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Convention for the establishment of an international railway between France and Belgium,

Jan. 15, 1866, Art. VIII., 9 De Clercq, 473, 475.
Prussia,

July 18, 1867, “ VIII., 9 Id., 736, 738.
Grand Duchy of Lone 10. 1957

June 10, 1857, “

" UL.7

II., 7 Id., 274, 277.
Luxemburg, so
Bavaria,

Feb. 4, 1848, “ X., 5 Id., 576. The last clause of the Article is also contained in the convention between France and

Belgium, Sept. 20, 1860, Art. XI., 8 De Clercq, 118, (respecting the railways of the Ardennes and Namur.)

Belgium, Sept. 20, 1860, Art. XI., 8 ld., 122, -respecting the railways of the Ardennes and of Luxemburg.)

Freedom of traffic.

425. Subject to the following articles, trains, whether with goods or passengers, may cross the boundary at any time of the day or night, and without exception of holidays.

Convention concerning international railway service between France and

Spain, April 8, 1864, Arts. II., IX., 9 De Clercq, 12, 14. Detailed provisions respecting the revenue service are found in Arts. IV., VI.-VIII., X., XI., of the convention between France and Spain, above, and in the convention between France and

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, Arts. XII-XV., 7 De Clercq, 229.

Sardinia, Nov. 23, 1858, 7 Id., 532.
Also in the regulation of the international railway service between
France and
Sardinia,

Nov. 15, 1858, 7 De Clercq, 529.
Belgium and the Dec. 14, 1852, 6 Id., 252.
Netherlands,

Revenue service.

426. Each nation is entitled to the following facilities for its revenue and railway service, subject to the next article :

1. Each of the contiguous nations may establish and designate by its arms,' in the frontier station of the other, a revenue office, the necessary accommodation for which shall be provided by the latter nation, without charge ;'

2. Each nation may send its revenue officers in uniform, and with or without arms,' to and fro between its territory and such office, in any train, in the compartments of the guard and carriages of the second class, without charge ;*

3. Such revenue officers, and other servants of the government, or of the railway, crossing the boundary on their service as such, are, on the production of their commissions, exempt from civil or military service, and from direct and personal taxes ; and in respect to service within the station, remain subject to the exclusive anthority of the nation employing them. In other respects, they are equally subject to the local law as other persons;'

4. Articles necessary within the territory of one naiion for the service of the other, or the maintenance of its railway, or furnishing the residences of its officers and servants, are free of duty on crossing the boundary ;

5. The revenue officers of the two nations shall respectively communicate to each other the instructions and circulars addressed to their officers respecting the service;

6. The administration of each railway must notify to the revenue officers, at least eight days in advance, changes proposed in the time tables ; but special and extraordinary trains may be sent at any time, twelve hours' notice in advance being given of freight trains ;'

7. Officers and agents of each nation, and its railway, must respectively render to those of the other all reasonable co-operation in respect to international transporation, and the prevention and detection of frauds on the revenue, subject to the regulations of their own law.'

Convention concerning the international railway service between France and

Spain, April 8, 1864, Art. XVII., 9 De Clercq, 12, 15. And to similar effect, convention between France and .

Sardinia, Nov. 23, 1858, Art. III., 7 De Clercq, 532. Bavaria, July 3, 1857, “ III., 7 Id., 299. . Convention between France and

Spain April 8, 1864, Art. XIV., 9 De Clercq, 12, 15.

8 Convention between France and

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, Arts. IV., V., 7 De Clercq, 299, -which also provides that “ Ils seront dispensés des prescriptions de police sur les passe-ports." 4 Convention between France and

Spain, April 8, 1864, Art. V., 9 De Clercq, 12. 5 Convention between France and

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, Art. VI., 7 De Clercq, 299, 301. 6 Convention between France and

Spain, April 8, 1864, Art. XIX., 9 De Clercq, 12, 16. Regulation of the international service of railways between France and

Sardinia, Nov. 15, 1858, Art. XVIII., 7 De Clercq, 529, 531.
Belgium and )
Prussia, 5

1848, “ XXIV., 5 Id., 618. : Convention between France and

Spain, April 8, 1864, Art. XVIII., 9 De Clercq, 12, 15.

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, “ XXX., 7 Id., 299, 304. The latter adds ; " sons peine d'étre tenues de remplir a la frontiere les formalities ordinaires de douane."

