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tion is, what became of the invaded? The idea that the conquered Britons in any considerable numbers retired to Wales, is, I think simply impossible. Now a days it is easy enough for us to take a railway ticket to Dolgelley, but how was a Briton from Kent, or from what was so soon to become Essex, to find his way to the distant and unknown Welsh mountains, where certainly also his presence would not be required, for Wales then, as now, cannot have provided more than enough food for its inhabitants. A very few zealous Christians, if there were any such, may have fled before the worshippers of Woden and Thor, but the mass of the population can have had no such escape. On this subject I think we may safely lay down two propositions : The first is that no population which has once occupied a country is ever entirely extirpated. Observe we lay a stress on population, and occupied. Scattered tribes of savages may entirely disappear; as the Turanians probably did before the Aryans in Europe, and as the North American Indians have done before the English in America. But a numerous population which has once rooted itself in a country is never entirely extirpated. Even in the history of the Israelites and Canaanites when extirpation was enjoined by the strongest religious sanctions, the extirpation was never completed. A conquered race may be depressed, degraded, they may be diminished in numbers and reduced to thraldom, but a certain portion of them at all events survive, and sooner or later they intermarry with their conquerors.

On the other hand it may be laid down that the more slowly one race conquers another, the more thoroughly is the first race displaced by the second. When under some great leader one race vanquishes another in one or two great battles, as was the case for instance at the Norman conquest of England, the conquerors take the position of nobles, and the conquered of subjects, but the conquered race is still there, with hardly any diminution of its numbers, and gradually by sheer force of numbers it swallows up the conquerors and amalgamates them with itself. Far different was the course of events when the Angles and Saxons conquered Britain. No single great leader is even named; and there were no great armies. But in innumerable

small expeditions petty chiefs of petty tribes led their people, men, women and children to seek new homes in the fertile island. Their ambition was not for earldoms and dignities but for comfortable homesteads and good bits of arable land. It was a struggle for subsistence between opposing village communities in which the Saxons' sword hewed its way along the southern and eastern coast of the island and at last into our own central Mercia ; and this was going on during a confused period of at least two hundred years. It was, therefore, that kind of invasion which is most destructive to the defeated people. Nevertheless some of them must have remained, at least as bondsmen and bondswomen, if in no higher capacity. The proportion, doubtless, varied in the different parts of England, and to those varying proportions we have now no clue. But the conclusion to which we are driven is that, leaving Wales and Cornwall out of the question, there must be an admixture, large or small, of Keltic blood in the veins of the modern English nation.

But it is time that we turned to consider the extension of the Germans on the other side, that is as against the Slavonians. It is a point in history which is often neglected or forgotten, that the eastern parts of the kingdom of Prussia, that is the provinces of East and West Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia, were originally Slavonic countries. The fate of the name Slavonian is remarkable. In their own language it meant glorious ; “Slava” meant glory. Thus when the Russian general Suwarrow took Ismail from the Turks he announced his success to the empress Catherine in a despatch of only two lines, "Slava Bogo, slava yam," "Glory to God and glory to you, I have taken Ismail, and here I am.” But so many of the Slavs were conquered by the Germans and reduced to bondage that in all German dialects, including our own, the word “slavish,” and “slave” have come to mean, not glorious persons, but persons reduced to bondage. The German conquests over Slavonians began early, but they were continued in the middle ages by the Military Knights of the German Order. The German Order, like the Orders of Templars and Hospitallers were originally founded for the defence of Palestine, but the Knights soon found that fighting against Turks in Palestine however much it might be for their soul's 'health, was not particularly profitable as regarded bodily things, and accordingly in the first half of the thirteenth century they transferred their pious exertions to Prussia, and under their fourth grand master Hermann von Salza they set about the work of riding down Slavonian and Lithuanian peasants, and converting them from heathen freemen into Christian serfs. Readers of Chaucer will remember how he writes that his “Parfit gentil Knight in Lettowe hadde reised and in Ruce”, he had made an expedition (er hatte gereist) in Lithuania and in Prussia, that is, he had been a Crusade with the Knights of the German order, and had helped them in one of their incursions into Courland and Livonia. And the German Order remained lords paramount in Prussia down to the close of the Reformation when their last grand master, Albert of Brandenburg, adopted Protestantism, gave up his vow of celibacy, and became the ancestor of the Prussian royal family.

