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Queen.” How far Elizabethan policy re teddfod. Although in the days of the later conciled Wales to the Anglican church in Stuarts, there were one or two scandalous the national form that such men as Bishop church appointinents, and although eduMorgan or Bishop Parry gave it, is a cation no longer flourished as in the days subject that is difficult to discuss in the before the troubles, yet in the main the pages of a non party periodical. This, Elizabethan tradition was preserved, and ħowever, I think, may be admitted. While Welshmen were ruled in church and state Roman Catholicism remained a certain by those who did their best to understand force in the country, and even gained a them and their needs. So long as the few aristocratic converts by its Jesuit Stuarts stood by the church, the national missionaries, the majority of the gentry con sentiment of Welsh politicians stood by formed and the peasantry followed their them, and Huw Morus exults with savage example. Catholic ideas, however, survived glee at the death of the Whig martyr the legal changes ; Puritanism, in spite of Algernon Sidney. Penry and Vicar Pritchard, took slight But 1688 introduced a keen division into hold of the country; and the Catholic Welsh politics. From the first a certain Anglicanism that finds expression in the party held to James II, and one of the poems of George Herbert,—himself a Welsh companions of the monarch's flight was the speaking Welshman,-formed the religion Lord of Powis whom England made an of educated Welshmen. They were Laudian, outlaw, and St. Germain's a duke. But as Huw Morus's poems show, in their Lord Powis held the Roman faith ; and the reverence for the fasts and feasts of their generality of the Welsh gentry, like their church, in their respect for the old Vicar poet Huw Morus, seemed prepared to whom the sacrilegious troopers ousted from accept the revolutionary settlement as the his pulpit, in their affection for the jovial best alternative in an evil choice, provided gaiety of the merry world which the cruel always the church was safe. For even in wave of Puritanism overwhelmed, and in their those days Welshmen hated Irishmen with religious veneration for the exiled Shepherd a deadly hatred ; and, if they were of the people. They lacked, however, the Catholics at heart, they would have no stern bitterness of the English royalists. Pope. For the subsequent hostility of
One of the earliest champions of religious Wales, the revolutionary government has toleration in the Restoration Parliament only itself to thank. The author of the was the exile cavalier lawyer ---after massacre of Glencoe was, unfortunately, wards Chief Justice,- Vaughan. Never the last man to appreciate nationalism. In theless they loathed the “red foxes” of the opinion of Lord Bute,* the abolition of Puritanism and the Puritan Revolution: the Court of the Marches which followed the and, apart from politics, they had fair revolution was a legislative attempt to reason for their loathing. The oppression obliterate any legal recognition of Welsh of the English evangelicalism, which warred nationalism. The design to Anglicise Wales on everything Welsh, struck a blow at through the church is attributed by so Welsh national development from which high an authority as Judge Johnes to the it has not yet recovered. Many, perhaps
monarch. We know also that the majority, of the old Welsh families only the indignant protests of Welsh were ruined by the terrible contiscations of nationalists, chief of whom was the told the Parliamentary Commissioners, and sank Briton, Price, who sat for Pembrokeshire, into the ranks of the farmers and peasantry; prevented the alienation of the crown lands education declined, and there came no more of Denbighshire to a foreign favourite, Herberts of Cherbury from the aristocracy whom he desired to set up, Welshmen said, of Wales; and the land lost its educated as a Dutch Prince of Wales. Still when clergy, for under the Commonwealth William died, and a high church Stuart Welshmen went not to Oxford. Wales again sat on the throne in the person of naturally welcomed the Restoration, which good Queen Anne, Welsh loyalty flowed brought with it the old worship, the old in its ancient channel. Welsh squires voted Court, and once more tolerated the Eis
Speech at the Rhyl Eisteddfod, 1892,
for Harley and St. John, and Welsh mobs Of the feeling entertained towards them huzzaed for High Church and Doctor by the Welsh the new Court soon received Sacheverell; and Huw Morus passed away an inkling. One of the heartiest of the before the glory had all departed from the old Welsh squires was Sir Charles Keniys, bard, or the crown from the Stuarts, or the of Cefn Mabli. He is said to have taught national character from the ancient church the Elector George, when on the Continent, of the Cymry.
