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anty agency, whereby the Secretary shall undertake to reimburse it, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may establish, with respect to losses (resulting from the default of the student borrower) on the unpaid balance of the principal and accrued interest of any insured loan. The guaranty agency shall, be deemed to have a contractual right against the United States, during the life of such loan, to receive reimbursement according to the provisions of this subsection. Upon receipt of an accurate and complete request by a guaranty agency for reimbursement with respect to such losses, the Secretary shall pay promptly and without administrative delay. Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph and in paragraph (7), the amount to be paid a guaranty agency as reimbursement under this subsection shall be equal to 95 percent of the amount expended by it in discharge of its insurance obligation incurred under its loan insurance program. A guaranty agency shall file a claim for reimbursement with respect to losses under this subsection within 45 days after the guaranty agency discharges its insurance obligation on the loan. (B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)
(i) if, for any fiscal year, the amount of such reimbursement payments by the Secretary under this subsection exceeds 5 percent of the loans which are insured by such guaranty agency under such program and which were in repayment at the end of the preceding fiscal year, the amount to be paid as reimbursement under this subsection for such excess shall be equal to 85 1 percent of the amount of such excess; and
(ii) if, for any fiscal year, the amount of such reimbursement payments exceeds 9 percent of such loans, the amount to be paid as reimbursement under this subsection for such excess shall be equal to 75 1 percent of the amount of such excess.
(C) For the purpose of this subsection, the amount of loans of a guaranty agency which are in repayment shall be the original principal amount of loans made by a lender which are insured by such a guaranty agency reduced by
(i) the amount the insurer has been required to pay to discharge its insurance obligations under this part;
the original principal amount of loans insured by it which have been fully repaid; and
(iii) the original principal amount insured on those loans for which payment of the first installment of principal has not become due pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(E) of this section or such first installment need not be paid pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(M) of this section.
(D) Reimbursements of losses made by the Secretary on loans submitted for claim by an eligible lender, servicer, or guaranty agency designated for exceptional performance under section 4281 shall not be subject to additional review by the
1 The amendments made by section 417(cX1) of P.L. 105–244, changing the reimbursement percentages, apply to loans for which the first disbursement is made on or after October 1, 1998.
Secretary or repurchase by the guaranty agency for any reason other than a determination by the Secretary that the eligible lender, servicer, or guaranty agency engaged in fraud or other purposeful misconduct in obtaining designation for exceptional performance.
(E) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, in the case of a loan made pursuant to a lender-of-last-resort program, the Secretary shall apply the provisions of
(i) the fourth sentence of subparagraph (A) by substituting “100 percent" for “95 percent";
(ii) subparagraph (B)(i) by substituting “100 percent" for "85 percent";
and (iii) subparagraph (B)(ii) by substituting “100 percent” for 475 percent".
(F)1 Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, in the case of an outstanding loan transferred to a guaranty agency from another guaranty agency pursuant to a plan approved by the Secretary in response to the insolvency of the latter such guarantee agency, the Secretary shall apply the provision of
(i) the fourth sentence of subparagraph (A) by substituting “100 percent” for “95 percent";
(ii) subparagraph (B)(i) by substituting “90 percent" for "85 percent"; and
(iii) subparagraph (BXii) by substituting "80 percent" for “75 percent”.
(G)2 Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Secretary shall exclude a loan made pursuant to a lender-of-last-resort program when making reimbursement payment calculations under subparagraphs (B) and (C).
(2) CONTENTS OF GUARANTY AGREEMENTS.—The guaranty agreement
(A) shall set forth such administrative and fiscal procedures as may be necessary to protect the United States from the risk of unreasonable loss thereunder, to ensure proper and efficient administration of the loan insurance program, and to assure that due diligence will be exercised in the collection of loans insured under the program, including a requirement that each beneficiary of insurance on the loan submit proof that the institution was contacted and other reasonable attempts were made to locate the borrower (when the location of the borrower is unknown) and proof that contact was made with the borrower (when the location is known);
(B) shall provide for making such reports, in such form and containing such information, as the Secretary may reasonably require to carry out the Secretary's functions under this subsection, and for keeping such records and for affording such access thereto as the Secretary may find
