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one of the most learned and popular of the monks, assumed the chara&ter of patriarch of Antioch; his nephew Abraham, at the head of the Maronites, defended their civil and religious freedom against the tyrants of the East. The son of the orthodox Constantine pursued, with pious hatred, a people of soldiers, who might have stood the bulwark of his empire against the common foes of Christ and of Rome. An army of Greeks invaded Syria; the monastery of St. Maron was destroyed with fire; the bravest chieftains were betrayed and murdered, and twelve thousand of their followers were transplanted to the distant frontiers of Armenia and Thrace. Yet the humble nation of the Maronites has survived the empire of Constantinople, and they still enjoy, under their Turkish masters, a free religion and a mitigated servitude. Their domestic governors are chosen among the ancient nobility; the patriarch in his monastery of Canobin, still fancies himself on the throne of Antioch ; nine bishops compose his synod, and one hundred and fifty priests, who retain the liberty of marriage, are entrusted with the care of one hundred thousand fouls. Their country extends from the ridge of mount Libanus to the shores of Tripoli; and the gradual descent affords, in a narrow space, each variety of soil and climate, from the Holy Cedars, erect under the weight of snow *, to the vine, the

mulberry,

15% In the last century twenty large cedars fill remained (Voyage de la Roque, tom. i. p. 68–76.); at present they are reduced to four or five (Volney, tom. i. p. 264.). These trees, so famous in scripture, were guarded by excommunication ; the wood was spar- - - - ingly

mulberry, and the olive trees of the fruitful valley.
In the twelfth century, the Maronites, abjuring
the Monothelite error, were reconciled to the Latin
churches of Antioch and Rome'?”, and the same
alliance has been frequently renewed by the ambi-
tion of the popes and the distress of the Syrians.
But it may reasonably be questioned, whether their
union has ever been perfe&t or sincere; and the
learned Maronites of the college of Rome have
vainly laboured to absolve their ancestors from the

guilt of heresy and schism”.
IV. Since the age of Constantine, the ARMENI-
ANs “” had signalised their attachment to the reli-
gion

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ingly borrowed for small crosses, &c.; an annual mass was chaunted
under their shade; and they were endowed by the Syrians with a
sensitive power of erecting their branches to repel the snow, to which
mount Libanus is less faithful than it is painted by Tacitus : inter
ardores opacum fidumque nivibus—a daring metaphor (Hist. v. 6).
137 The evidence of William of Tyre (Hist, in Gestis Dei per
Francos, l. xxii. c. 8. p. 1622.) is copied or confirmed by Jacques
de Vitra (Hist. Hierosolym. l. ii. c. 77. p. o93, 1 c34). But this
unnatural league expired with the power of the Franks; and Abul-
pharagius (who died in 1286) confiders the Maronites as a se&t of
Monothelites (Bibliot. Orient. tom. ii. p. 292.).
133 I find a description and history of the Maronites in the Voyage

de la Syrie et du Mont Liban par la Roque (2 vols. in 12mo, Amster

dam, 1723; particularly tom. i. p. 42—47. p. 174-184. tom. ii.
p. 10–12.o.). In the ancient part he copies the prejudices of
Nairon and the other Maronites of Rome, which Assemannus is
afraid to renounce, and ashamed to support. Jablonski (Institut.
Hist. Christ. tom. iii. p. 186.), Niebuhr (Voyage de l'Arabie, &c.
tom. ii. p. 346. 370–381.), and, above all, the judicious Volney
(Voyage en Egypte et en Syrie, tom. ii. p. 8–31. Paris, 1787), may

be consulted. - -
139 The religion of the Armenians is briefly described by La Croze
(Hist, du Christ. de l’Ethiope & de l'Armenie, p. 269–40z.) He
refers to the great Armenian History of Galanus (3 vols. in fol.
A a 3 Rome,