to smoke pipes and drink beer. When the But with the accession of the House of Elector came over in pudding time, and the Hanover begins a black chapter in the moderate men and the trimmers “ looked history of Wales. The new rulers com big" at St. James', the Elector missed his menced to treat Wales both
stout Welsh friend. King George sent and "conquered,”—I quote the words of one of bade him come and smoke a pipe, but the their own lawyers, -- and a disaffected Welshman remained obdurate and absent. country. Their first acts, the appointment He would smoke with George, Elector of of the Socinian Hoadley,—who never set Hanover, not with George, King of foot in his diocese, and the demolition of England. Whatever benefit King George's Ludlow Castle, were a declaration of war good humour on this occasion may have on Welsh national sentiment. For such won him among the Welsh people was acts marked the final abnegation of the speedily removed by his brutal treatment Elizabethan policy, and the reversion to of the unhappy daughter of the house of the Anglicising traditions of Henry IV. Powis, who went to St. James' to beg her and Thomas Cromwell. For a generation husband's life. I am not now concerned Welshnien were utterly alien to the with the details of the '15, and must theregovernment of England, and a generation fore postpone to a future occasion the of Welsh noblemen and gentlemen never story of Lady Winifred Herbert, aftergraced the court of the electors, whose wards Countess of Nithsdale, who, with Whig royal chaplains drew the incomes of the aid of her family retainers, Mistress gees and livings they never saw. It is Evans and Mistress Morgan, saved her oppression that drives wise men mad, and husband from death, and afterwards went far more so hunting squires. The Welsh forth from her native land to live and die squires of the eighteenth century could with him in exile. show among their ranks no more such
It may be that, for the edification of the polished and educated cavaliers and Jacobite miners of Rhos, or perchance to scholars as the Vaughans and Herberts of effect the conversion of the stout old the century before; but hard, narrow, and Jacobite farmer of Pen Graig Fargoed, in fierce as they were, they had at least a Gelligaer, Glamorganshire, who, for the better understanding of, and a
à truer following verses, let off a bard the payment affection for their countrymen than the of a borrowed guinea, Russells, Cavendishes, or Walpoles, who
“ Tri pheth ’rwy yn ei archi, misgoverned them from London. The men
Cael echwyn am y gini, who fought, and not altogether unsuccess
A chael Pretendwr ar y fainc, fully, in the English law courts, to save
A chael bath Ffrainc i dalu," the altars of the parish churches in Wales that the Whig government went to the from the mockery of a clergy ignorant of expense of having a translation made the language of the peasantry who into the Welsh language of a worshipped there before them, the men preached in Ely Church, Holborn, at their whose foundation of the Cymmrodorion thanksgiving service for the suppression Society proves that they had still a love of the bloody and unnatural rebellion.” for the language and traditions of their The translation was made by one of race, the men who fought successfully to their few Welsh supporters, — Iago ab save Wales from the clutches of Dutch Dewi. soldiers of fortune, deserve, with all their The effect of the publication on Welsh faults and errors, the respect of their sentiment may be measured by the fact patriotic descendants.
that the Old Chevalier, James III. of
· Jacobite history, — determined, at the for the opportunity to burst into flame. advice of his council, to repeat the tactics In various clubs the gentry secretly met of Henry VII., and to land with the and drank the health of the king over the Duke of Ormond at Milford Haven, and to water. One of those centres of disaffection march with the Welshmen who had so existed in the Cycle Club at Wrexham. loyally fought for his grandfather, it might The club, in 1829, when it still existed,* be, to a second Bosworth field. Strangely was merely a social meeting of country enough, the cavalier signalled out for the gentlemen living in the neighbourhood of honour of preparing this enterprise came of Wrexham. I have been informed, howa stock that, in the former generation, had ever, that the custom of drinking to the not been over famous for its loyalty to the king over the water was kept up to the Stuart cause. But times were changed, last. In 1723 it was a powerful political and it was to Mr. Lewis Price, of organisation, and for that reason its rules Gogerddan, that Earl Mar wrote from and list of members,—which also, by the Innsbruck on the 7th April, 1717,- way, throw a curious light on the customs “ By permission of the King, who arrived
of the aristocracy of primitive Wales,incognito on the 3rd, I am ordered to acquaint form an interesting study,you and other loyal men that the last push for a restoration in old England is to cominence at or
“We, whose names are under-written, do about 30th October next. The advice is to be
promise at the time and place to our names conveyed by a bark bound to England, who is to
respectively affixed, to observe the rules following, resign his charge to a conscientious persecuted
viz., clergyman, who is to dispense his Majesty's 1. Every member of this society sball, for pleasure to all honest bonny lads in the Principality default of his appearance, submit to be censured, of Wales. The expedition is to be regulated by and shall thereupon be censured by the judgour march from Milford to the West, under ment of the society. command of Lord Ormond, at the same juncture II. Every member that cannot come shall be as I have to be at the like station in North Britain obliged to send notice of his non-appearance by as in last year."'*
12 of the clock at noon, together with his
reasons in writing, otherwise his plea shall not This proposed invasion of Wales must have
excuse him, if within the compass of 15 miles formed a forgotten link in the chain of from the place of meeting. elaborate conspiracies in which Alberoni, III. Each member obliges himself to have the great Italian minister of Spain, and the
dinner upon the table by 12 o'clock at noon
from Michaelmas to Lady Day, and from Lady adventurous Charles the Twelfth of
Day to Michaelmas at 1 of the clock. Sweden, the Cour de Lion of modern days,
IV. The respective masters of the places of sought to reverse the Treaty of Utrecht, to meeting oblige themselves to take down in crush Orleans in France, and to ruin the writing each default, and to deliver in the same House of Brunswick and its Imperial ally.
