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one of the most learned and popular of the monks, assumed the chara&ter of patriarch of Antioch; his nephew Abraham, at the head of the Maronites, defended their civil and religious freedom against the tyrants of the East. The son of the orthodox Constantine pursued, with pious hatred, a people of soldiers, who might have stood the bulwark of his empire against the common foes of Christ and of Rome. An army of Greeks invaded Syria; the monastery of St. Maron was destroyed with fire; the bravest chieftains were betrayed and murdered, and twelve thousand of their followers were transplanted to the distant frontiers of Armenia and Thrace. Yet the humble nation of the Maronites has survived the empire of Constantinople, and they still enjoy, under their Turkish masters, a free religion and a mitigated servitude. Their domestic governors are chosen among the ancient nobility; the patriarch in his monastery of Canobin, still fancies himself on the throne of Antioch ; nine bishops compose his synod, and one hundred and fifty priests, who retain the liberty of marriage, are entrusted with the care of one hundred thousand fouls. Their country extends from the ridge of mount Libanus to the shores of Tripoli; and the gradual descent affords, in a narrow space, each variety of soil and climate, from the Holy Cedars, erect under the weight of snow *, to the vine, the
15% In the last century twenty large cedars fill remained (Voyage de la Roque, tom. i. p. 68–76.); at present they are reduced to four or five (Volney, tom. i. p. 264.). These trees, so famous in scripture, were guarded by excommunication ; the wood was spar- - - - ingly
mulberry, and the olive trees of the fruitful valley.
guilt of heresy and schism”.
ingly borrowed for small crosses, &c.; an annual mass was chaunted
de la Syrie et du Mont Liban par la Roque (2 vols. in 12mo, Amster
dam, 1723; particularly tom. i. p. 42—47. p. 174-184. tom. ii.
be consulted. - -
by the arguments or the influence of his rival Se
verus, the Monophysite patriarch of Antioch. The Armenians alone are the pure disciples of Eutyches, an unfortunate parent, who has been renounced by the greater part of his spiritual progeny. They alone persevere in the opinion, that the manhood of Christ was created, or existed without creation, of a divine and incorruptible substance. Their adversaries reproach them with the adoration of a phantom; and they retort the accusation, by deriding or execrating the blasphemy of the Jacobites, who impute to the Godhead the vile infirmities of the flesh, even the natural effects of nutritiqn and digestion. The religion of Armenia could not derive much glory from the learning or the power of ‘o its inhabitants. The royalty expired with the ori- ~~ gin of their schism, and their Christian kings, who arose and fell in the thirteenth century on the confines of Cilicia, were the clients of the Latins and the vassals of the Turkish sultan of Iconium. The helpless nation has seldom been permitted to enjoy the tranquillity of servitude. From the earliest period to the present hour, Armenia has been the theatre of perpetual war; the lands between Tauris and Erivan were dispeopled by the cruel policy of the Sophies; and myriads of Christian families were transplanted, to perish or to propagate in the distant provinces of Persia. Under the rod of oppression, the zeal of the Armenians is fervent and intrepid : they have often preferred the crown of martyrdom to the white turban of Mahomet; they devoutly hate the error and idolatry of the Greeks; and their transient union with the Latins is not less * devoid of truth, than the thousand bishops whom their patriarch offered at the feet of the Roman pontiff “. The catholic or patriarch of the Armenians resides in the monastery of Ekmiafin, three leagues from Erivan. Forty-seven archbishops, each of whom may claim the obedience of four or five suffragans, are consecrated by his hand; but the far greater part are only titular prelates, who dignify with their presence and service the fim
Rome, 1650-1661.) and commends the state of Armenia in the iiid volume of the Nouveaux Memoires des Missions du Levant. The work of a Jesuit must have sterling merit when it is praised by La. Croze.
142 The schism of the Armenians is placed 84 years after the council of Chalcedon (Pagi, Critica, ad A. D. 535. It was cons summated at the end of seventeen years; and it is from the year of Christ 552 that we date the aora of the Armenians (l'Art de verifier les Dates, p. xxxv.).
14. The sentiments and success of Julian of Halicarnassus may be seen in Liberatus (Brev. c. 19.), Renaudot (Hist. Patriarch. Alex. p. 32. 303.), and Assemannus (Bibliot. Orient. tom. ii. Dissertat. de Monophysitis, p. viii. p. 286, ).
rive *4* See a remarkable fact of the xiith century in the History of Nicetas Choniates (p. 258.). Yet three hundred years before Photius (Epistol. ii. p. 49. edit. Montacul) had gloried in the conversion of the Armenians-Aarews a notew otóołotwo.
plicity of his court. As soon as they have performed