1 See footnote on previous page. 2 Margin so in law.
necessary to assure the correctness and verification of such reports;
(C) shall set forth adequate assurances that, with respect to so much of any loan insured under the loan insurance program as may be guaranteed by the Secretary pursuant to this subsection, the undertaking of the Secretary under the guaranty agreement is acceptable in full satisfaction of State law or regulation requiring the maintenance of a reserve;
(D) shall provide that if, after the Secretary has made payment under the guaranty agreement pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection with respect to any loan, any payments are made in discharge of the obligation incurred by the borrower with respect to such loan (including any payments of interest accruing on such loan after such payment by the Secretary), there shall be paid over to the Secretary (for deposit in the fund established by section 431) such proportion of the amounts of such payments as is determined (in accordance with paragraph (6)) to represent his equitable share thereof, but (i) shall provide for subrogation of the United States to the rights of any insurance beneficiary only to the extent required for the purpose of paragraph (8); and (ii) except as the Secretary may otherwise by or pursuant to regulation provide, amounts so paid by a borrower on such a loan shall be first applied in reduction of principal owing on such loan;
(E) shall set forth adequate assurance that an amount equal to each payment made under paragraph (1) will be promptly deposited in or credited to the accounts maintained for the purpose of section 422(c);
(F) set forth adequate assurances that the guaranty agency will not engage in any pattern or practice which results in a denial of a borrower's access to loans under this part because of the borrower's race, sex, color, religion, national origin, age, handicapped status, income, attendance at a particular eligible institution within the area served by the guaranty agency, length of the borrower's educational program, or the borrower's academic year in school;
(G) shall prohibit the Secretary from making any reimbursement under this subsection to a guaranty agency when a default claim is based on an inability to locate the borrower, unless the guaranty agency, at the time of filing for reimbursement, certifies to the Secretary that diligent attempts, including contact with the institution, have been made to locate the borrower through the use of reasonable skip-tracing techniques in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary; and (H) set forth assurances that,
(i) upon the request of an eligible institution, the guaranty agency shall, subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), furnish to the institution information with respect to students (including the names and addresses of such students) who received loans made, insured, or guaranteed under this part for attendance at the eligible institution and for whom preclaims assistance activities have been requested under subsection (1);
(ii) the guaranty agency shall not require the payment from the institution of any fee for such information; and
(iii) the guaranty agency will require the institution to use such information only to assist the institution in reminding students of their obligation to repay student loans and shall prohibit the institution from disseminating the information for any other purpose.
(I) may include such other provisions as may be necessary to promote the purpose of this part.
(3) FORBEARANCE.-A guaranty agreement under this subsection
(A) shall contain provisions providing that,
(i) upon request, a lender shall grant a borrower forbearance, renewable at 12-month intervals, on terms agreed to in writing by the parties to the loan with the approval of the insurer, and otherwise consistent with the regulations of the Secretary, if the borrower
(I) is serving in a medical or dental internship or residency program, the successful completion of which is required to begin professional practice or service, or is serving in a medical or dental internship or residency program leading to a degree or certificate awarded by an institution of higher education, a hospital, or a health care facility that offers postgraduate training, provided that if the borrower qualifies for a deferment under section 427(a)(2XCXvii) or subsection (bX1XM)(vii) of this section as in effect prior to the enactment of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, or section 427(a)(2XC) or subsection (b)(1)(M) of this section as amended by such amendments, the borrower has exhausted his or her eligibility for such deferment;
(II) has a debt burden under this title that equals or exceeds 20 percent of income; or
(III) is serving in a national service position for which the borrower receives a national service educational award under the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993;
(ii) the length of the forbearance granted by the lender
(I) under clause (i)(I) shall equal the length of time remaining in the borrower's medical or dental internship or residency program, if the borrower is not eligible to receive a deferment described in such clause, or such length of time remaining in the program after the borrower has exhausted the borrower's
borrower's eligibility for such deferment;
(II) under clause (i)(II) shall not exceed 3 years; or
(III) under clause (i)(III) shall not exceed the period for which the borrower is serving in a position described in such clause; and
(iii) no administrative or other fee may be charged in connection with the granting of a forbearance under clause (i), and no adverse information regarding a borrower may be reported to a credit bureau organization solely because of the granting of such forbearance;
(B) may, to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary, contain provisions that permit such forbearance for the benefit of the student borrower as may be agreed upon by the parties to an insured loan and approved by the insurer;
(C) shall contain provisions that specify that the form of forbearance granted by the lender for purposes of this paragraph shall be the temporary cessation of payments, unless the borrower selects forbearance in the form of an extension of time for making payments, or smaller payments than were previously scheduled; and (D) shall contain provisions that specify that,
(i) forbearance for a period not to exceed 60 days may be granted if the lender reasonably determines that such a suspension of collection activity is warranted following a borrower's request for deferment, forbearance, a change in repayment plan, or a request to consolidate loans, in order to collect or process appropriate supporting documentation related to the request, and
(ii) during such period interest shall accrue but
not be capitalized. Guaranty agencies shall not be precluded from permitting the parties to such a loan from entering into a forbearance agreement solely because the loan is in default. The Secretary shall permit lenders to exercise administrative forbearances that do not require the agreement of the borrower, under conditions authorized by the Secretary. Such forbearances shall include (i) forbearances for borrowers who are delinquent at the time of the granting of an authorized period of deferment under section 428(b)(1)(M) or 427(a)(2)(C), and (ii) if the borrower is less than 60 days delinquent on such loans at the time of sale or transfer, forbearances for borrowers on loans which are sold or transferred.
(4) DEFINITIONS.-For the purpose of this subsection, the terms "insurance beneficiary” and "default” have the meanings assigned to them by section 435.
(5) APPLICABILITY TO EXISTING LOANS.—In the case of any guaranty agreement with a guaranty agency, the Secretary may, in accordance with the terms of this subsection, undertake to guarantee loans described in paragraph (1) which are insured by such guaranty agency and are outstanding on the date of execution of the guaranty agreement, but only with re