at the general meeting.
v. Every member shall keep a copy of these Unfortunately for the Stuarts, the arrest
articles by him, to prevent plea of mistake. of the Swedish minister, and the seizure of VI. It is agreed that a general meeting shall his papers, had prolably given Stanhope be held by all the subscribers at the house of and his colleagues a view of their ad
Daniel Porter, jun., holden in Wrexham on the
1st day of May, 1727, by 11 of the clock, there · versaries' hand, and prompt measures
to dine, and to determine upon all points reprobably nipped the 1717 growth in the lating to and according to the sense and meaning bud. In any event, the death of the great of these articles. soldier of the north, and the fall of the 1723.
(Signed) great priest intriguer of Madrid, removed Thos. PULESTON, May 21st (eldest son of Sir all such dreams from practical politics.
Roger Puleston, of Emral). Still, however, the evils that had marked RICHARD CLAYTON, June 11th.
EUBULE LLOYD (of Penyllan), July 2nd. the accession of the Hanoverian dynasty in
ROBERT ELLIS, July 23rd. Wales grew heavier as the years went on,
W. WILLIAMS Wynn (of Wynnstay), August and Jacobitism smouldered on alike in hall and parsonage and cottage, waiting
JOHN PULESTON (of Pickhill), September 3rd.
WM. EDWARDS, October 15th. the History MSS. Commission.
. Cambrian Quarterly Magazine for 1829, Vol. I., p 212.
* This letter exists in manuscript in the Peniarth collection, The above is an analysis in the appendix to the third report of
Thos. HOLLAND, November 6th.
dreaded as things grew blacker the return KENY. EYTON (of Eyton), November 26th. PHIL. EGERTON (of Oulton), December 17th.
of the Puritan tyranny, looked to the JOHN ROBINSON (of Gwersyllt), January 8th.
knight of Wales, so powerful alike in his Geo. SHACKERLY (of Gwersyllt),
own land and far off London, as the ROBERT DAVIES (of Gwyssany), February 19th. support of his country amid the turmoils JNO. PULESTON (of Havod y Wern), March 13th. of revolution,BROUGHTON WHITEHALL (of Broughton), April 3rd.
Duw, cadw'r marchog, enwog un, WM. HANMER, April 24th, 1724.
Y glân Syr Watkin Williams Wynn,
A'i ffrindiau tirion yn gytun, It will be observed that these rules disclose
Dyr edyn y Roundiaid."* nothing of the political character of the club. It is stated that the more recent
In the long attack on the great enemy lists of the society are drawn out in the
of the Stuarts and Wales, Sir Robert form of a round robin, the object being to
Walpole, Sir Watkin played a prominprevent any one of its members from being prime engineer of eighteenth century cor
ent part; and after the resignation of the assembly. The story runs that, when the ruption, no more eloquently and tables were cleared, and the bottles of claret savagely pressed for an impeachment and the jorums of ale and the silver
than the lord of Wynnstay. The fall of punch bowl stood on the table, and the Walpole raised to the highest pitch the guests called for a song, the accompaniment what discredited the old Pretender, but
hopes of the Jacobites. The '15 had somewas played on the Welsh harp* by the
Prince Charles Edward, who was growing grey haired harper of the mansion.
into manhood, seemed to Sir Watkin of At the head of the Welsh squires stood he whom contemporaries called the knight fact
, as to the Waverley of fiction, a prince of Wales, the first of the house of Williams
. who bore the name of Wynn,—which he took ly believed that the Hanoverian dynasty
could not survive Walpole's fall. When from his mother, who was of the house of the
it became clear that the Brunswicks re, Traditionally he was bound to the Stuart mained in their seats, and the interests of
the nation were more and more sacrificed cause, for his family owed their position in no small measure to the second Charles.
to the beggarly electorate, plots and con
In 1744, And this Sir Watkin had a further tie to spiracies again became rife.