But we have sufficiently expatiated upon German conquests, it is time to turn to those of the Scandinavians, the northern division of the Gothic race. At an early period, perhaps as early as the Saxon conquest of Britain, the Scandinavians had pressed southward into Denmark, and perhaps at an equally early period they may have settled in the Orkney and Shetland Islands and the North of Scotland. But their main exploits were done in the full daylight of history. The empire of Charlemagne, if we may venture in the absence of our president to call him by that Frenchified title, dates from the year A.D. 800. And it was the power of Charlemagne which by rendering land expeditions impossible drove the Scandinavians, that is, the Danes and Norsemen, to their great expeditions by sea. For two centuries this island was harassed by their invasions; but there was this difference between the invasions of the Danes, and those of the Angles and Saxons four hundred years before; the Angles and Saxons were little tribes, who came to settle, and brought their women and children with them, the Danes and Norsemen were great naval hosts, under great leaders, and composed of men only. The consequence was that wherever the Danes settled they had to take wives from the conquered English. But with that limitation the Danes and Norsemen produced the greatest possible effects both on the population and the language of those parts of the island where they settled, and at this day the northern counties of England, and the lowlands of Scotland are Scandinavian rather than German. The other great conquest by the Norsemen was of course that part of France which from them took the name of Normandy. Here they rapidly adopted the French language and the French religion, that is to say Christianity: And it was as a French speaking people that the Normans under their Duke William advanced in 1066 to the final conquest of England. England however was by no means the only scene of Norman conquests : Normans from Normandy ruled for a time in Sicily and in Apulia; indeed as Macaulay has said, in every country from Palestine to Ireland they were victorious against tenfold odds, and in fact wherever by force or fraud booty was to be obtained the Norsemen were the men to get it.

The Slavonians on the other hand were apparently doomed to be always conquered either by Germans from the west, or Tartars from the east. We have spoken of the Slavonians in Prussia. The Slavonians in Bohemia and Croatia have been ruled by Austrian Germans. The Poles have been trodden down by Prussian and Austrian Germans, and by their own kindred, the Russians. As to the Russians themselves there is a French saying that if you scratch a Russian you find a Tartar underneath ; but it is the reverse of the truth, the Tartar has been above the Russian, not underneath him. For two centuries and a half from the year A.D. 1236 the Russians were subject to the Tartar Khan of the Golden Horde, until at last they succeeded in shaking off the yoke, but the people of all the Russias, great, little, white, red and black Russia are just as much Slavonians as the Bohemians or the Poles. There are besides the Servians and Bulgarians who have been subject, and some of whom are still subject to the Turks. Only the handful of Slavonians who inhabit Montenegro have managed there in their Black Mountain to maintain their independence. And this concludes our notice of the people of Eastern Europe with two exceptions. These exceptions are 1, The Roumanians ; 2, The Hungarians. The Roumanians, that is the inhabitants of Moldavia and Wallachia are Aryans but not Slavonians. They are the most northern portion of what I have called the Pelasgian race, separated by the interposition of the Bulgarians from their kindred the Albanians of Albania. But they speak a Latinized dialect like the French, the Spaniards, and the people of the Grisons. The Roman emperor Trajan conquered them, and reduced their country to the condition of a Roman province in the year A.D. 104. The Roman government there lasted only one hundred and seventy years, yet it had such an effect that they speak a language derived from the Latin, and call themselves Roumani, that is Romans. The other exception is the Hungarians. Now the first thing to be said about the Hungarians is that they have nothing to do with the Huns of Attila, except indeed that they belong to the same Tartar race, though to another branch of it. The Huns under Attila were a devastating Tartar horde, “the scourge of God” as they were called in the fifth century A.D. They wandered marauding through Europe till at last they were defeated by the Roman general Aetius and Theodoric, King of the Visigoths in the great battle of Chalons-sur-Marne in the year A.D. 451. This blow checked the Huns, and after two or three more campaigns they disappear from history. Their hand had been against every man and now in return every man's hand was against them; a few of them may have been admitted into other tribes, but the great bulk were, as I imagine, slaughtered in detail. And of course therefore they have no relation to the population of modern Europe. The ancestors of the Hungarians were a similar Tartar horde five hundred years later. They belonged like the Lapps and Finns to the Ugrian division of the Tartar race. They called themselves Ugrians, Ugars, Ogars. From their name, and from the terror of their name the word Ogre has got into use in our fairy tales to signify a cannibal monster. But the name which they most frequently used, and which they still use for themselves is Magyars.

These Magyars roamed through Europe as a plundering horde till at last the emperor Otho with his Germans overthrew them in

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