To the same effect are the regulations for international railway service between France and Belgium and the In

14, 1852, Art. XIX., 6 De Clercq, 252. Netherlands, 5 Belgium and Prus- /

1848, “ XIX., 5 Id., 618.
sia,
& Convention between France and

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, Art. X., 7 De Clercq, 299, 301.
Sardinia, Nov. 3, 1858, " XI., 7 Id., 532, 534.

Offenders against either nation not to be employed, by the other.

427. A nation is not bound to permit the entry upon or service within its territory, under this Title, of an officer or agent who has been convicted in its tribunals of any offense whatever. Convention between France and

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, Art. VIII., 7 De Clercq, 299, 301.
Sardinia, Nov. 23, 1858, “ XVI., 7 Id., 532, 534.

Goods carried in passenger trains. 428. Passengers are not entitled to take in the car

duty, or prohibited.'

Articles subject to duty, carried in passenger trains, may be subjected to the regulations for goods on freight

vention between France and

trains, except that they must be passed without more than three hours' delay.' * Convention between France and

Spain, Apr. 8, 1864, Art. XII., 9 De Clercq, 12, 15.

Bavaria, July 3, 1857, “ XXVI., 7 Id., 299, 301. Regulation of international railway service between France and Sardinia,

Nov. 15, 1858, Art. IX., 7 De Clercq, 529.
Belgium and the De

Dec. 14, 1852, "
Netherlands, se

XIII., 6 Id., 252.
Belgium and Prus-

1848, « XIII., 5 Id., 618.
sia,
? Convention between France and

Spain, April 8, 1864. Art. XIII., 9 De Clercq, 12, 15. To similar effect, without the last clause, convention between France and Bavaria,

July 3, 1857, Art. XXVII., 7 De Ciercq, 303.
Sardinia,

Nov. 15, 1858, “ X., 7 Id., 529.
Belgium and the Dec. 14, 1852, " XIV., 6 Id., 252.

Netherlands, 5
Belgium and Prus-/

1848, “ XIV., 5 Id., 618. sia, Transit of merchandise through intermediate nation.

429. Wagons, cars, or packages of merchandise, sealed by the revenue officers of one nation for international railway transportation, and passing through the territory of another nation, in course of such transportation, into the territory of a third nation, shall be treated as having been directly imported, if the seals and enclosures remain unbroken upon entering the latter, and if the transportation has been conformable to the regulations of the service. The casual breaking of the enclosures during transportation shall not affect the application of this article, if the cause, and the acts done in consequence thereof, be certified by the local authorities, and a new seal be imposed by them. Treaty between France and

Switzerland, June 30, 1864, Art. V., 9 De Clercq, 49. Similar provisions in treaty between France and Netherlands,

Art. X., 9 De Clercq, 337. Portugal, July 11, 1866, “ XXIV., 9 Id., 558, --require the wagons or packages to be “ plombès," and do not contain the clause relative to compliance with the conditions of the international service.

TITLE XV.

TELEGRAPHS.

ARTICLE 430. Free communication allowed.

431. Right of corresponding.
432. Classification of dispatches.
433. Dispatches of State.
434. Authentication of dispatches of State.
435. Authentication of private dispatches.
436. Language of dispatches.

437. Dispatches in cypher,
438, 439. Preference of dispatches.

440. Designation of route.
441. Government scrutiny relinquished. .
442. Illegal dispatches.
443. Suspension of service.
444. Sending false dispatches ; violating dispatches, &c.
445. Regulations.

In November, 1869, the Secretary of State of the United States, by direction of the President, addressed a circular to the principal maritime powers, inviting a conference to form a joint convention for the protection of submarine cables..

The objects proposed were : 1, to make willful or wanton destruction of them punishable as piracy ; 2, to encourage future constructions, by forbidding exclusive concessions, except on consent of both nations concerned ; 3, to forbid government scrutiny at either end of a line.

The provisions of the Draft Convention proposed are embodied in substance, in the following Articles, with some modifications, suggested by the European International Convention at Vienna, July 21, 1869.

The crime of injuring telegraphs is provided for by Article 83, and their immunity in war, by provisions in the Book on WAR.

Free communication allowed.

430. Any person may land a submarine telegraphic cable on the shores of any nation, and work the same, subject to the provisions of this Title, and the regulations made by such nation relative thereto, and subject to the rights and obligations attaching to private property.

The united consent of the several parties to the Code, must, of course, be obtained before any legislation interfering with this right.

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