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(4) Το τε φιλόπολι ουκ εν ώ άδικούμαι έχω, αλλ' εν ο ασφαλώς έπολιτεύθην. ουδ' επί πατρίδα ούσαν έτι ηγούμαι νύν ιέναι, πολύ δε μάλλον την ουκ ούσαν ανακτάσθαι.

(5) Τών δ' έξω Σικελίας Ελλήνων Λακεδαιμόνιοι μεν ηγεμόνα Σπαρτιάτην παρεχόμενοι, Νεοδημώδεις δε τους άλλους και Είλωτας, δύναται δε το Νεοδημώδες ελεύθερον ήδη είναι.

(6) "Ην δε τούτο ευπρεπές προς τους πλείους, επεί έξειν γε την πόλιν οίπερ και μεθίστασαν έμελλον. δήμος μέντοι όμως έτι και βουλή ή από του κυάμου ξυνελέγετο.

3. What do we know of the position and career of Thucydides, and of his political opinions ?

4. Describe the organization of the Athenian Confederacy, as far as is known from Thucydides. What do we know of it from other sources ?

5. What do we learn from Thucydides (1) of the power of the Spartan kings, (2) of the ephoralty?

6. What appear to have been the designs of the Athenians in the Sicilian expedition, and how far did circumstances justify their anticipations ?

7. How do you account for the transference of the war after 413 B.c. from Europe to Asia ?

TUESDAY, JUNE 5, from 2.30 to 5.30 P.M. SECTION V. Ancient History. (Roman History I.)

1. What restrictions were imposed directly or indirectly on the power of the magistrates at Rome during the first two centuries of the Commonwealth's existence

2. Describe the organization of Italy under Roman supremacy at the close of the Samnite wars.

3. Give some account of the life of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.

4. What was the importance of Syracuse for Rome before the time of the Punic wars ?

5. Describe the extent and condition of the Roman dominion at the time of the destruction of Carthage.

6. What policy did Rome adopt towards Greece from the end of the Second Punic war (201 B.c.) to the occupation of Corinth (146 B.c.)?

7. Trace the course of legislation as to the public lands from the tribunate of Ti. Gracchus (133 B. c.) to the first consulship of Cæsar (59 B.C.).

8. Discuss the influence of oratory in the public life of the Roman Commonwealth.

9. What changes took place in the constitution of the Roman criminal courts during the century preceding the death of Cæsar ?

10. Trace the effects of the institution of slavery in the social history of Rome.

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, from 2.30 to 5.30 P.M.

SECTION V. Ancient History. (Roman History II.)

1. Account for the failure of the attempts made to re-establish the Republican constitution after the death of Cæsar ?

2. In what sense is it true that the government of Augustus was a restoration ?

3. What elements of opposition to the Empire were there under the first Cæsars ?

4. Describe the varieties of provincial administration under the Empire, and explain the reasons for the absence of uniformity.

5. It has been said that under the Empire Greece and Italy were the least prosperous parts of the Roman world. Explain and illustrate this.

6. Describe the points of contrast between the Eastern and Western parts of the Empire. On what occasions did a tendency to separation show itself?

7. The origin and historical significance of the revolt of Civilis.

8. How far did the Roman government rest on the spread of Roman institutions, and how far on the retention of free national institutions ?

9. Explain the growth of Stoicism under the Empire. How far had it a real religious or political influence ?

10. Describe the Northern and Eastern frontier of the Empire at the close of this period. What external enemies threatened each part of this frontier ?

MONDAY, JUNE 4, from 2.30 to 5.30 P.M. Section V. Ancient History. (Livy, xxi-xxx.) 1. Translate:

(1) Luce orta quum plebis concilium esset, magis tacita invidia dictatoris favorque magistri equitum animos versabat, quam satis audebant homines ad suadendum quod vulgo placebat prodire, et favore superante auctoritas tamen rogationi deerat. Unus inventus est suasor legis C. Terentius Varro, qui priore anno praetor fuerat, loco non humili solum, sed etiam sordido ortus. Patrem lanium fuisse ferunt, ipsum institorem mercis, filioque hoc ipso in servilia eius artis ministeria usum. Is iuvenis, ut primum ex eo genere quaestus pecunia a patre relicta animos ad spem liberalioris fortunae fecit, togaque et forum placuere, proclamando pro sordidis hominibus causisque adversus rem et famam bonorum primum in notitiam populi, deinde ad honores pervenit, quaesturaque et duabus aedilitatibus, plebeia et curuli, postremo et praetura perfunctus, iam ad consulatus spem quum attolleret animos, haud

parum callide auram favoris popularis ex dictatoris invidia petiit scitique plebis unus gratiam tulit.

