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fishing season. Many family crosses about ber, englynion “Gwagedd y byd yn angau" this time. Writing some poetical attempts. (The vanity of the world in death). As The wet corn harvest ever memorable. far as I can recollect I began my poetical 1816.

career on an extended scale in October this Step-brother bed-ridden throughout, 1 year and brought

out in succession, -Oct

ober, "Cân y greadigaeth,” — November, mostly attending him. Unkindness in neighbours painful. Increasing pleasure “Awdl i'r Gwynt." Early in the beginning

Englyn“Gwagedd y byd,”—December, in reading and poetry. A new school by a certain Edward Lewis, at Llangybi; my

of the ensuing year visited Dewi Wyn with

the above as introduction, the first song visit to see it with an old fellow-scholar

principally. under William Owen, viz. William Davies, Garddu Bach, subsequently W. R. Davies,

1820. Baptist minister, Dowlais; now dead.

Very far gone in the poetic mania; seeing 1817.

Dewi Wyn now and then; working at home; From Fellowship to Vulgar Fractions by reading and studying much in the fields

and at end of 1817. In May this year, removed to

my work. Revival abating. Receiv

ed Seren Gomer from brother; brother at my birthplace and walks of my infancy. John Parry's school in Pwllheli the summer A regular workman now at home. Poetry of this year—to qualify him for keeping assuming a decided form. My first conso

school at Llangybi, which I think he had nantial song much admired by connoisseurs. Begin learning English; self taught; study this year, composed my song to the Sabbath

commenced a little before. September 20th hard on grammar; translate laboriously; breakers at Carn Bentyrch; also my Ode read higher books. Attended school under

on the 24 metres. Edward Davies, minister of the Independents at Capel Helig. He greatly patronis

1821. ed me, and we were extremely fond of each Mother died! Removed to Kybi Village, other. I worked Arithmetic from Fellow

in May: Entered Tydweiliog School in ship to Multiplications of Decimals here up June; about Pwllheli Association time reto latter end of 1817, and perhaps beginning turned home to keep school for a short time of 1818. The rest I made self-taught. for brother, whose illness had returned Brother carried on a bier to Cefn, in April malignantly; he recovered a little, I had or May this year. .

some little more time at Tydweiliog. See 1818.

Seren Gomer; visited John Thomas, Chwilog, I working. Brother getting better. My spring of this year, and Robt. ap Gwilym delight increasing in English books and Ddu. My Cywydd to the Plas Du stallion Welsh poetry. Revival.

5th June; “Myfyrdod ar oes Dyn(Thoughts

on human life), two englynion suggested 1819.

by the death of mother. Cywydd “Yr Hen The revival at its height this year. The Wr" (The Old Man) this year. Cywydd "I memorable Carnarvon Association. Rev. ofyn bwyall” (To ask for an axe), NovJohn Elias's Zorobabel Sermon. Getting ember 23rd, and the English elegy for books from Wm. Robt. Hughes. October mother in April 29th. this year composed my “Cân y Greadigaeth”

1822. (Song of Creation), the first poetical piece I ventured to shew to people, except some Brother died; open school on my own few lines on the breaking up of the school account at Llangybi. Bought my brother's at Llangybi, in the year 1815. Then I effects of uncle, who claimed all in respect knew only rhyme; now I had pretty well of debt. Take Dysgedydd; visited Dewi mastered the cynghanedd gaeth (alliter- Wyn, on Easter Monday. April 23rd, — ative metre), as one Englyn appended to "Cywydd y Cenin" (Poem to leeks); marriage the above song testifies. My remaining ode to Sion Cawrdaf, April 8th; also Friwork up to December this year was “Awdi day, October 31st, was written “Myfyrdod i'r Gwynt" (Ode to the Wind); in Novem ym mysg y Beddau” (Thoughts among the

Graves). I addressed the literary societies part of my Ode to him at Pentyrch. Someof Dolbenmaen and Llanystumdwy, meeting time in spring or earlier removed lodgings together at Criccieth, November 10th. Quit to uncle Thomas'. Proceeding with my Society.

Ode “Dinistr Jerusalem.” Father died! in 1823.

Mayor June. In September gained the Removed lodgings to Cefn. July 10th, ad

CHAIR PRIZE at the Powys Eisteddfod.

