The merits of Gregory were treated by the Byzan- C or. tine court with reproach and insult; but in the Co-, attachment of a grateful people, he found the ..." purest reward of a citizen, and the best right of a Rome.

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HE conflićt of Rome and Persia was pro

longed from the death of Crassus to the reign of Heraclius. An experience of seven hundred years might convince the rival nations of the impossibility of maintaining their conquests, beyond the fatal limits of the Tigris and Euphrates. Yet the emulation of Trajan and Julian was awakened by the trophies of Alexander, and the sovereigns of Persia indulged the ambitious hope of restoring the empire of Cyrus'. Such extraordinary efforts of power and courage will always command the

attention of posterity; but the events by which the

* Missis qui. . . reposceremt . . . veteres Persarum ac Macedonum terminos, sequi invasurum possessa Cyro et post Alexandro, per wn ni!equentiam ac minus jaciebat. Tacit. Annal. vi. 31. Such was the language of the Arsacids: I have repeatedly marked the lofty claims of the Sasanians.


fate of nations is not materially changed, leave a
faint impression on the page of history, and the
patience of the reader would be exhausted by the
repetition of the same hostilities, undertaken with-
out cause, prosecuted without glory, and termi-
nated without effect. The arts of negociation,
unknown to the simple greatness of the senate
and the Caesars, were assiduously cultivated by the
Byzantine princes; and the memorials of their
perpetual embassies’ repeat, with the same uni-
form polixity, the language of falsehood and de-
clamation, the insolence of the Barbarians, and the
servile temper of the tributary Greeks. Lament.
ing the barren superfluity of materials, I have stu-
died to compress the narrative of these uninterest-
ing transačtions: but the just Nushirvan is still ap-
plauded as the model of Oriental kings, and the
ambition of his grandson Chosroes prepared the re-
volution of the East, which was speedily accom-
plished by the arms and the religion of the succes-
sors of Mahomet.
In the useless altercations, that precede and
justify the quarrels of princes, the Greeks and the
Barbarians accused each other of violating the
peace which had been concluded between the two
empires about four years before the death of Jus.
tinian. The sovereign of Persia and India aspir-
ed to reduce under his obedience the province
of Yemen or Arabia.” Felix, the distant land of
- myrrh
* See the embassies of Menander, extracted and preserved in the
xth century by the order of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
3 The general independence of the Arabs, which cannot be ad-

hitted without many limitatious, is blindly asserted in a separate - dissertation

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dissertation of the authors of the Universal History, vol.xx. p. 196 –250. A perpetual miracle is supposed to have guarded the prophecy in favour of the posterity of Ishmael; and these learned bigots are not afraid to risk the truth of Christianity on this frail and slippery foundation. 4 D'Herbelot, Biblioth. Orient. p. 477. Pocock, Specimen. Hist. Arabum, p. 64, 65. Father Pagi (Critica, tem. ii. p. 646.) has proved that after ten years peace, the Persian war, which continued twenty years, was renewed A. D. 571. Mahomet was born A. D. 569, in the year of the elephant, or the defeat of Abrahah (Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, tom. i. p. 89,90. 98.); and this account allows two years for the conquest of Yemen.

- - same

same instant by the united forces of Europe, of AEthiopia, and of Scythia. At the age of fourscore, the sovereign of the East would perhaps have chosen the peaceful enjoyment of his glory and greatness: but as soon as war became inevitable, he took the field with the alacrity of youth, whilst the aggressor trembled in the palace of Constantinople. Nushirvan, or Chosroes, condućted in person the fiege of Dara; and although that important fortress had been left destitute of troops and magazines, the valour of the inhabitants refifted above five months the archers, the elephants, and the military engines of the great king. Hm the

mean while his general Aderman advanced front.

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Syria at the feet of his master, whose perseverance in the midst of winter at length subverted the bulwark of the East. But these losses, which astonished the provinces and the court, produced a salutary effect in the repentance and abdication of the emperor Justin: a new spirit arose in the Byzantine councils; and a truce of three years was obtained by the prudence of Tiberius. That seasonable interval was employed in the preparations of war; and the voice of rumour proclaimed to the world, that from the distant countries of the Alps and the Rhine, from Scythia, Maesia, Pannonia, Illyricum, and Isauria, the strength of the Imperial cavalry was reinforced with one hundred and fifty thousand soldiers. Yet the king of Per8 fia,

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