both in peace and war, with the immoveable refidence of a camp. Conscious of their own indigence, the Abyssinians had formed the rational project of importing the arts and ingenuity of Europe “7; and their ambassadors at Rome and Lisbon were instructed to solicit a colony of smiths, carpenters, tilers, masons, printers, surgeons, and physicians, for the use of their country. But the public danger soon called for the instant and effectual aid of arms and soldiers to defend an unwarlike people from the Barbarians who ravaged the inland country, and the Turks and Arabs who advanced from the sea-coast in more formidable array. AEthiopia was saved by four hundred and fifty Portuguese, who displayed in the field the native valour of Europeans, and the artificial powers of the musquet and cannon. In a moment of terror, the emperor had promised to reconcile himself and his subječts to the Catholic faith; a Latin patriarch represented the supremacy of the pope *; the empire, enlarged in a tenfold proportion, was supposed to contain more gold than the mines of America; and the wildest hopes of avarice and

187 Ludolph. Hist. Ethiop. l. iv. c. 5. The most necessary arts are now exercised by the Jews, and the foreign trade is in the hands of the Armenians. What Gregory principally admired and envied was the industry of Europe—artes et opificia.

158 John Bermudez, whose relation, printed at Lisbon, 1569, was translated into English by Purchas (Pilgrims, 1. vii. c. 7. p. 1149, &c.), and from thence into French by La Croze (Christianisme d’Ethiopie, p. 92—265.). The piece is curious; but the author may be suspected of deceiving Abyssinia, Rome, and Portugal. His title to the rank of patriarch is dark and doubtful (Ludolph. Comment. No 1 or. p. 473.).

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geal were built on the willing submission of the Christians of Africa.

But the vows which pain had extorted, were forsworn on the return of health. The Abyssinians still adhered with unshaken constancy to the Monophysite faith; their languid belief was inflamed by the exercise of dispute; they branded the Latins with the names of Arians and Nestorians, and imputed the adoration of four gods, to those who separated the two natures of Christ. Fremona, a place of worship, or rather of exile, was assigned to the Jesuit missionaries. Their skill in the liberal and mechanic arts, their theological learning, and the decency of their manners, inspired a barren esteem; but they were not endowed with the gift of miracles”, and they vainly solicited a reinforcement of European troops. The patience and dexterity of forty years, at length obtained a more favourable audience, and two emperors of Abyssinia were persuaded that Rome could ensure the temporal and everlasting happiness of her votaries. The first of these royal converts lost his crown and his life; and the rebel army was sanctified by the abuna, who hurled an anathema at the apostate, and absolved his subjects from their oath of fidelity. The fate of Zadenghel was revenged by the courage and fortune of Susneus, who ascended the throne under the name of Se


'59 Religio Romana . . . . nec precibus patrum nec miraculis ab ipsis editis suffulcie batur, is the uncontradićted assurance of the devout emperor Susneus to his patriarch Meudez (Ludolph. Comment. N° 136. p. 529.); and such assurances should be preciously kept as an antidote against any marvellous legends.

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of some unequal combats between the Jesuits and his illiterate priests, the emperor declared himself a proselyte to the synod of Chalcedon, presuming that his clergy and people would embrace without delay the religion of their prince. The liberty of choice was succeeded by a law, which imposed, under pain of death, the belief of the two natures of Christ: the Abyssinians were enjoined to work

and to play on the Sabbath; and Segued, in the

face of Europe and Africa, renounced his connection with the Alexandrian church. A Jesuit, Alphonso Mendez, the Catholic patriarch of ZEthiopia, accepted in the name of Urban VIII. the homage and abjuration of his penitent. “I con“fess,” said the emperor on his knees, “I con“fess that the pope is the vicar of Christ, the suc“ cessor of St. Peter, and the sovereign of the “ world. To him I swear true obedience, and at “ his feet I offer my person and kingdom.” A fimilar oath was repeated by his son, his brother, the clergy, the nobles, and even the ladies of the court: the Latin patriarch was invested with ho

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forgot the mildness of the gospel and the policy of his order, to introduce with hasty violence the liturgy of Rome and the inquisition of Portugal. He condemned the ancient pračtice of circumcision, * * which

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160 I am aware how tender is the question of circumcision. Yet I will affirm, 1. That the AEthiopians have a physical reason for the circumcision of males, and even of females (Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains, tom. ii.). 2. That it was practised in AEthiopia long before the introdućtion of Judaism or Christianity (Herodot. l. ii. c. 104. Marsham, Canon. Chron. p. 72, 73.). “ Infantes circumcidunt ob-consuetudinem non ob Judaismum,” says Gregory the Abyssinian priest (apud Fabric. Lux Christiana, p. 72c ). Yet, in the heat of dispute, the Portuguese were sometimes branded with the name of uncircumcised (La Croze, P. SoLudolph. Hist. and Comment. l. iii. c. I.).

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161 The three protestant historians, Ludolphus (Hist. Æthiopica, Francofurt. 1681; Commentarius, 1691; Relatio Nova, &c. 1693, in folio), Geddes (Church History of Æthiopia, London, 1696, in

8vo), and La Croze (Hist. du Christianisme d’Ethiopie et d'Arme-.

nie, La Haye, 1739, in 12no), have drawn their principal mate-
rials from the Jesuits, especially from the General History of Tellez,
published in Portuguese at Conimbra, 1660. We might be sur-
prised at their frankness; but their most flagitious vice, the spirit of
persecution, was in their eyes the most meritorious virtue. Ludol-
phus possessed some, though a slight, advantage from the AEthiopic
language, and the personal conversation of Gregory, a free-spirited
Abyssinian priest, whom he invited from Rome to the court of Saxe-
Gotha. See the Theologia ZEthiopica of Gregory, in Fabricius,
Lux Evangelii, p. 716–734.


C H A P. XLVII. ~~~~ Final expulfion of the Jesuits,

1632, &c.

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