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Adjustment, +$8,400.-This merely reflects the transfer from the item "Boarding schools" of 20 day pupils at the Eklutna boarding school at $135 each for a total of $2,700, and a transfer from the item "Day schools" of the money for a 2-room unit at $5,700 for a total of $8,400. Appropriate minus adjustments are shown under each of the two items mentioned above.

Increase, $1,275.-This represents an increase of 5 pupils at Eklutna at $175 each for a total of $675 and the difference in allowance from a 2-room unit at $5,700 and 50 pupils at $135 per capita for $6,750 or a net of $1,050.

Indian pupils in the village of Ekutna and vicinity were admitted in 1940 to attend the Eklutna vocational school on a day basis. It was pointed out in the 1942 appropriation bill that the natives in this vicinity indicated a great eagerness for a school and that others planned to move into Eklutna village during the winter from adjoining camps to take advantage of the school. An average daily attendance of 20 was expected. However, this figure was too low, as the above figures indicate, and we have felt it necessary to request an increased authorization for 5 more pupils.

The White Mountain day school will be operated in conjunction with the White Mountain boarding school on a day basis. We have therefore deleted this school from the day school list and request that it be placed on the same basis as the Ekultna day school.

5. Day schools, $550,100 (adjustment -$5,700, decrease, $2,600, increase, $5,200). This amount is composed of the following:

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The base for this appropriation was established 4 years ago, and the following statement shows the proposed changes for 1943:

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Adjustment (-)$5,700.-We_propose the transfer of the two-room unit at White Mountain to the item "Day pupils in boarding schools": -$5,700; total adjustment, -$5,700.

Decrease $2,600.-Due to inability to maintain adequate average daily attendance, we propose the reduction of a one-room unit at the Kipnuk day school, thereby changing it from a two-room unit at $5,700 to a one-room unit at $3,100. Net decrease, $2,600.

Increase in enrollment and attendance, $5,200.-The following tabulation for day schools shows the 1941 increase in total enrollment, average daily attendance, and the number of days taught over the average of the preceding 5 years:

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Plus special schools not included in above table.

Total...

4,862 5, 277 6, 005 2 6, 380 3, 629 3, 933 4, 413 2 4, 957 14, 765 16, 417 19, 718 20, 392

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1 Includes 19,121 regular-term days and 1,271 vacation- and summer-school days. The preceding years were figured on "days taught" and do not show this break-down. This accounts in part for the lower average daily attendance for those years.

2 Includes enrollment, average daily attendance, and days taught for day pupils in the Eklutna boarding school. 3 In addition to operation of the regular school units, 8 groups of natives in 1940 and 5 groups in 1941 were given an opportunity to attend schools by special sessions. The enrollment count in these groups covers a group of children not reached by regular schools. These sessions were arranged by detailing teachers from their own headquarters to outlying settlements for a period of from 1 to 2 months. A detailed description of this work is found under "Special schools" following the camp school justification.

The increase in enrollment and average daily attendance for the years 1940 and 1941 over the preceding 4 years is very substantial. Teachers are scheduling their school terms at seasons of the year when the schools will serve the greatest number of children regardless of the time of year. Some are conducting sessions for smaller groups at canneries, fish camps, etc. Here the teaching intersperses classroom work with activity projects incident to the camp life of native people. It is in these camp schools that teachers are rendering very effective service in adult education.

Substantial gains in school attendance have been brought about by securing the cooperation of the parents in arranging for the care of their children with friends or relatives during those periods when it becomes necessary for the parents to leave their established homes in order to trap, fish, or seek other employment. The offering of a more enriched curriculum—particularly along the lines of native arts and crafts, s' op, homemaking, gardening, and other activities closely related to village life is proving effective in attracting older children who had theretofore withdrawn from school upon completion of the fifth or sixth grades.

Teachers in the Alaska Service are expected to perform many duties in cooperation with other Government agencies such as the Forest Service, Civilian Conservation Corps, and Work Projects Administration work-relief projects, Bureau of Fisheries, Game Commission, Biological Survey, U. S. Signal Corps, Census Bureau, Weather Bureau, and the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The last two-named agencies require careful and regular assistance in the matter of weather reports as the airplane transportation companies in Alaska depend upon such reports to insure regularity and safety in flights. If other Government agencies. were required to employ sufficient personnel to perform for their respective departments the duties now being carried on for them by our teachers, the Government would spend many times the amount it now does. These, and many other duties required of our teachers in Alaska, are not performed by teachers in the States or less remote places. In fact, each station, in effect, is an Indian agency. (See table "A" appended to this item for a detailed break-down of auxiliary services rendered by Alaskan teachers in 1941. This table includes adult education.)

For reasons just mentioned, we are requesting room unit increases for the following Alaskan stations for 1943:

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The station of Bethel, with an enrollment of 60 and an average daily attendance of 48 for the year 1941, meets the requirements set for a 2-teacher unit. With increased national defense activities in Alaska, Bethel has become an important center of communication for the lower Kuskokwim area. Native families who heretofore left Bethel for their scattered fishing, hunting, and trapping camps are now gaining employment and remaining in the village throughout the year, thereby sending their children to our school, resulting in a marked increased enrollment and average daily attendance. It is requested that an additional teaching unit be granted for this station.

It is requested that Shungnak be restored to a 2-teacher unit now that it has an enrollment of 60 and an average daily attendance of 53. Up to 1939, Shungnak had an enrollment and an average daily attendance sufficient to easily justify it as a 2-teacher unit. During the years of 1939 and 1940, however, the people were very much dissatisfied with the teachers and in many cases refused to send their children to school. In several instances, the people moved from the village rather than send their children to school. However, a change of teachers was effected in 1941 and a marked increase in enrollment and average daily attendance immediately resulted. We are confident that this increased attendance will be maintained.

The following table shows a detailed break-down of days taught, camp-school sessions, and auxiliary services rendered by the Alaska teachers in 1941:

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