Delivered £5 to Mr. Wm. Jones, Druggist, dressed Cymrodorion of Llangybi. April,

to be deposited in the Savings Bank at to P. y Noel. June, to Liverpool, Manchester, and Stalybridge; back in July; try

Pwllheli, September 20th. again for school, very poor result. Father

1825. off as journeyman, towards end of year returns in bad health; parish find him lodg

March this year, went to keep school at ings. Beginning Ode on “Dinistr Jerusalem” Llanarmon. Lodging at Tynrhos for one (Destruction of Jerusalem), or at least quarter, then to John Williams, Llanarmon, deciding on beginning. Ode to “Liberty," in June. In May to Clynog with Robt. Ode to “Content,” &c. August, Englynion

Griffith, Tynrhos, and William Jones, tailor. “Ar ben Carn Bentyrch” (Seren and Dysg

24th February, applied for situation as edydd); address to Welsh Society of Lian- attorney's clerk at Pwllheli, but did not ystumdwy, read it at a meeting there, where Morris Williams was a fellow-member, and

1826. made a speech October 6th September 25th, composed Awdl “Gwerth Rhyddid"

At Llanarmon; recollect nothing partic(Ode to Liberty). October 20th, addressed

ular this year, except translating Dewi Welsh Literary Society of Dolgellau.

Wyn's "Elusengarwch” (Ode to Charity) to

English, for J. Vaughan, Esq., at Dewi's 1824.

earnest request, and to his extreme satisJanuary 6th, met Gwilym Owen, and read faction as he expressed himself. .

sud

THE IMMOVEABLE COVENANT.

exaggerate the influence of the Hebrew idea of a covenant,-the covenant of peace between God and man,-upon the history of the world. During the period of the Protestant Reformation it was transformed into many political theories, it found expression in many mighty movements. In Wales, it became the chief idea of the peasants during the second half of the eightoenth century. It raised them from abject superstition, from a state of üringing servility; it made them withstand their landowner and spiritual guide, once so loved and feared, for conscience' sake. It is a grand idea, desert-born, causing endless cycles of progress in human history,-absolutism, the rise of the spirit of freedom, rebellion, and absolutism again.

The following poem was composed by a Welsh labourer, Huw Derfel, while crossing the Berwyn from Llangynog to Llandderfel. The silence and the grandeur of those mountains,-though so bleak and lonely,--can never be forgotten by those who have made the long mountain journey in solitude. It was a scene well calculated to bring into the peasant bard's mind the favourite verse of his people,-"For the mountains shall depart and the hills be removed, but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall my covenant of peace be removed, saith the Lord that hath mercy on thee."

The poem was translated by D. L. Pughe, a minister who died young. I have often heard it repeated from beginning to end by farm servants.

VE cloud piercing mountains so mighty,

Whose age is the age of the sky;
No cold blasts of winter affright ye,

Nor heats of the summer defy;
You've witnessed the world's generations

Succeeding like waves on the sea ;
The deluge you saw, when doomed nations

In vain to your summits would flee.
You challenge the pyramids lasting

That rolling millenniums survive ;
Fierce whirlwinds, and thunderbolts blasting,

And oceans with tempests alive!

But lo! there's a day fast approaching

Which shall your foundations reveal,--
The powers of heaven will be shaking,

And earth like a drunkard shall reel!
Proud Aran, and Snowdon so towering,

Ye now will be skipping like lambs ;
The Alps will, by force overpowering

Propelled, be disporting like rams !
The breath of Jehovah will hurl you-

Aloft in the air you shall leap :
Your crash, like his thunders who'll whirl you,

Shall blend with the roars of the deep.

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SINCE the results of the linguistic settlements in this part of Wales, such as w census of 1891 were published, the Prestatyn (=préosta tún, priests' town), question of the relation between the Welsh Mostyn, and others of similar termination, and English populations of Wales has occu- have later on become thoroughly Cymricpied a prominent place in public attention. ised; but there can be little doubt that in În view of the interest thus created, it may the portions of Flint and Denbigh east of not be out of place to attempt some account, Offa's Dyke, English has continued to be as far as this is possible within the narrow spoken since the time of the Anglian conlimits of a magazine article, of the origin quest. Both the place-names and the dialect and growth of the English-speaking popu- of these districts seem to bear testimony to lation of Wales. In order to do so, it is this fact; the latter is distinctly Mercian or necessary to go back to very ancient times. Midland in character, and shows little trace The first English-speaking districts in what of that Celtic influence which is noticeable is now called Wales must have been in in the westerly districts of Shropshire and Flint and Denbigh. Some early Saxon in English Maelor. Later on, (probably

ch this year.ing at Tams, Llana Kobt.

Graves). I addressed the literary societies part of my Ode to him at Pentyrch. Someof Dolbenmaen and Llanystumdwy, meeting time in spring or earlier removed lodgings together at Criccieth, November 10th. Quit to uncle Thomas. Proceeding with my Society.

Ode “Dinistr Jerusalem.” Father died! in 1823.