IV. THE
ARMEN 1-
ANS,

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by the arguments or the influence of his rival Se

verus, the Monophysite patriarch of Antioch. The Armenians alone are the pure disciples of Eutyches, an unfortunate parent, who has been renounced by the greater part of his spiritual progeny. They alone persevere in the opinion, that the manhood of Christ was created, or existed without creation, of a divine and incorruptible substance. Their adversaries reproach them with the adoration of a phantom; and they retort the accusation, by deriding or execrating the blasphemy of the Jacobites, who impute to the Godhead the vile infirmities of the flesh, even the natural effects of nutritiqn and digestion. The religion of Armenia could not derive much glory from the learning or the power of ‘o its inhabitants. The royalty expired with the ori- ~~ gin of their schism, and their Christian kings, who arose and fell in the thirteenth century on the confines of Cilicia, were the clients of the Latins and the vassals of the Turkish sultan of Iconium. The helpless nation has seldom been permitted to enjoy the tranquillity of servitude. From the earliest period to the present hour, Armenia has been the theatre of perpetual war; the lands between Tauris and Erivan were dispeopled by the cruel policy of the Sophies; and myriads of Christian families were transplanted, to perish or to propagate in the distant provinces of Persia. Under the rod of oppression, the zeal of the Armenians is fervent and intrepid : they have often preferred the crown of martyrdom to the white turban of Mahomet; they devoutly hate the error and idolatry of the Greeks; and their transient union with the Latins is not less * devoid of truth, than the thousand bishops whom their patriarch offered at the feet of the Roman pontiff “. The catholic or patriarch of the Armenians resides in the monastery of Ekmiafin, three leagues from Erivan. Forty-seven archbishops, each of whom may claim the obedience of four or five suffragans, are consecrated by his hand; but the far greater part are only titular prelates, who dignify with their presence and service the fim

Rome, 1650-1661.) and commends the state of Armenia in the iiid volume of the Nouveaux Memoires des Missions du Levant. The work of a Jesuit must have sterling merit when it is praised by La. Croze.

142 The schism of the Armenians is placed 84 years after the council of Chalcedon (Pagi, Critica, ad A. D. 535. It was cons summated at the end of seventeen years; and it is from the year of Christ 552 that we date the aora of the Armenians (l'Art de verifier les Dates, p. xxxv.).

14. The sentiments and success of Julian of Halicarnassus may be seen in Liberatus (Brev. c. 19.), Renaudot (Hist. Patriarch. Alex. p. 32. 303.), and Assemannus (Bibliot. Orient. tom. ii. Dissertat. de Monophysitis, p. viii. p. 286, ).

rive *4* See a remarkable fact of the xiith century in the History of Nicetas Choniates (p. 258.). Yet three hundred years before Photius (Epistol. ii. p. 49. edit. Montacul) had gloried in the conversion of the Armenians-Aarews a notew otóołotwo.

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plicity of his court. As soon as they have performed
the liturgy, they cultivate the garden; and our
bishops will hear with surprise, that the austerity of
their life increases in just proportion to the eleva-
tion of their rank. In the forescore thousand towns
or villages of his spiritual empire, the patriarch re-
ceives a small and voluntary tax from each person
above the age of fifteen; but the annual amount of
fix hundred thousand crowns is insufficient to sup-
ply the incessant demands of charity and tribute.
Since the beginning of the last century, the Arme-
nians have obtained a large and lucrative share of
the commerce of the East : in their return from
Europe, the caravan usually halts in the neighbour-
hood of Erivan, the altars are enriched with the
fruits of their patient industry; and the faith of
Eutyches is preached in their recent congregations
of Barbary and Poland “. t
V. In the rest of the Roman empire, the des.
potism of the prince might eradicate or filence the
sečtaries of an obnoxious creed. But the stubborn
temper of the Egyptians maintained their opposi-
tion to the synod of Chalcedon, and the policy of
Justinian condescended to expect and to seize the
opportunity of discord. The Monophysite church

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