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2. Describe the structure, function, and life history of the yeast cell or of mucor.
3. What is chlorophyll? Where is it found and what do you know with regard to its functions?
4. Explain the terms spore, zygospore, carpospore, oospore, sporocarp, bulb, corm, rhizome, perianth, sieve-tubes, cambium layer.
5. What is meant by an 'alternation of generation' in the life history of a plant? Illustrate your answer by reference to the life history of a fern or a moss.
6. Draw out a classification of the thallophyta and vascular cryptogams, with a short description of any of the groups you have studied.
7. Write a description of the anthers of a phanerogamous plant, and of the pollen grains found in their interior, with an account of the fertilisation and early growth of the ovule.
8. To what structures in the cryptogams do the following structures in the phanerogams correspond—anther, pollen grain, pollen tube, embryo sac, embryo cell, endosperm cells ?
9. What differences of structure can be seen in a transverse and longitudinal section of the stem of a fern and a bean plant?
10. Write a botanical description of the natural order malvacea.
SATURDAY, JUNE 9, from 9.30 to 11.30 A.M.
F. Logic and Political Economy.
(First Paper.) Logic. (Candidates are advised to attempt every question.) 1. Explain Definition and Division, and the faults to which each is liable.
2. Illustrate the chief divisions of Names.
3. What are Moods and Figures, and by what tests is their legitimacy tried ?
4. Give instances of two kinds of Reduction, and show the use of the process.
5. Define Opposition and Conversion, and illustrate the different kinds of each.
6. The Method of Agreement is suited to Observation, that of Difference to Experiment. Discuss this view.
7. Explain and illustrate a classification of Fallacies.
SATURDAY, JUNE 9, from 2.30 to 4.30 P.M.
F. Logic and Political Economy.
(Second Paper.) Political Economy.
(Candidates are advised to attempt every question.)
1. Explain the operation of the causes which affect the value of the precious metals.
2. What causes tend to equalise wages, and what to make them unequal ?
3. 'Some crops always give rent, others sometimes.' Explain this view. How would Ricardo deal with it?
4. Under what conditions does the rate of interest
appear from history to fall, and how do you explain the facts ?
5. Why does Market Price tend to coincide with Natural Price, and what may retard or prevent this tendency?
6. “The Division of Labour is limited by the extent of the Market.' Illustrate this statement.
7. Is labour or corn or gold the best Standard of Value and why?
THE SECOND EXAMINATION.
MONDAY, JUNE 4, from 2.30 to 5.30 P.M.
SECTION 1. English.
1. Classify the Indo-European languages: show where English stands in the Teutonic group, and illustrate by examples the main difference between the English consonants and those of any kindred language you happen to know.
2. To what extent and in what way had Roman civilization and the Latin language influenced the manners of the ancestors of the English before they settled in Britain ?
3. State your opinion as to the treatment of the Britons by the English invaders, and account for the fact that there are so few Celtic words in English.
4. Describe the influence of Latin on English from the advent of St. Augustine to the Norman Conquest, and trace the Scandinavian element in the language.
5. Estimate the influence of French on the grammar and vocabulary of the English language from the Norman Conquest to the present day.
6. Which were the principal Anglo-Saxon dialects ? Estimate their relative importance, and describe the chief works extant in each.
7. Enumerate the most important monuments written in English runes. When, and by what sort of writing, were the runes replaced ?
8. When did Cornwall become wholly English in speech, and how did English establish itself in the Lowlands of Scotland beyond the Forth?
9. State what you know as to the origin and history of the words—always, as, else, its, once, seldom.
10. Give the derivation of the following words, or some of their cognate forms in other languages -bench, hogshead, bustings, match, mop, scent, sheriff, speak, wear, word, work, yule.
11. What facilities does modern English possess for making new words of English origin? Mention instances of new words in the language which were not known in the time of Queen Elizabeth.
12. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages arising from the fact that English derives its words from various languages as contrasted with Modern High German, the vocabulary of which is comparatively homogeneous.
TUESDAY, JUNE 5, from 9.30 A.M. to 12.30.
SECTION I. English.
[Nine questions only are to be attempted.] 1. From whom did Chaucer borrow the method of his Canterbury Tales ? In what essential points does he differ from his model? What do we learn from the Prologue of Chaucer's opinions on the chief political and religious movements of his time?
2. Give, in your own words, a clear and graphic description of any three of the following—a Franklin, a Frere, a Prioresse, a Sompnour, a Pardoner, a Manciple. State the exact social position of each of these. What were the ordres foure'?
3. How does the Knightes Tale resemble and differ from its Italian model ? Give a general description of the arrangements for a tournament in the 14th century with quotations from Chaucer's poem.
4. Sketch the story and plan of William's Vision concerning Piers the Plowman. Enumerate the Seven Deadly Sins as named in this poem, adding any hints as to their personal appearance wbich the poet gives us.
5. Give an account of one of the following:
(1) The noun and adjective inflexions used by Chaucer. (2) The verb inflexions used by Chaucer.
In either case point out the deviations from your Chaucerian grammar which occur in the language of Piers the Plowman. Why should we expect such deviations ?
6. Explain very briefly the chief rules of alliterative metre, and show the metre of the following passages. In the case of the second give your reasons for the scansion you adopt wherever it is irregular :(1) Lahoreres bat haue no lande to lyue on but her handes,
Deyned nouzt to dyne a-day nyzt-olde wortes.
Azeines catones conseille comseth he iangle. (2) Swelleth the brest of Arcyte, and the sore
Encresceth at his herte more and more.
The pypes of his lounges gan to swelle,
Is schent with venym and corupcioun. 7. Paraphrase into simple modern English prose the passages in question 6, adding such notes on the grammatical and other difficulties as may seem to you necessary. In what parts of the poems do the passages occur ?
8. Explain fully the meanings and allusions of the following, stating the context where you can :
(1) In termes had he caas and domes alle.
And rage he couthe and pleyen as a whelpe,