of Alexandria “was torn by the disputes of the c II A P. corruptibles and incorruptibles, and on the death of èto the patriarch, the two factions upheld their respective candidates “. Gaian was the disciple of Julian, Theodosius had been the pupil of Severus: Thepatrithe claims of the former were supported by the o: consent of the monks and senators, the city and the do - - - 537, 505.

province; the latter depended on the priority of his ordination, the favour of the empress Theodora, and the arms of the eunuch Narses, which might have been used in more honourable warfare. The exile of the popular candidate to Carthage and Sardinia, inflamed the ferment of Alexandria; and after a schism of one hundred and seventy years, the Gaiamites still revered the memory and doćtrine of their founder. The strength of numbers and of discipline was tried in a desperate and bloody conflićt; the streets were filled with the dead bodies of citizens and soldiers; the pious women, ascending the roofs of their houses, showered down every sharp or ponderous utensil on the heads of the enemy; and the final vićtory of Narses was owing to the flames, with which he wasted the third capital of the Roman world. But the lieutenant of Justinian had not conquered in the cause of an heretic; Theodosius himself was speedily though gently removed; and Paul of Tanis, an orthodox monk, was raised to Å; 538, the throne of Athanasius. The powers of govern

144 The history of the Alexandrian patriarchs, from Dioscorus to Benjamin, is taken from Renaudot (p. 114–164), and the second tome of the Annals of Eutychius. *4s Liberat. Brev. c. 20, 23. Wićtor, Chron. p. 329, 330. Procop. Anecdot. c. 26, 27. ment

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A. D. 551.

4. patriarchs,

patriarchs, Eulogius” and John ”, laboured in the conversion of heretics, with arms and arguments more worthy of their evangelical profession. The theological knowledge of Eulogius was dis. played in many a volume, which magnified the errors of Eutyches and Severus, and attempted to

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reconcile the ambiguous language of St. Cyril with .

the orthodox creed of pope Leo and the fathers of Chalcedon. The bounteous alms of John the

eleemosynary were dićtated by superstition, or be

nevolence, or policy. Seven thousand five hundred poor were maintained at his expence; on his accession, he found eight thousand pounds of gold in

the treasury of the church; he colle&ted ten thousand from the liberality of the faithful; yet the primate could boast in his testament, that he left behind him no more than the third part of the smallest of the silver coins. The churches of Alexandria

were delivered to the Catholics, the religion of the Monophysites was proscribed in Egypt, and a law

was revived which excluded the natives from the

honours and emoluments of the state.

146 Eulogius, who had been a monk of Antioch, was more con

fpicuous for subtlety than eloquence. He proves that the enemies of the faith, the Gaianites and Theodosians, ought not to be reconciled; that the same proposition may be orthodox in the mouth of St. Cyril, heretical in that of Severus ; that the opposite assertions of St. Leo are equally true, &c. His writings are no longer extant, except in the Extracts of Photius, who had perused them with care and satisfaction, cod. ccviii. ccxxv, ccxxvi, ccxxvii. ccxxx.cclxxx. 147 See the life of John the eleemosynary by his contemporary Leontius, bishop of Neapolis in Cyprus, whose Greek text, either lost or hidden, is reflečied in the Latin version of Baronius (A. D. 610, No 9. A. D. 62c, N° 8.). Pagi (Critica, tom. ii. p. 763.) and Fabricius (l. v. c. 11, tom. vii. p. 454.) have made some Gritical observations. A more

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A more important conquest still remained, of

S.-- the patriarch, the oracie and leader of the Egyp

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the voluntary oblations of the people. A per- “Y-” petual succession of patriarchs arose from the ashes of Theodosius ; and the Monophysite churches of Syria and Egypt were united by the name of Jacobites and the communion of the faith. But the same faith, which has been confined to a narrow sect of the Syrians, was diffused over the mass of the Egyptian or Coptic nation; who, almost unanimously, reječted the decrees of the synod of Chalcedon. A thousand years were now elapsed fince Egypt had ceased to be a kingdom, fince the conquerors of Asia and Europe had trampled on the ready necks of a people, whose ancient wisdom and power ascends beyond the records of history. The conflict of zeal and persecution rekindled some sparks of their national spirit. They abjured, with a foreign heresy, the manners and language of the Greeks: every Melchite, in their eyes, was a stranger, every Jacobite a citizen; the alliance of marriage, the offices of humanity, were condemned as a deadly sin; the natives renounced all allegiance to the emperor; and his orders, at a distance from Alexandria, were obeyed only under the pressure of military force. A gamerous effort might have redeemed the religion and liberty of Egypt, and her six hundred monasteries might have poured forth their myriads of holy warriors, for whom death should have no terrors, fince life had no comfort or delight. But experience has proved the distinétion of active and passive courage; the fanatic who endures without a groan the 3 torture

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