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of Con-
A.D. 428,
April 10.

therefore prefer the literal sense, without rejećting the metaphorical
version of tegular, tiles, which is used by M. de Valois. I am ignorant,
and the affaffins were probably regardless, whether their vićtim was
yet alive.
27 These exploits of St. Cyril are recorded by Socrates (l. vii.
c. 13. 14, 15.); and the most reluctant bigotry is compelled to copy
an historian who coolly styles the murderers of Hypatia avores re
orga t 9::get. At the mention of that injured name, I am pleased
to observe a blush even on the cheek of Baronius (A. D. 415.
No 48.).
** He was deaf to the entreaties of Atticus of Constantinople, and
of Isidore of:Pelufium, and yielded only (if we may believe Nice-
Thorus, l. xiv. c. 18.) to the personal intercession of the Virgin,
Yet in his last years he still muttered that John Chrysostom had been
justly condemned (Tillemont, Mem. Eccles tom. xiv. p. 278-282.
Baronius, Annal. Eccles. A. D. 412, No. 46–64).
29 See their chara&ters in the history of Socrates (l. vii. c. 25—
28.); their power and pretensions, in the huge compilation of 1 ho-
massin (Discipline de l'Eglise, tom. i. p. 89–91.).


sunshine of the Imperial court ; and he dreaded C.H.A.P. - - - - - XLVII. their upstart ambition, which oppressed the me- J tropolitans of Europe and Afia, invaded the pro- vinces of Antioch and Alexandria, and measured their diocese by the limits of the empire. The long moderation of Atticus, the mild usurper of the throne of Chrysostom, suspended the animosities of the eastern patriarchs ; but Cyril was at length awakened by the exaltation of a rival more worthy of his esteem and hatred. After the short and troubled reign of Sifinnius bishop of Constantinople, the factions of the clergy and people were appeased by the choice of the emperor, who, on this occasion, consulted the voice of fame, and invited the merit of a stranger. Nestorius ”, a native of Germanicia, and a monk of Antioch, was recommended by the austerity of his life, and the eloquence of his sermons; but the first homily which he preached before the devout Theodosius betrayed the acrimony and impatience of his zeal. “Give me, O Caesar,” he exclaimed, “give me “ the earth purged of heretics, and I will give “ you in exchange the kingdom of heaven. Ex“ terminate with me, the heretics; and with you, “ I will exterminate the Persians.” On the fifth day, as if the treaty had been already figned, the patriarch of Constantinople discovered, surprised, and attacked a secret conventicle of the Arians: they preferred death to submission; the flames that were

3° His elevation and condušt are described by Socrates (i.vii. c. 29.3t.); and Marcellinus seems to have applied the loquent at satis, sapientiae parum, of Sallust.

3 kindled

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31 Cod. Theodos. 1. xvi. tit. v. leg, 65. with the illustrations of Baronius (A. D. 428. No 25, &c.), Godefroy (ad locum), and Pagi (Critica, tom. ii. p. 203.).

32 Isidore of Pelusium (l. iv. epist. 57.). His words are strong and scandalous—to 94 vogoso, si xa ruz oriel 7:2ypza 8stoy xas Aoys

of solow 34 ownsiz roo-woevra' voo pixaoxia, saga oxswoksvol. Isidore

is a saint, but he never became a bishop ; and I half suspect that the
pride of Diogenes trampled on the pride of Plato.
33 La Croze (Christianisme des Indes, tom. i. p. 44–53. The-
faurus Epistolicus La Crozianus, tom.iii. p. 276–28o.) has detected
the use of 3 saw orn;, and 3 kufo Inzes, which, in the ivoh, v'h, and
with centuries, discriminate the school of Diodorus of Tarsus and his

Nestorian disciples,

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34 esotaxe-Deipara: as in zoology we familiarly speak of oviparous and viviparous animals. It is not easy to fix the invention of this word, which La Croze (Christianisme des Indes, tom. i. p. 16.) ascribes to Eusebius of Caesarea and the Arians. The orthodox testimonies are produced by Cyril and Petavius (Dogmat. Theolog. tom. v. l. v. c. 15. p. 254, &c.); but the veracity of the saint is questionable, and the epithet of 9:07:48, so eafily slides from the margin to the text of a Catholic MS.

as Basnage, in his Histoire de l'Eglise, a work of controversy (tom. i. p. 505.), justifies the mother, by the blood of God (A&ts, xx. 28. with Mill's various readings). But the Greek MSS are far from unanimous; and the primitive style of the blood of Christ is preserved in the Syriac version, even in those copies which were used by the Christians of St.Thomas on the coast of Malabar (La Croze, Christianisme des Indes, tom. i. p. 347.). The jealousy of the Nestorians and Monophysites has guarded the purity of their text.

36 The Pagans of Egypt already laughed at the new Cybele of the

Christians (Isidor. 1. i. epist. 54.) : a letter was forged in the name

of Hypatia, to ridicule the theology of her assassin (Synodicon,
c. 216. in iv tom. Concil. p. 484.). In the article of NEST or 1 us,

Bayle has scattered some loose philosophy on the worship of the
Virgin Mary. -

idioms :

C H A P.

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