At that moment Lord Rosebery and and seconded the vote of thanks, and the Mr. Acland came in, and we all stood Ministers then departed, leaving us to beup to receive them. I need not say that gin our arduous duties. Lord Aberdare our reception was cordial. Lord Rosebery naturally took the Chair, and Dr. Isambard spoke as one who had paid sympathetic Owen naturally took the provisional secreattention to our struggles. “Though I do taryship. It was decided to do the not belong to Wales," he said, “I have necessary work first,—to appoint a comwatched for years past the energy and mittee for the drafting of statutes for munificence with which Wales has striven governing the conduct and the business of to put her educational machinery on a the Court, and to appoint a committee to level with that of the older institutions of advise the Court what were to be recogthe other parts of the kingdom.” He nised as departments of study. Until this struck a chord in the meeting when he said, is done, the course of study for degree ex-“There is one form of nationality that aminations can not be laid down, for the appeals to all. I mean that form which Court is to act upon the recommendation insists, not in putting forward political of the Senate, and the Senate is to consist schemes, but in endeavouring to preserve of the heads of departments. The comancient traditions, ancient literature, ancient mittees were appointed, and the Court then language, and to press forward in the appointed another numerous committee to race with other nations so as to make report upon the exercise of the power of the nationality to which one belongs eqnal conferring degrees in Theology. to any. As a sign of that high and just principle of nationality, I welcome the

No long speeches were made, and conseWelsh University, and, as occupying

quently business was done. It was most the chair on this occasion, I and all as

difficult for the reporters to follow the sociated with me wish it God speed.”

proceedings of the Court, because the Mr. Acland was enthusiastically greeted,

speakers, well known anywhere in Wales, not as a friend and sympathiser only, but

were quite unknown to them. I heard one as a fellow worker. It can be said with

reporter ask one of the youngest members truth, that no English Cabinet Minister

of the Court, a representative of the Guild has done so much for Wales as Arthur

of Graduates, whether he was the PrinciAcland has. Lord Aberdare, of course, we

pal of Bala College. Another could not regard as a Welshman who, while in the

make up the list of the University ColCabinet and out of it, has done service to

leges. “Bangor I know,” he said, “and Welsh education that it will be almost im

Aberystwyth I know, but which is the

third ?” possible for any one man to surpass. Mr. Acland knows Wales so well, and has done The most important danger the Court such great work shoulder to shoulder with has to guard against is, as Mr. T. E. Ellis us, that he is regarded by us and by himself

suggested, the multiplying of committees as being almost a Welshman. He gave the and making them too large. When the history of the University as the crowning committee merely reports to the Court, the of the educational movement in Wales, a smaller it is the better. The great dismovement, it need not be added, that tances between the constituent colleges, and found one of its most indefatigable work- the rigid economy which must be observed, ers in Mr. Acland himself. He described make it imperative that the committees our hopes when he said,—“I hope the should be small. If the constituent colleges University will do all it can to foster and trust each other, and guard the unity of devel..p that capacity in the men and

the University as jealously as the interests women of Wales which lies at the very of each separate college, the proceedings at root of national character and national future meetings will be as harmonious as progress.”

at the first meeting of the Court, and as Lord Aberdare and Mr. Rathbone moved much work will be done, tirer lert ! . . ! *

[graphic][merged small]

of the Wales of the past and of the present and of the future will, as far as the possibility lies with the editor, be unbiased by the prejudices of religious sect or political party. The majority of the contributors will, probably, have unbounded faith in the Welsh people ; but many, especially John Jones-Jones, Esq., J.P., of Jones Hall, will have perfect freedom to express their many doubts and their semi-serious criticisms.

In preparing the design for the cover of WALES, Mr. S. Maurice Jones has tried to make the outside of the magazine characteristic of what the editor means its contents to be. It will be seen at a glance that the most important place is given to the history of Welsh education. The three University Colleges stand at the top of the page; and one side of the cover is given to Owen Glendower, Charles of Bala, and Sir Hugh Owen. The picture of Owen Glendower is taken from his seal,-he represents the desire for a University of Wales, and a distinct Welsh Literature. The statue of Charles, the work of Mynorydd, stands at Bala; Charles represents the Sunday school and religious education in Wales. Sir Hugh Owen, -his statue is at Carnarvon, represents secular education. In selecting these representatives I was guided, to a certain extent, by the portraits available. I wish I could have placed Bishop Morgan and Griffith Jones of Llanddowror with the other three; but I could find nothing typical of them to place in the artist's hands.

Pistyll Rhaiadr, in Powys, represents the physical characteristics of Wales; the history of Welsh political institutions is represented by Carnarvon and Caerphilly castles,—the one in Gwynedd and the other in Glamorgan.

Shrewsbury, the first place of meeting for the Guild of Graduates, has had a long connection with Wales. Its mythical founder is Dyfnwal Moelmud, “bald-mute Donnell,”—one of the Celtic dark gods who, according to Professor Rhys, are represented as bald, cropped of their ears, deprived of one eye, or in some way peculiar about the head.” It is the traditional meeting place of the British tribal kings, who opposed the Roman attack on the western province. It is the Pen Gwern,—the crown of a hill rising from among alder trees, of Cynddylan the Fair, whose desolate home is described in the earliest Welsh poetry, without fire, without light. It became the capital of the Norman, cursed equally for his cruelty and for his ability, who aimed at establishing the independence of a half Norman half Welsh Wales. It was stormed by Llywelyn the Great, after the murder of a child that was kept as a hostage within its walls. It saw the defeat of Owen Glendower's allies, while Owen himself had not completed the subjugation of the English parts of South Wales. It opened its gates to Henry Tudor when on his way to Bosworth, it welcomed Charles the First when he had declared war against his Parliament.