Prince Charles received an invitation from the White Rose, for his first bride, Anne Vaughan of Llwydiarth, came of the stock
Sir Watkin and other leading Jacobites
to reclaim the throne, but making support of the old cavalier bard of Caer Gai. This
conditional on the assistance of a French Sir Watkin was, moreover, the ablest of all his house. Darkened and sad as is the
army. At the same time Sir Watkin was tale of his declining years, which has busy working with success outside Wales stamped him through his persecution of
to win prominent members of the London Peter Williams and the early Methodists as
Corporation to the Stuart interest. When the Claverhouse of Wales without the glory that the knight of Wales' keen interest in
the year 1745 commenced, it was noticed of Killiecrankie, he was known once as the most eloquent and able champion of the
the Parliamentary struggle had ceased.
The outsiders Tory party in the House of Commons in
were puzzled, and the
Government was alarmed. But Wales in the dark days of the Whig domination
the rebellion of 1745 I must leave to that lasted until Chatham arose. The
another chapter. bards, who still kept alive the flame of
J. ARTHUR PRICE. the old loyalty of the Civil Wars, and
• "God keep our famous knight
The good Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, at the Cycle Club given in the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, Vol II., pp. 658, 9.
He'll crop the wings of the Roundheads."
• There are two English Jacobite songs said to have been suvg
And with his kind friends
WORDSWORTH AND WALES.
not remember to have seen noticed by monks seen by Ethelfrith in prayer for commentators upon Wordsworth's poetry, the victory of the soldiers on their side. that,-in spite of the poet's well known“If they are praying against us, they are love for mountains, and his enthusiastic fighting against us," he exclaimed, and poems in honour of Cumberland, Scotland, ordered them to be first attacked. They Switzerland, and Italy, - the beautiful were massacred, and their fate striking scenery of Wales has been passed over by terror into Brocmail, he fled from the field, him almost without mention. On two leaving the army to defeat and the town several occasions at least, we know that to destruction. Wales was visited by him. He came once The feeling of veneration for its past and in 1791, when at the close of his college of luxurious regret over the work of time career he paid a visit to his friend Jones, seem to be the most prominent features and the two made a pedestrian tour in in Wordsworth's attitude towards Wales. North Wales, - the very condition, one The sonnet composed "among the ruins would think, to favour the inspiration of of a castle in North Wales” deserves the poetic muse. He came again in 1824, quotation.of which visit only two or three poems, and
" Through shattered galleries, 'mid roofless halls, these of no very high order, remain as the Wandering with timid footstep oft betrayed, memorials.
The stranger sighs, nor scruples to upbraid Whether the beauty of Welsh scenery did
Old time, though he, gentlest among the thralls not impress him after his native county
Of destiny, upon these wounds hath laid
His lenient touches, soft as light that falls, and his foreign travels, or whether the From the wan moon, upon the towers and walls, visits befell unhappily at times when in Light deepening the profoundest sleep of shade. spiration was lacking, it is impossible to
Relic of kings ! wreck of forgotten wars,
To winds abandoned and the prying stars, say. But of the few poems which deal at
Time loves thee ! at his call the seasons twine all with Wales, only a few lines are given
Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; to description of the country, and these are And, though past pomp no changes can restore, by no means in tones of enthusiastic ail A soothing recompense, his gift, is thine!” miration ; not such as flowed from him by On the religious side of his nature too, the banks of the Wye above Tintern Abbey, Wordsworth seems to find some point of or on the cliffs of Winander, or in the
contact. The venerable aspect of the Simplon Pass.
Druids appeals to him, though the romantic He seems to look upon the inhabitants feeling that might be expected to hover of Wales as a race “ whose glory is de round them when seen through the dim parted.” Thus in the “Sonnet on Old
vista of ages, is overpowered in his mind Bangor,” he says,
by the sense of pity for the errors of their “Mark ! how all things swerve
creed. From their known course, or vanish like a dream. In one sonnet he describes with conAnother language spreads froin coast to coast; Only perchance some melancholy stream,
siderable dignity,—the effect being largely And some indignant hills old names preserve
due to the ponderous words employed, When laws and creeds and people all are lost.” the scene of consulting the omens, The incident alluded to in the first part “Screams round the arch-druid's brow the seamew of the sonnet,—the mourning over the
-white “unarmed host” and the destruction of
As Menai's foam ; and towards the mystic ring “aboriginal and Roman love," is the des
Where augurs stand, the future questioning,
Slowly the cormorant aims her heavy flight, truction by Ethelfrith of the monastry of Portending ruin to each baleful rite, Bangor with all its records,—some of them That, in the lapse of ages hath crept o'er the most precious monuments of the
Diluvian truths, and patriarchal love." ancient Britons.
In another sonnet, in the same tone