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“ Neither because they are the seed of Abraham are they all children of the promise,—but in Isaac shall thy seed be called,and not this only, but," of the line of Isaac, the children of promise are in the branch of Jacob only.
20. 1 Cor. iii 10. “ Ye are the tillage of God, the building of God." The force of the Apostle's argument, that there was to be no 'glory' or 'strife' about men, because God himself was working in them, is better preserved in the Common Version : “Ye are God's husbandry, ye are God's building."
21. 1 Cor. xii. 7. “The manifestation of the spirit is given to each for that which is profitable.”—Layman. The spirit of the Apostle's argument requires, and the Greek word admits, that we should translate-'The manifestation of the spirit is given to each for the collective (general) good'-apòs to ovupépov.
22. 1 Cor. xiii. 12. “For now we see as through a glass darkly.” This, which is the common version, is a very imperfect rendering of the original. “For now we see but through a mirror, in shadowy forms."
23. 2 Cor. v. 1. “For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle be dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, everlasting in the heavens.”—Layman. We doubt whether most readers attach any distinct meaning to the strange expression, “the earthly house of this tabernacle." St. Paul calls our body 'this earthly tent-house.' Montgomery introduces the image into one of his most exquisite hymns :
Here in the body pent,
Absent from him I roam ;
A day's march nearer home.' 24. 2 Cor. iv. 1, 2. “Wherefore seeing that we have received this ministry, according as we have obtained mercy, we faint not; but have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, &c."
The expression of the absolute confidence in which Paul commits himself to the simplicity of the Gospel is obscured by the phrase, 'the hidden things of dishonesty,' which very imperfectly conveys the real meaning, namely, that concealment of Truth which
may result from a want of moral courage. The sentiment and indeed the word are the same which occur in the Epistle to the Romans in a similar connection: “I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ.” Seeing, then, that we have received this ministry, as we have obtained mercy we faint not, but have renounced the concealments of shame [timidity]."
25. 2 Cor. vi. 12. “O Corinthians, our mouth is opened unto you, our heart is enlarged: ye are not straitened in us, but ye
are straitened in your own bowels.” Surely this is a passage which a Reviser should have restored to the English reader. “Oye Corinthians,-ye are not straitened in us,—but in your own affections." This rendering is given in the note,-but why, in so palpable a case, not take it into the text?
26. Matt. vi. 22. “The lamp of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be clear, the whole body will be full of light; but if thine eye be dim, thy whole body will be full of darkness. This rendering destroys the double reference, made in the original, to the bodily and the mental eye. The translation is not literal, and takes away one half of the meaning.
27. Luke ii. 49. "How is it that ye sought me? Knew ye not that I must be in my Father's house?” We do not perceive the necessity or the desirableness of this change, though we are aware it is supported by high authorities. The article is in the plural, and it is exceedingly unlikely that a plural noun for
house,' or 'temple,' should be understood. When in the fourth Gospel Jesus speaks of his Father's house, he says, tov OIKOV TOŪ πατρος μου.
We should be committing injustice if we did not add, that it is much easier to single out some remaining imperfections, as we deem them, in this Revision, than to give any adequate conception of the extent of its pains-taking and fidelity. The emendations, for the most part, are not of a kind to be exhibited for effect, and are only to be ascertained and duly estimated by a constant use of the work. To convey a true idea of its improvements we should have to quote something from every page of the book. It should be remembered, moreover, that Mr. Taylor did not live to see his work through the press, and that his able Editor did not feel himself at liberty to make any changes in the version. Though thus deprived of the author's last superintendence, and of that best of revisions which the eye and the mind together make upon the printed page, still we repeat that it is by far the most perfect form in which the New Testament exists in the English language. It is disgraceful to the Church of England that she never has undertaken a thorough Revision of the Authorized Version ;-but the Church of England is dead, without a Government, without living guidance or direction, and she dare not call one into being. What are we to think of a Supreme Church that has no living voice of authority, individual or collective,-no power to correct an error, or remove an evil ? Such is the Church of England, unable to reform her own Service, to restrain her own Schismatics, --without power to revise her own Liturgy or Articles, and with no thoughts of serving Religion in this country by publishing the Scriptures in a true form.
ART. VI.-THE CLAIMS OF LABOUR.
An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the Employed. By
the Author of Essays written in the Intervals of Business.
London : 1844. Visiting Societies and Lay Readers: A Letter to the Lord
Bishop of London. By Presbyter Catholicus. London: 1844.
