of his hopes were confirmed by a vićtory of his S-J brother Theodorus; and to the hostile league of Chosroes with the Avars, the Roman emperor opposed the useful and honourable alliance of the Turks. At his liberal invitation, the hord of Chozars ” transported their tents from the plains of the Volga to the mountains of Georgia; Heraclius received them in the neighbourhood of Teflis, and the khan with his nobles dismounted from their horses, if we may credit the Greeks, and fell prostrate on the ground, to adore the purple of the Caesar. Such voluntary homage and important aid were entitled to the warmest acknowledgments; and the emperor, taking off his own diadem, placed it on the head of the Turkish prince, whom he saluted with a tender embrace and the appella. tion of son. After a sumptuous banquet, he presented Ziebel with the plate and ornaments, the gold, the gems, and the filk, which had been used at the Imperial table, and, with his own hand, distributed rich jewels and ear-rings to his new allies. In a secret interview, he produced the por. trait of his daughter Eudocia *, condescended to

98 The power of the Chozars prevailed in the viith, viiith, and Mixth centuries. They were known to the Greeks, the Arabs, and under the name of Kosa, to the Chinese themselves. De Guignes, Hist. des Huns, tom. ii. part ii. p. 507–599. 99 Epiphania, or Eudocia, the only daughter of Heraclius and his first wife Eudocia, was born at Constantinople on the 7th of July, A. D. 611, baptised the 15th of August, and crowned (in the oratory of St. Stephen in the palace) the 4th of O&ober of the same year. At this time she was about fifteen. Eudocia was afterwards sent to her Turkish husband, but the news of his death stopped her journey and prevented the censummation (Ducange, Familia. Byzantin. p. 118.). ** * flatter

flatter the Barbarian with the promise of a fair and C

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clius, soon alienated the mind of that powerful satrap from the service of his king and country. A messenger was intercepted with a real or fictitious mandate to the cadarigan, or second in command, directing him to send, without delay, to the throne, the head of a guilty or unfortunate general. The dispatches were transmitted to Sarbar himself; and as soon as he read the sentence of his own death, he dextrously inserted the names of four hundred officers, assembled a military council, and asked the cadarigan, whether he was prepared to execute the commands of their tyrant. The Perfians unanimously declared, that Chosroes had forfeited the sceptre; a separate treaty was concluded with the government of Constantinople; and if some considerations of honour or policy restrained Sarbar

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from joining the standard of Heraclius, the em. peror was assured, that he might prosecute, without interruption, his designs of vićtory and peace. Deprived of his firmest support, and doubtful of the fidelity of his subjećts, the greatness of Chosroes was still conspicuous in its ruins. The number of five hundred thousand may be interpreted as an Oriental metaphor, to describe the men and arms, the horses and elephants that covered Media and Assyria against the invasion of Heraclius. Yet the Romans boldly advanced from the Araxes to the Tigris, and the timid prudence of Rhazates was content to follow them by forced marches through a desolate country, till he received a peremptory mandate to risk the fate of Persia in a decisive battle. Eastward of the Tigris, at the end of the bridge of Mosal, the great Nineveh had formerly been erected”; the city, and even the ruins of the city, had long fince disappeared “: the vacant space afforded a spacious field for the operations of the two armies. But these operations are neglected by the Byzantine historians, and, like the authors of epic poetry and romance, they ascribe the vićtory,

C H A P.


His third expedition,

A. D. 627.

1or Ctesias (apud Diodor. Sicul, tom. i. 1. ii. p. 115, edit. Wesseling) affigns 48o stadia (perhaps only 32 miles) for the circumference of Nineveh. Jonas talks of three days journey: the 120,000 persons described by the prophet as incapable of discerning their right hand from their left, may afford about 700,ooo persons of all ages for the inhabitants of that ancient capital (Goguet, Origines des Loix, &c. tom. iii. part i. p. 92, 93.) which ceased to exist 6co years before Christ. The western suburb still subsisted, and is mentioned under the name of Mosul in the first age of the Arabian khaliffs.

roo Niebuhr (Voyage en Arabie, &c. tom. ii. p. 286.) passed over Nineveh without perceiving it. He mistook for a ridge of hills the old rampart of brick or earth. It is said to have been 100 feet high, flanked with 1500 towers, each of the height of 200 feet.


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Ros Rex regia arma fero (says Romulus, in the first consecration) . . . . bina postea (continues Livy, i. Io.) inter tot belle, opima parta sunt spolia, aded rara elus fortuna decoris. If Varro (apud Pomp Festum, p. 306. edit. Dacier) could justify his liberality in granting the of ime spoils even to a common soldier who had slain the king or general of the enemy, the honour would have been much

more cheap and common, amidst

C H A. P. " XLVI. Q-vand vi"ories. December 1,


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amidst the bodies of their friends, no more than two bow-shot from the enemy, the remnant of the Persian cavalry stood firm till the seventh hour of the night; about the eight hour they retired to their unrifled camp, collected their baggage, and dispersed on all fides, from the want of orders rather than of resolution. The diligence of Heraclius was not less admirable in the use of vićtory; by a march of forty-eight miles in four and twenty hours, his vanguard occupied the bridges of the greater and the lesser Zab; and the cities and palaces of Assyria were open for the first time to the Romans. By a just gradation of magnificent scenes, they penetrated to the royal seat of Dastagerd, and, though much of the treasure had been removed, and much had been expended, the remaining wealth appears to have exceeded their hopes, and even to have satiated their avarice. Whatever could not be easily transported, they consumed. with fire, that Chosroes might feel the anguish of those wounds, which he had so often inflicted on the provinces of the empire: and justice might allow the excuse, if the desolation had been confined to the works of regal luxury, if national hatred, military license, and religious zeal, had not wasted with equal rage the habitations and the temples of the guiltless subjećt. The recovery of three hundred Roman standards, and the deliverance of the numerous captives of Edessa and Alexandria, refle&t a purer glory on the arms of Heraclius. From the palace of Dastagerd, he pursued

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phon, till he was stopped, on the banks of the Arba,

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