the great battle at the Lechfeld, that is the Lichfield, the field of corpses, near Augsburg in the year A.D. 955. After this defeat the Magyars fell back to the fertile plains of Hungary, where they settled down and became a prosperous nation. Some thirty years ago it was the fashion in Birmingham to regard the Hungarians with great admiration, but I have never been able to understand the reason why. Descended from a horde of murderous savages they have managed to settle in a fertile country, and have learned agriculture from the nations round them, but they have produced no great poem, no great building, no great law. Neither in arts, nor in science, nor in literature, nor in statesmanship have they added any thing to the resources of the human race. valour indeed they have, a quality which is seldom_lacking in a Tartar tribe, but the fact that they have generally, though not always, opposed the advance of their cousins the Turks is, as far as I know, their solitary claim on the gratitude of mankind.

We come lastly to the two cases which I have put down as unsolved problems, the Etruscans and the Basques. The Etruscans are interesting to us from the influence which they are supposed to have had on the laws, and especially on the religion of carly Rome. But they ceased to have a separate existence more than two thousand years ago, and the only undoubted memorials which they have left behind are a few sepulchral inscriptions in an unknown language which is still a puzzle to philologists. Where they came from is a mystery. Niebuhr, always ready to cut a knot which he cannot untie, makes them a northern race from Rhaetia, that is from the Tyrol. But this seems to be little more than a guess, founded chiefly on a fancied resemblance between the name Rhaetia and the name Rasena, by which the Etruscans called themselves. And we shall perhaps be more disposed to agree with Professor Francis Newman that the tradition handed down to us by Herodotus may after all be right, viz. that the Etruscans, always noted for their maritime activity, were an oriental race who came by sea from Lydia in Asia Minor, and settled as conquerors among the native inhabitants of Tuscany. In this case they would probably be as few in proportion as the Normans in England, and like the Normans in England would gradually lose themselves among the more numerous population which they had conquered.

The Basques are more interesting because they still exist as a hardy race of some 400,000 persons in the Basque provinces of Spain, between the Pyrenees and the Bay of Biscay, and there are a few thousands more across the French frontier in the Department of the Basses Pyrénées. Where the Basques came from no one can state with any certainty, except that they are not Aryans either of the Keltic or any other tribe. Niebuhr solves all difficulties by bringing them from Africa across the straits of Gibraltar. Their language does not help us much, it is so unlike all other languages. Professor Max Müller carefully omits it, both in his Aryan list, and in his Turanian list. Perhaps, therefore, he agrees with Niebuhr in considering it to be African. Probably, however, the only man out of Spain who has a familiar acquaintance with the Basque language is Mr. George Borrow, and he states that it is Turanian in character. It is not unlikely therefore that the ancestors of the Basques were the most southern of the early Turanian wanderers in Europe, as the ancestors of the Laplanders were the most northern. But the most interesting question is, are the Basques of the same stock as the rest of the Spaniards ? Is their position like that of the Bretons in France, or like that of the Welsh in Britain: The Bretons in France differ from the bulk of Frenchmen in language only, not in race ; while the Welsh differ from the English in race as well as in language. Perhaps when we consider the numerous Aryan migrations into Spain, migrations of Pelasgians, Kelts, Vandals, and Visigoths, all belonging to the Aryan stock, we shall be inclined to think it probable that the majority of the Spaniards are at least in part of Aryan descent, like the other principal nations of Europe.

Here ends our historical sketch. There are two questions partly metaphysical, and partly practical which I should have liked to ask: one is, What is a race ? and the other, How far are race characteristics uneffaceable? But it is impossible to discuss them at the close of a paper like the present, and I can only ask you to excuse the bare skeleton which I have been able to present to yor of so important and interesting a subject.




February 8th, 1881.

The causes which led to the great colonization movement of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are first considered. Passion for national glory; the struggle for existence between Catholic and Protestant countries, the hopes of wealth in gold and silver, and the impression that America was rich in secret treasure; the belief in the religious duty of colonization; these were motives which acted upon all alike.

