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3. Notices in the Annals of Tacitus concerning the early history of Rome.

4. The political views and religious opinions of Tacitus, so far as they can be gathered from the Annals.

5. Contrast the characters of Tiberius and Claudius.

6. How far were the forms of the Republic preserved under the early Emperors ?

7. The progress of the Roman arms in Britain under Claudius and Nero.

TUESDAY, JUNE 5, from 9.30 A.M. to 12.30.

SECTION V. Ancient History.

(CAESAR, de Bello Gallico and de Bello Civili.) 1. Translate :

(1) Namque ipsorum naves ad hunc modum factae armataeque erant: carinae aliquanto planiores quam nostrarum navium, quo facilius vada ac decessum aestus excipere possent; prorae admodum erectae atque item puppes ad magnitudinem fluctuum tempestatumque accommodatae; naves totae factae ex robore ad quamvis vim et contumeliam perferendam ; transtra pedalibus in altitudinem trabibus confixa clavis ferreis digiti pollicis crassitudine ; ancorae pro funibus ferreis catenis revinctae : pelles pro velis alutaeque tenuiter confectae, sive propter lini inopiam atque eius usus inscientiam, sive eo, quod est magis verisimile, quod tantas tempestates Oceani tantosque impetus ventorum sustineri ac tanta onera navium regi velis non satis commode posse arbitrabantur. Cum his navibus nostrae classi eiusmodi congressus erat, ut una celeritate et pulsu remorum praestaret, reliqua pro loci natura pro vi tempestatum illis essent aptiora et accommodatiora. Neque enim his nostrae rostro nocere poterant (tanta in iis erat firmitudo), neque propter altitudinem facile telum adiciebatur, et eadem de causa minus commode copulis continebantur.

(2) His rebus confectis, Caesar, ut reliquum tempus a labore intermitteretur, milites in proxima municipia deducit : ipse ad urbem proficiscitur. Coacto senatu, iniurias inimicorum commemorat, docet, se nullum extraordinarium honorem adpetisse, sed exspectato legitimo tempore consulatus, eo fuisse contentum, quod omnibus civibus pateret: latum ab decem tribunis plebis, contra dicentibus inimicis, Catone vero acerrime repugnante, et, pristina consuetudine, dicendi mora dies extrahente, ut sui ratio absentis haberetur, ipso consule Pompeio : qui si improbasset, cur ferri passus esset ? sin probasset, cur se uti populi beneficio prohibuisset? Patientiam proponit. suam, quum de exercitibus dimittendis ultro postulavisset ; in quo iacturam dignitatis atque honoris ipse facturus esset. Acerbitatem inimicorum docet, qui, quod ab altero postularent, in se recusarent atque omnia permisceri mallent, quam imperium exercitusque dimittere. Iniuriam in eripiendis legionibus praedicat, crudelitatem et insolentiam in circumscribendis tribunis plebis ; conditiones a se latas, et expetita colloquia et denegata, commemorat. 2. Translate and explain the following passages :

(1) Pollicitum, se in cohortis praetoriae loco decimam legionem habiturum, nunc ad equum rescribere.

(2) In Italiam . . . est profectus, ut municipia et colonias adpellaret, quibus M. Antonii, quaestoris sui, commendaret sacerdotii petitionem.

(3) Simul infamia duarum legionum permotus, quas ab itinere Asiae Syriae que ad suam potentiam dominatum que converterat, rem ad arma deduci studebat.

(4) Corfiniensem ignominiam, an Italiae fugam, an Hispaniarum deditionem, an Africi belli praeiudicia sequimini ?

3. What were the principal difficulties against which the Gauls had to contend in their struggle with Cæsar?

4. Describe the situation of Aduatuca, Bibracte, Corduba, Utica, Uxellodunum.

What mention is made of these places by Cæsar? 5. Describe the career of Vercingetorix.

6. Give a narrative of the occurrences which took place to the east of the Adriatic between Cæsar's landing in Epirus and the battle of Pharsalus.

7. What important events occurred at Rome during the Civil War ?

8. Explain the following words and phrases :-Conventus, litem aestimare, pagus, sanctius aerarium, societates, tabulae

novae.

MONDAY, JUNE 4, from 2.30 to 5.30 P.M.
SECTION VI. Modern History.

