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removed, boundaries invaded, and the man guilty before the Lord, arising from markets in consequence abound with your own just labours, not those of other merchandise, the courts of justice with law

Hear what Solomon

says, suits, and the senate with complaints. “ Honour the Lord from your just labours." Concerning such things we read in Isaiah, What shall they say who have seized upon

“ Woe unto them that join house to other men's possessions, and exercised house, that lay field to field, till there be charity ? “O Lord ! in thy name we have no place, that they be placed alone in the done charitable deeds, we have fed the midst of the earth.”

poor, clothed the naked, and hospitably If, therefore, the prophet inveighs so received the stranger;" to whom the Lord much against those who proceed to the will answer,—“Ye speak of what ye have boundaries, what would he say to those given away, but speak not of the rapine ye who go far beyond them? From these have committed; ye relate concerning and other causes, the true colour of religion those ye have fed, and remember not those was so converted into the dye of falsehood, ye have killed.” that manners internally black assumed a I have judged it proper to insert in this fair exterior,

place an instance of an answer which “ Reverse of white is now what once was white

Richard, king of the English, made to enough."

Fulke, a good and holy man, by whom

God in these our days has wrought many So that the scripture seems to be fulfilled signs in the kingdom of France. This concerning these men,—“Beware of false man had, among other things, said to the prophets, who come to you in sheep's king,—“You have three daughters, namely, clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous Pride, Luxury, and Avarice; and as long wolves. But I am inclined to think this as they shall remain with you, you can avidity does not proceed from any bad never expect to be in favour with God.” intention. For the monks of this order, To which the king, after a short pause, although themselves most abstemious, replied,—“I have already given away incessantly exercise, more than any others, those daughters in marriage, Pride to the the acts of charity and beneficence towards Templars, Luxury to the Black Monks, the poor and strangers; and because they

and because they and Avarice to the White.” do not live as others upon fixed incomes, It is a remarkable circumstance, or but depend only on their labour and rather a miracle, concerning Llanthoni, forethought for subsistence, they are that, although it is on every side suranxious to obtain lands, farms, and rounded by lofty mountains, not stony or pastures which may enable them to rocky, but of a soft nature, and covered perform these acts of hospitality. How with grass, Parian stones are frequently ever, to repress and remove from this found there, and are called free-stones, sacred order the detestable stigma of from the facility with which they admit of ambition, I wish they would sometimes being cut and polished; and with these the call to mind what is written in Ecclesias- church is beautifully built. It is also ticus,-"Whoso bringeth an offering of the wonderful that when, after a diligent goods of the poor, doth as one that killeth search, all the stones have been removed the son before his father's eyes ;” and also from the mountains, and no more can be the sentiment of Gregory,—“A good use found, upon another search, a few days does not justify things badly acquired ; afterwards, they reappear in greater and also that of Ambrose, –“ He who quantities to those who seek them. wrongfully receives, that he may well dis With respect to the two Orders, the pense, is rather burthened than assisted.” Cluniac and the Cistercian, this may be Such men seem to say with the Apostle, – relied upon ; although the latter are "Let us do evil that good may come.” For possessed of fine buildings, with ample it is written,-“Mercy ought to be of such revenues and estates, they will soon be a nature as may be received, not rejected, reduced to poverty and destruction. To which may purge away sins, not make a the former, on the contrary, you would