England had special causes for activity. In the first place there was the abounding feeling of strength and confidence which was the result of her complete success in the tremendous struggle just finished, wherein the position she had assumed was that of the champion of Protestantism. The national mind was in exaltation and eager for new opportunities.

But there was another motive which led the statesmen of Elizabeth and James I, to promote this enterprise." Since the destruction of the monasteries England had swarmed with beggars. “They were hereditary paupers : a lawless strain was in their blood : and they were impatient of common employments of industry.” The first English poor law was a measure, not so much of charity as of police. The American colonies appeared to offer a way out of this difficulty as out of another. In a pamphlet by Robert Cushman, published in 1621, he writes “Was there ever more suits in law, more envy, contempt and reproach than now-a-days. Abraham and Lot departed asunder when there fell a breach between them, which was occasioned by the straitness of the land, and surely, that howsoever the frailties of men are principal in all countries, yet the straitness of the place is such that as each man is fain to pluck his means, as it were out of his neighbours' throat, there is such pressing and oppressing in town and country, about farms, trades, traffick, etc., so as a man can hardly anywhere set up a trade but he shall pull down two of his neighbours. The Towns abound with young tradesmen and the hospitals are full of the ancient; the country is replenished with new farmers and the almshouses are filled with old labourers."

The extent to which colonization was promoted by religious persecution has not been fully recognized. Huguenots in the middle of the sixteenth century came, at Coligny's suggestion, to Rio Janeiro and Florida; English Roman Catholics, threatened in England, sailed to Maryland in the reign of James I.; the Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower landed at New Plymouth in 1620; nonseparatist Puritans, driven out by Laud came, also to Massachusetts, in 1629; Episcopalians, some years later fled, from the Commonwealth to Virginia ; Presbyterians from Wales and Scotland, at the Restoration, came to Pennsylvania, Virginia, Carolina; Germans from the Palatinate settled near what is now Philadelphia ; Piedmontese Protestants sought a refuge on the banks of the Hudson. Even Poland, early in the eighteenth century, sent a contingent of two hundred Protestants.

“Indeed this vast new world beyond the ocean has fulfilled the idea of a noble scheme projected by Gustavus Adolphus, a scheme which however was still only in the germ when he fell gloriously on the plains of Lützen. As early as 1626 he established a great commercial company with the right of planting colonies. The

Thirty Years' War was now begun, and the fortunes of Protestantism in Europe were still uncertain. It was the dream of Gustavus that his hardy Swedes should found a colony in America, where “the honour of the wives and daughters” of those whom war and bigotry had made fugitives might be safe; a blessing to the whole Protestant world. After his death Oxenstiern took up the scheme and about seven hundred Swedes settled on the Delaware. In less than twenty years, however, the colony was seized by the Dutch ; some years afterwards it was transferred to ourselves; and so for a time the immigration from Sweden was arrested."

The paper then turns to consider especially the colony of Virginia, “not one of the noblest in origin,—not one of the noblest in its subsequent history, but still a colony which has a special interest because it is the earliest of the British colonies, and because some of the greatest Americans were born on Virginian soil.”

“At the commencement of the reign of James I. two new companies were formed to settle plantations in Virginia. One was described as the London company and was empowered under a patent to plant a colony anywhere between thirty-four and fortyone degrees of North Latitude. The colony might have a sea board of 100 miles in length-50 miles each way from the spot first occupied—and it might stretch 100 miles inland. The charter declares that the undertaking is a work which may by the providence of Almighty God hereafter tend to the glory of the Divine Majesty, in the propagation of the Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge of God.

The Company had a monopoly of the trade with the colony: was empowered to search for mines, but was required to pay the King one fifth of the proceeds of all gold and silver mines and one fifteenth of all copper mines. They had authority to carry out settlers; to coin money; to keep the land to themselves and exclude all intruders They might levy duties on the exports from the colony and their goods were to come to England free of duty for seven years.

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