justice of the reproach. Muratori, Differt. xxv, -

* were

were reconciled to the catholic church, and the C H A P. conquest of Britain reflects less glory on the name , XLV o of Caesar, than on that of Gregory the First. Instead of six legions, forty monks were embarked for that distant island, and the pontiff lamented the austere duties which forbade him to partake the perils of their spiritual warfare. In less than two years he could announce to the archishop of Alexandria, that they had baptized the king of Kent with ten thousand of his Anglo-Saxons, and that the Roman missionaries, like those of the primitive church, were armed only with spiritual and supernatural powers. The credulity or the prudence of Gregory was always disposed to confirm the truths of religion by the evidence of ghosts, miracles, and resurre&ions”; and posterity has paid to his memory the same tribute, which he freely granted to the virtue of his own or the preCeding generation. The celestial honours have been liberally bestowed by the authority of the popes, but Gregory is the last of their own order whom they have presumed to inscribe in the calendar of saints. Their temporal power insensibly arose from the and tem. calamities of the times; and the Roman bishops, #, who have deluged Europe and Asia with blood, were compelled to reign as the ministers of charity and peace. I. The church of Rome, as it has

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C. H. A. P.
XLV. .

his estates,

Lateran, as the model of Christian oeconomy.
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73 Baronius is unwilling to expatiate on the care of the patrimo-
nics, left he should betray that they consisted not of kingdoms but
farms. The French writers, the Benedictine editors (tom. iv. l. iii.
p. 272, &c.), and Fleury(tom. viii. p. 29, &c.), are not afraid of en-
tering into these humble, though useful details; and the humanity
of Fleury dwells on the social virtues of Gregory.
74 I much suspect that this pecuniary fine on the marriages of
villains produced the famous, and often fabulous, right, de cuissage,
de marquette, &c. With the consent of her husband, an handsome
bride might commute the payment in the arms of a young land-
jord, and the mutual favour might afford a precedent of local rather

than legal tyranny. O
- R

On the four great festivals, he divided their quar- C #". terly allowance to the clergy, to his domestics, to U. , the monasteries, the churches, the places of bu- * arm.

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commanded the respect of heretics and Barbarians.

him to supply the place of his absent sovereign, Gregory awakened the emperor from a long slumber, exposed the guilt or incapacity of the exarch and his inferior ministers, complained that

the veterans were withdrawn from Rome for the defence of Spoleto, encouraged the Italians to guard their cities and altars; and condescended, in

the crisis of danger, to name the tribunes, and to direct the operations of the provincial troops. But the martial spirit of the pope was checked by the scruples of humanity and religion; the imposition

of tribute, though it was employed in the Italian war, he freely gondemned as odious and oppressive;

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count, to save that unfortunate nation from the vengeance of their foes. As a Christian bishop, he

preferred the salutary offices of peace; his media

tion appeased the tumult of arms; but he was too

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peror or the exarch. The sword of the enemy was

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