allot a barren desert and a solitary wood; laudable charity not only gave away their yet in a few years you will find them in flocks and herds, but resigned to the poor possession of sumptuous churches and one of the two dishes with which they houses, and encircled with an extensive were always contented. But in these our property. The difference of manners, as it days, in order to remove this stain, it is appears to me, causes this contrast. For ordained by the Cistercians,—“That in as without meaning offence to either party future neither farms nor pastures shall be I shall speak the truth, the one feels purchased; and that they shall be satisfied the benefits of sobriety, parsimony, and with those alone which have been freely prudence, whilst the other suffers from the and unconditionally bestowed upon them.” bad effects of gluttony and intemperance; This Order, therefore, being satistied more the one, like bees, collect their stores into a than any other with humble mediocrity, heap, and unaniinously agree in the and, if not wholly, yet in a great degree disposal of one well-regulated purse; the checking their ambition ; and though others pillage and divert to improper uses placed in a worldly situation, yet avoiding, the largesses which have been collected by as much as possible, its contagion; neither divine assistance, and by the bounties of notorious for gluttony or drunkenness, for the faithful, and whilst each individual luxury or lust; is fearful and ashamed of consults solely his own interest, the welfare incurring public scandal, as will be more of the community suffers; since, as Sallust fully explained in the book we mean, by observes, “ Small things increase by the grace of God, to write concerning the concord, and the greatest are wasted by ecclesiastical Orders. discord.” Besides, sooner than lessen the In these temperate regions I have number of one of the thirteen or fourteen obtained, according to the usual expression, dishes which they claim by right of a place of dignity, but no great omen of custom, or even in a time of scarcity or future pomp or riches; and possessing a famine recede in the smallest degree from small residence near the castle of Brychtheir accustomed good fare, they would einiog, well adapted to literary pursuits, suffer the richest lands and the best and to the contemplation of eternity, I buildings of the monastery to become a envy not the riches of Cresus; happy and prey to usury, and the numerous poor to contented with that mediocrity which I perish before their gates.

prize far beyond all the perishable and The first of these Orders, at a time when transitory things of this world. But let us there was a deficiency in grain, with a return to our subject.

[blocks in formation]

QUARRYING AT BETHESDA.

TT would be very interesting work to top of the mountain almost to the lowest 1 trace the history of the Penrhyn Slate parts of the quarry, about two or three Quarries during the last 150 years, and to yards wide, being a dyke of burnt ashes, consider the improvements introduced, and being, like the other dykes, of green from time to time, in the methods of stone that shines brilliantly with abundworking, and in the relations between ance of quartz of the greatest transparency master and man. Nor would it be un- and most curious forms, the result of profitable, from many points of view, to volcanic eruptions, filling up cracks caused inquire into the causes and the results of by contraction in the different formations. the great strike of 1864, and of the still From the top of the quarry to the more important strike of 1874, with its bottom there would be a perpendicular vast consequences to the industrial, social, drop of about 935 feet. It is not, however, political, and religious life of the quarry- as one drop that we find it. One Mr. man. All this, however, I must pass by, Greenfield, appointed manager of the and confine my remarks to the quarryman quarry about the year 1799, seeing the himself and his work.

blocks loosened from the rock breaking Before we can form an approximately into pieces, and thus causing much loss, correct idea of what the quarryman's work began to work the rock into galleries is, we must watch him working in what, averaging 55 feet deep and 37 feet broad. in technical terms, are called y twll and The quarry has thus the appearance of a y lan,-terms which we shall presently flight of stairs on a very large scale. Of explain.

these galleries there are at present about The quarry itself is a vast excavation 34, each called by a particular name, such made into the very heart of the mountain, as Ponc Twrch, Gwaelod Uchaf, Workin which at present about 3,000 men are house, Jolly Fawr, &c. The number of working. The excavation is made in three workmen placed on each of these galleries directions,—(1) towards the south, this corresponds to its length, the nature of the side being called the left side; (2) towards rock, and other matters; and by a man the west, this side being called the right working yn y twll is meant a man working and meeting the other at right angles ; (3) on an apportioned part of the rock in one down towards the heart of the earth. We of these galleries. therefore see before us in all directions The term quarryman is a general name nothing but bare rocks, presenting, never for more than one class of workmen; and theless,“ to the view a variety of nothing can better help us to form a fair picturesque and magnificent scenery, richly idea of the full life of each day in a quarry deserving the inspection of the artist” than explaining the part of the work done The number of different kinds of rock by each class. and their collocations destroy monotony. First, then, we name the bad-rock-men. There is the hard (or lower) blue, the hard Of these, three partners, as a rule, form red with its bright colour, the soft (or old) what is called a crew. They work in bad blue, the striped red, the soit grey bastard rock, that is, rock from which no slates and the hard grey bastard, resounding like can be worked. They take what is called an anvil under the workman's tools, the a bargain, i.e., a particular part of the silky vein of ruddy hue, and the green rock, averaging ten yards in width, with rock,—which is the highest formation of the entire depth of the gallery as height; the slate rocks,—a kind of gritty forma- and it is their duty to pull this down, to tion called red granite, and the hard carry it away in waggons, and cast it as granite separating the soft from the refuse over the dip. On the first day of bastard rocks; and particularly noticeable each month, a steward goes to each of is the “gwenithfaen du," running from the these galleries " to set” or make contracts