This work has been well described as written in a spirit of serene and elevated common-place. Its maxims are most sound, its spirit most wise and just, but its contribution to the Dynamics of the great social problems it treats of, to the means and forces of their practical, or practicable, solution, — nothing, Indeed the highest encomium that can be passed on the author and his Essay, and it is no mean one, is, that strong and fervent must have been the feeling in his own mind, of duty and the brotherly claims of his fellow-men, to induce him to write out sentiments which were pressing on his moral sensibilities, though he had but little to say but what others had already said to him, and nothing to suggest of the administrative or operative measures by which such sentiments might be made effective. The chief value of the work, accordingly, is in the right spirit towards all in dependent situations which it inculcates, and admirably expresses. It is excellently written, and it is hardly possible for any one seriously to peruse it without rising a better, and so far a wiser man. It makes no claim to originality, but yet states social relations and the responsibilities which arise out of them, with a force and distinctness which not many minds can bring to bear even on their most ordinary interests, and from which he must have a very hard or a very easy conscience who can altogether escape. There are many well-known truths, and admitted sentiments, of that kind which Coleridge describes “as so true, that they lose all the power of truth, and lie bed-ridden in the dormitory of the soul,” here “rescued from neglect,” and endued with « freshness and importance," by
reflecting on them in direct reference to our own state and conduct.” We shall give some analysis of this Essay, chiefly for the sake of transferring to our pages some passages of thoughtful and conscientious wisdom, livingly expressed. Its professed object is to show what can be done by the Employers of labour in their individual and private capacity, and at the
outset endeavours to create a sense of the vast importance of their social position.
“What an important relation is that of Master and Man! How it pervades the world ; ascending from the lowest gradation of planter and slave through the states of master and servant, landlord and labourer, manufacturer and artisan, till it comes to the higher degrees of rule which one cultivated man has to exercise over another in the performance of the greatest functions. See, throughout, what difficulties and temptations encumber this relation. How boundless is the field of thought which it opens to us, how infinite the duties which it contains, how complete an exercise it is for the whole faculties of man. Observe what wretchedness is caused by a misunderstanding of this relation in domestic matters. See the selfish carelessness about the happiness of those around them, of men not ill-intentioned, nor unkind, perhaps, in their dealings with the world in general, but lamentably unfit for the management of a home. Then observe the effects of similar mismanagement in dealing with a country. Look at the listless loiterers about an Irish town: you would naturally say to yourself, “Surely this people have done all that there can be for them to do.' You walk out of the town, and find the adjacent fields as listless-looking, and neglected, as the men themselves. Think what a want there must be of masters of labour, that those hands and these weeds are not brought into closer contact."
Before treating of the Duties of the great Employers of labour, the Essay states the more private claims of domestic servants.
“That, in this case, the employer and the employed are members of one family, is a circumstance which intensifies the relation. It is a sad thing for a man to pass the working part of his day with an exacting, unkind master : but still, if the workman returns at evening to a home that is his own, there is
sense of coming joy and freedom which may support him throughout the weary hours of labour. But think what it must be to share one's home with one's oppressor; to have no recurring time when one is certain to be free from those harsh words and unjust censures, which are almost more than blows, aye, even to those natures we are apt to fancy so hardened to rebuke. Imagine the deadness of heart that must prevail in that poor wretch who never hears the sweet words of praise or of encouragement. Many masters of families, men living in the rapid current of the world, who are subject to a variety of impressions which, in their busy minds, are made and effaced even in the course of a single day, can with difficulty estimate the force of unkind words upon those whose monotonous life leaves
few opportunities of effacing any unwelcome impression. There is nothing in which the aid of imagination, that handmaid of charity, may be more advantageously employed, than in considering the condition of domestic servants. Let a man endeavour to realize it to himself, let him think of its narrow sphere, of its unvarying nature, and he will be careful not to throw in, unnecessarily, the trouble even of a single harsh word, which may make so large a disturbance in the shallow current of a domestic's hopes and joys. How often, on the contrary, do you find that masters seem to have no apprehension of the feelings of those under them, ,no idea of any duties on their side beyond
cash payment,' whereas the good, old, patriarchal feeling towards
your household is one which the mere introduction of money wages has not by any means superseded, and which cannot, in fact, be superseded.”
“Another mode of viewing with charity the conduct of domestic servants, is to imagine what manner of servant you would make yourself, or any one of those whom in your own rank you esteem and love. Do you not perceive in almost every character, some element which would occasionally make its possessor fail in performing the duties of domestic service ? Do you find that faithfulness, accuracy, diligence, and truth pervade the circle of your equals in such abundance that you should be exorbitantly angry, the moment you perceive a deficiency in such qualities amongst those who have been but indifferently brought up, and who, perhaps, have early imbibed those vices of their class, fear and falsehood: vices which their employers can only hope to eradicate by a long course of considerate kindness.”
In looking about for those from whom help may come towards the practical solution of the great question of Labour and its Claims,' the Author turns first to the Masters of Thought,' and asks whether the Poet will not do something to lift the burden of his own age. The Poets of Labour have come from the labouring classes, except those who, like Channing and Carlyle, have spoken the deepest poetry in prose. Burns, Elliott, Nicol, Prince, and William Thom, are the poets of Toil, men whose thoughts, to use the expression of one of them, come out like red hot bolts of iron. One Aristocratic poet has given us Poetry for the People, but the very title betrays the Amateur, and the Lays fall far short of the reality and earnestness of the Poetry by the People. Yet the Poet who has thus described the Patience of the Poor, and taught Wealth and Ease to appreciate their virtues, has at least escaped the censure of our Author upon those who use their great gifts of Imagination and expres