I.

[You are requested to attempt six at least of these questions.]

1. Illustrate the national character of the English Church previous to the eleventh century.

2. Account for, and exhibit by special instances, the faultiness of the administration under the later native kings.

3. What were the extent and character of the changes effected in the material and social condition of the people generally in the reign of William the Conqueror ?

4. Trace the development of the idea of chivalry in England, and point out any special causes which affected its growth in this country.

5. Explain the attitude of the Pope and of the leading English ecclesiastics towards Henry II during the progress of the Becket controversy.

6. What were the causes of the fall of the party of Simon de Montfort ; how far did the rising of the Barons produce any abiding effects ?

7. Distinguish between and examine the justice of the dealings of Edward I with the Scots at different epochs of

his reign.

8. Give an account of the part taken by John of Gaunt in the principal events of his time, and show the aim which his attitude indicates.

9. Examine the relations between the Crown and the Church during the reigns of the first two Lancastrian kings.

10. Define the policy pursued by William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, and state what you know of the causes of his fall.

TUESDAY, JUNE 5, from 9.30 A.m. to 12.30.
SECTION VI. Modern History.

II. [You are requested to attempt six at least of these questions.]

1. What were the causes which affected the development of the English kingship during the tenth century ?

2. Describe the condition of the English as regards intellectual culture during the early part of the eleventh century.

3. Give an outline of the rise, the importance and the decay of territorial jurisdiction.

4. Examine the constitutional importance of the reign of Henry I.

5. Give a short account of the organisation and sphere of the Exchequer during the twelfth century.

6. Sketch the history of the liberties of the English church, confirmed by Art. I of the Great Charter previous to that confirmation.

7. How do you account for the difference between the composition of Parliament, as defined by the Great Charter and as settled by Edward I?

8. On what foundation rested the claims of the Crown to the various customs duties, and what were the principal epochs in the acquisition of control over this branch of taxation by the nation ?

9. Define the meaning of the phrase "the estates of the realm,' and consider any attempts made in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to enlarge or restrict the significance of the term.

10. State the privileges of Parliament asserted at the close of the fifteenth century : consider the principal cases of privilege of the House of Commons which occurred during the Lancastrian reigns, and the condition of the Law with reference to the subject.

TUESDAY, JUNE 5, from 2.30 to 5.30 P.M.

SECTION VI. Modern History. [You are requested to attempt six at least of these questions.]

III. 1. What authorities did Bacon use for the composition of his History of Henry VII? What seems to have been his designs in writing it?

2. Note the chief cases in which Bacon criticises Henry's conduct, and show how far the historian's judgment may be supported.

3. Explain and discuss the following passages :

(1) And as the Chancery had the Pretorian power for equity, so the Star Chamber had the Censorian power for offence under the degree of capital.

(2) But Poynings, the better to make compensation of the meagreness of his service in the wars by acts of peace, called a parliament, where was made that memorable act, which at this day is called Poyning's Law.

(3) He was not afraid of an able man, as Louis XI was, but contrariwise, he was served by the ablest men that were to be found.

4. How does Bacon account for the failure of the attempts of Perkin?

5. Describe the home-policy of Wolsey and notice his attitude towards the partisans of the New Learning.

6. What views of Wolsey's personal character may be gathered from Cavendish's evidence ?

7. What were the chief relations between England and Scotland during the reign of Henry VIII? 8. Illustrate and explain the following passages :

(1) Wolsey. Sir, I most humbly beseech your highness to declarė me before all this audience whether I have been the chief inventor or first mover of this matter [the Divorce] with your majesty, for I am greatly suspected of all men herein.

King. My lord Cardinal, I can well excuse you herein. Marry, ye have been rather against me in attempting or setting forth hereof.

(2) Bellay. La fantaisie de ces Seigneurs est, que lui [le Cardinal] mort ou ruiné, ils déferront incontinent icy l'Estat de l'Eglise et prendront leurs biens. (3) I lost myne honor, my treasure was me beraft ...

Yet notwithstanding my corage was so hault ..
I therefore entendyd to trie my frends all,
To forrayn potentates wrott my letters playn,

Desyring their ayd, to restore me to favor again. 9. Give an account of the system of Church law, Church courts, and Church jurisdiction in the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth.

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