(2) Masinissae haec audienti non rubor solum suffusus, sed lacrimae etiam obortae ; et quum se quidem in potestate futurum imperatoris dixisset orassetque eum, ut, quantum res sineret, fidei suae temere obstrictae consuleret (promisisse enim se in nullius potestatem eam traditurum), ex praetorio in tabernaculum suum confusus concessit. Ibi, arbitris remotis, quum crebro suspiritu et gemitu, quod facile ab circumstantibus tabernaculum exaudiri posset, aliquantum temporis consumpsisset, ingenti ad postremum edito gemitu, fidum e servis vocat, sub cuius custodia regio more ad incerta fortunae venenum erat, et mixtum in poculo ferre ad Sophonibam iubet ac simul nuntiare, Masinissam libenter primam ei fidem praestaturum fuisse, quam vir uxori debuerit; quoniam eius arbitrium, qui possint, adimant, secundam fidem praestare, ne viva in potestatem Romanorum veniat; memor patris imperatoris patriaeque et duorum regum, quibus nupta fuisset, sibi ipsa consuleret. Hunc nuntium ac simul venenum ferens minister quum ad Sophonibam venisset,'Accipio'inquit‘nuptiale munus, neque ingratum, si nihil maius vir uxori praestare potuit. Hoc tamen nuntia, melius me morituram fuisse, si non in funere meo nupsissem. Non locuta est ferocius quam acceptum poculum, nullo trepidationis signo dato, impavide hausit. 2. Translate and explain the following passages :

(1) Ad Cannas fugientem consulem vix quinquaginta secuti sunt, alterius morientis prope totus exercitus fuit.

(2) Velim .. respondeat .. ecquis Latini nominis populus defecerit ad nos ?

(3) Praerogativa Veturia iuniorum.

(4) Sarta tecta acriter et cum summa fide exegerunt. 3. Into what periods may the history of the Second Punic War be best divided ? What date would you assign as that of its most critical moment?

4. What expedients were adopted by the Romans to meet their financial difficulties ?

5. Describe the career of Scipio in Spain (211–206 B.C.).

6. What causes, in your opinion, were mainly instrumental in checking the course of Carthaginian success after the battle of Cannae ?

7. What results followed from the alliance formed between Carthage and Philip of Macedon?

8. Illustrate from Livy's narrative the practical working of the Roman Constitution during the Second Punic War.

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, from 9.30 A.m. to 12.30.

SECTION V. Ancient History. (Tacitus.) 1. Translate into English

(1) Quanto violentior cetero mari Oceanus et truculentia caeli praestat Germania, tantum illa clades novitate et magnitudine excessit, hostilibus circum litoribus aut ita vasto et profundo, ut credatur novissimum ac sine terris mare. Pars navium haustae sunt, plures apud insulas longius sitas eiectae; milesque nullo illic hominum cultu fame absumptus, nisi quos corpora equorum eodem elisa toleraverant. Sola Germanici triremis Chaucorum terram adpulit; quem per omnes illos dies noctesque apud scopulos et prominentis oras, cum se tanti exitii reum clamitaret, vix cohibuere amici quo minus eodem mari oppeteret. Tandem relabente aestu et secundante vento claudae naves raro remigio aut intentis vestibus, et quaedam a validioribus tractae, revertere; quas raptim refectas misit ut scrutarentur insulas. Collecti ea cura plerique : multos Angrivarii nuper in fidem accepti redemptos ab interioribus reddidere ; quidam in Britanniam rapti et remissi a regulis. Ut quis ex longinquo revenerat, miracula narrabant, vim turbinum et inauditas volucres, monstra maris, ambiguas hominum et beluarum formas, visa sive ex metu credita.

(2) Orationem principis secuto patrum consulto primi Aedui senatorum in urbe ius adepti sunt. Datum id foederi antiquo, et quia soli Gallorum fraternitatis nomen cum populo Romano usurpant. Isdem diebus in numerum patriciorum

. adscivit Caesar vetustissimum quemque e senatu aut quibus clari parentes fuerant, paucis iam reliquis familiarum, quas Romulus maiorum et L. Brutus minorum gentium appellaverant, exhaustis etiam quas dictator Caesar lege Cassia et princeps Augustus lege Saenia sublegere ; laetaque haec in rem publicam munia multo gaudio censoris inibantur. Famosos probris quonam modo senatu depelleret anxius, mitem et recens repertam quam ex severitate prisca rationem adhibuit, monendo secum quisque de se consultaret peteretque ius exuendi ordinis : facilem eius rei veniam. Et motos senatu excusatosque simul propositurum, ut iudicium censorum ac pudor sponte cedentium permixti ignominiam mollirent. Ob ea Vipsanius consul rettulit patrem senatus appellandum esse Claudium : quippe promiscuum patris patriae cognomentum; nova in rem publicam merita non usitatis vocabulis honoranda : sed ipse cohibuit consulem ut nimium adsentantem. 2. Translate and explain the following passages :

(1) Relatum deinde de moderanda Papia Poppaea, quam senior Augustus post Iulias rogationes incitandis caelibum poenis et augendo aerario sanxerat.

(2) Accedere ipsius caerimoniae difficultates, quae consulto vitarentur, et quando exiret e iure patrio qui id tlaminium apisceretur, quaeque in manum flaminis conveniret.

(3) Senatus praescripserat, duas quisque faenoris partes in agris per Italiam collocaret. Sed creditores in solidum appellabant, nec decorum appellatis minuere fidem.

(4) Pomoerium urbis auxit Caesar more prisco, quo iis, qui protulere imperium, etiam terminos urbis propagare datur.

(5) Nihil adversum hoc Neroni provisum ; etiam fortes viros subitis terreri; nedum ille scenicus arma contra cieret.

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