May or June. In September gained the Removed lodgings to Cefn. July 10th, ad

CHAIR PRIZE at the Powys Eisteddfod. dressed Cymrodorion of Llangybi. April,

Delivered £5 to Mr. Wm. Jones, Druggist, to P. y Moel. June, to Liverpool, Man

to be deposited in the Savings Bank at chester, and Stalybridge; back in July; try

Pwllheli, September 20th. again for school, very poor result. Father

1825. off as journeyman, towards end of year returns in bad health; parish find him lodg

March this year, went to keep school at ings. Beginning Ode on “Dinistr Jerusalem” Llanarmon. Lodging at Tynrhos for one (Destruction of Jerusalem), or at least

quarter, then to John Williams, Llanarmon, deciding on beginning. Ode to “Liberty,"

in June. In May to Clynog with Robt. Ode to "Content,” &c. August, Englynion

Griffith, Tynrhos, and William Jones, tailor. “Ar ben Carn Bentyrch” (Seren and Dysg

24th February, applied for situation as edydd); address to Welsh Society of Llan

attorney's clerk at Pwllheli, but did not ystumdwy, read it at a meeting there, where succeed. Morris Williams was a fellow-member, and

1826. made a speech October 6th. September 25th, composed Awdl “Gwerth Rhyddid"

At Llanarmon; recollect nothing partic(Ode to Liberty). October 20th, addressed

ular this year, except translating Dewi Welsh Literary Society of Dolgellau.

Wyn's "Elusengarwch(Ode to Charity) to

English, for J. Vaughan, Esq., at Dewi's 1824.

earnest request, and to his extreme satisJanuary 6th, met Gwilym Owen, and read faction as he expressed himself. .

THE IMMOVEABLE COVENANT.

It is almost impossible to exaggerate the influence of the Hebrew idea of a covenant,-the covenant of peace between God and man,-upon the history of the world. During the period of the Protestant Reformation it was transformed into many political theories, it found expression in many mighty movements. In Wales, it became the chief idea of the peasants during the second half of the eighteenth century. It raised them from abject superstition, from a state of üringing servility; it made them withstand their landowner and spiritual guide, once so loved and feared, for conscience' sake. It is a grand idea, desert-born, causing endless cycles of progress in human history,--absolutism, the rise of the spirit of freedom, rebellion, and absolutism again. The following poem was composed by a Welsh labourer, Huw Derfel, while crossing the Berwyn from Llangynog to

oh so bleak and lonely,-can never, be forgotten by those who have made the long mountain journey in solitude. It was a scene well calculated to bring into the peasant bard's mind the favourite verse of his people,-"For the mountains shall depart and the hills be removed, but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall my covenant of peace be removed, saith the Lord that hath mercy on thee."

The poem was translated by D. L. Pughe, a minister who died young. I have often heard it repeated from beginning to end by farm servants.

VE cloud piercing mountains so mighty,

- Whose age is the age of the sky; No cold blasts of winter affright ye,

Nor heats of the summer defy;
You've witnessed the world's generations

Succeeding like waves on the sea ;
The deluge you saw, when doomed nations

In vain to your summits would flee.
You challenge the pyramids lasting

That rolling millenniums survive;
Fierce whirlwinds, and thunderbolts blasting,

And oceans with tempests alive!

But lo! there's a day fast approaching

Which shall your foundations reveal,-
The powers of heaven will be shaking,

And earth like a drunkard shall reel !
Proud Aran, and Snowdon so towering,

Ye now will be skipping like lambs ;
The Alps will, by force overpowering

Propelled, be disporting like rams !
The breath of Jehovah will hurl you-

Aloft in the air you shall leap :
Your crash, like his thunders who'll whirl you,

Shall blend with the roars of the deep.

[blocks in formation]

THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING POPULATION OF WALES.

SINCE
INCE the results of the linguistic settlements in this part of Wales, such as

census of 1891 were published, the Prestatyn (=préosta tún, priests' town), question of the relation between the Welsh Mostyn, and others of similar termination, and English populations of Wales has occu have later on become thoroughly Cymricpied a prominent place in public attention. ised; but there can be little doubt that in În view of the interest thus created, it may the portions of Flint and Denbigh east of not be out of place to attempt some account, Offa's Dyke, English has continued to be as far as this is possible within the narrow spoken since the time of the Anglian conlimits of a magazine article, of the origin quest. Both the place-names and the dialect and growth of the English-speaking popu of these districts seem to bear testimony to lation of Wales. In order to do so, it is this fact; the latter is distinctly Mercian or necessary to go back to very ancient times. Midland in character, and shows little trace The first English-speaking districts in what of that Celtic influence which is noticeable is now called Wales must have been in in the westerly districts of Shropshire and Flint and Denbigh. Some early Saxon in English Maelor. Later on, (probably

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