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with the crews; and after some disputing thing they must do is to bore a hole as and bickering, the one party asking for nearly as they can along the cleavage of more than he is likely to get, and the the rock, in which they put powder, and other offering less than he is ready to give, after the blasting, the outer part of the they at last come to an agreement some block has been partly separated from the what like the following, — the three mountain by a very narrow cleft. But it is partners are to work their bargain for 11d. only partly, for one side of it still pushes per ton, i.e., they are to receive 11d. for into the rock, and it must be separated on every ton of rock they clear away. Every this side also. This is often done by what waggon load, usually weighing about two is called pillaring, but oftener powder must tons, is weighed on a machine, and entered do duty here again. A hole is therefore in a book opposite the crew's number by bored from the outer surface of the block, the machiner. Sometimes, according to until it reaches the afore-mentioned cleft. the nature of the rock, the terms of agree. But how is this done? The men fasten a ment vary, as, for example, 10d. per ton square wooden board, each of the sides of and 3s. per square yard. This triumvirate which measures about four feet, by its must provide their own tools, powder, &c. corners by means of a rope, taking great

There are also the rubbishmen, whose care that the lengths of the rope from each duty it is to clear away all the rubbish corner be equal; they bring together the from the gallery before the bargains of the ends of these parts, and fasten them to quarrymen proper, at the rate of so much another rope which has been secured at per ton. Their minimum wages is about the top of the gallery. It is on this board 3s. 4d. per day, and many of them, that the men now work, the one sitting especially during short winter days or cosily in a corner turning the auger, and owing to wet weather, must work ex- taking care to hold it as nearly as possible ceedingly hard so as to be able to reach on the pillarage of the rock, the other this minimum.

striking with a hammer. The explosion of A crew of quarrymen, in the restricted the powder rammed into this hole generally sense of the term, is generally made up of throws down our block of rock. But three men and a journeyman. The latter suppose it fails to do so. The two men is usually a boy or a young man working now let down two ropes, go down along for so much fixed wages per month, the them to the block, wind the ropes round three partners alone to be responsible for their waists, and by ineans of crowbars it. Of these four, two work in y twll force the block down from beneath their (the gallery), and two in y lan (a work- feet, while they themselves hang by the shed), and before we can understand the ropes in mid-air like a spider by his web. whole process through which a piece of Now suppose our block to be a reprerock passes until it becomes a slate ready sentative one as to quality and shape. to be placed on a roof, we must carefully Let it be 4 feet 4 inches long, 4 feet 8 follow the work of each of these pairs of inches wide, and 3 feet thick. Before quarrymen.

touching the block, the skilful quarryAnd it is with the two working in the man asks himself,—What can be best gallery that we must begin. They have a got out of this block ? How am I to bargain, 55 feet deep and 27 feet wide, on make it yield me the greatest sum of which to work. At the beginning of the money? We will take for granted that month they contract to work on terms of the following is the course he decides upon. what is called poundage, which we shall First, then, he splits it right in the middle. presently explain. Now behold the two Then, with a suitable tool called gouge, he men climbing, by means of a rope, to a cuts, right in the middle, across one end of height say of 36 feet. There they stand the upper half of the block, a narrow, on a step of about 19 square feet, and shallow ditch running at right angles to begin to consider how they may best pull the previous cleft, or as nearly parallel as down from the rock the block on which possible to the pillarage of the rock. they stand. They agree that the first Running a somewhat sharp-pointed chisel

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