There are many architectural remains, especially in St. Mary's, carrying us back to Owen Glendower's time, and further.

History and education will not, however, be the only subjects of WALES. Considerable space will be devoted to the development of Welsh industry. As far as possible, the history of mediæval princely Wales, and the history of modern industrial Wales, will be told side by side. Sheep farming, slate quarrying, tin-plate working, coal mining, gold mining, spinning and weaving, woodcarving, bee farming, and other industries, will be the subjects of illustrated articles.

Reprints of rare books will be given, or of parts

The first translated classical Welsh prose work to of rare books, especially of those throwing light be published in WALES is Ellis Wyn's Visions of the on the social history of Wales at different times. Bard of Sleep. The translator is T. Marchant The experiences of pilgrims to shrines and holy Williams, J.P. wells, of travellers finding themselves in difficult situations, of the first English visitors to Welsh An enterprising newspaper has determind to diswatering places, of outspoken critics who have re cover that the new Education Code is a dead letter. garded the Welshman as a hopeless liar and an in The report and sensational headings seem to have corrigible thief,—these will be given without note been written by one hand, and the evidence by or comment.

another. The reader is haunted by a suspicion,

also, that the report came into being first, the WALES will contain articles on religion and evidence afterwards. politics, but regarded entirely from their histori It is interesting to notice how very easy it is to cal and non-contentious side. The accounts given prove, to those who have a burning desire for be

each year.

lieving, that Mr. Acland's Welsh educational re which parents have objected to Welsh, and these have been Welsh

parents. About 70 per cent, of the Standards V., VI., and VII. forms were not needed. One might take places

avail themselves of the privileges. Only the headmaster (Mr. T. like Abergavenny and Chepstow and Tintern, M. Jones) is capable of carrying out the provisions of the code. which are far more English than English towns GELLIGAER VILLAGE BOARD SCHOOL.-- Code adopted in this like Oswestry or Shrewsbury or Chester, and point

school. Last year Welsh was taken as a class subject, instead of

English, in Standards I. and II. This year it will be taken in out triumphantly that in them Welsh is neither

Standards I., II., III., IV., &c. In each year a higher standard taught nor used as a vehicle for the teaching of will be taken until a stage is reached when Welsh will become a English. If aber does not sound Welsh enough,

class subject throughout the school. All scholars avail them

selves of the privilege, and all the teachers of the school on the one might make a list of voluntary schools in teaching staff are capable of carrying out the provisions of the Llans, and ask schoolmasters, who are ignorant of code in this particular, inasmuch as the method is a progressive

one, commencing with Standard I., and taking a higher standard the language their pupils speak, what they think of teaching a language they despise, and a language HENGOED BOARD School. — Code adopted, Welsh being they do not know. The result will be a collection taken in Standards V. and VI. as a specific subject for the last

three years. There are 96 children in the mixed department. Of of general statements, -as stale as proverbial wis

these, 29 have availed themselves of the privilege this year in dom and as old as dulness, condemning the life Standards V. and VI. The whole of the teaching staff are capalong work of enlightened educationalists as a ble of carrying out the provisions of the code. mistake, and the mature opinions of statesmen and

TREHERBERT (Glamorganshire). teachers as nonsense. “ We do not avail our

TREHERBERT BOARD SCHOOL. - Welsh is taught here in the

same way. This year Standards I. and II. take Welsh according selves of the provisions of the present code,” says to code requirements. In the ensuing school year three succesthe master of a National School in Cardiganshire, sive standards will be likewise engaged. Songs with lle'sh words “and shall never do so. There is no affinity

are prepared for the inspector. Quite nine-tenths of the staff are

capable of teaching Welsh. whatever between the two languages,” adds this

RHYMNEY (Monmouthshire). superior of Bopp and Grimm, “and I look upon There are three schools at Rhymney under the Bedwellty the provisions as absurd in the extreme.” Another School Roard. In the Upper Rhymney Board School Welsh is master, with more directness than grace, describes

taken as a class subject in three lower standards ; 73 per cent. of

the children have availed themselves of the privilege, and the the whole thing as “utter nonsense.' A third

headmaster and four assistants are capable of teaching Welsh. public servant, betraying a little tender feeling for In the Lower Rhymney Board Schools the position is the same,

except that here only 69 per cent. of the children avail themselves his own interests, as well as a delightful ignorance

of the code, and the capable members of the staff are limited to of the best method of teaching, confesses that it four. In the Middle Rhymney Board Schools Welsh has not is enough trouble to teach the children English,

been adopted, is not desired, and could not be taught. let alone Welsh, which they know already.” An

MOUNTAIN ASH (Glamorganshire). other worthy opines he can devote his time to

DUFFRYN GIRLS' School. The only school in this town that

has adopted the present code permitting the teaching of Welsh is better advantage in teaching other subjects.

the Duffryn Girls' School, of which Mrs. Griffiths is the head. A careful perusal of the evidence gathered by

teacher. At this school the teaching of Welsh was commenced

in 1893 in the lowest standard. The teaching is continued with the directed correspondents shows that the new those children who have passed into Standard II., aud it is prc. Education Code is gradually, but surely, coming posed to continue thus until all the standards are reached. “All

the children in the first and second standards, being about 39 per into operation throughout the whole of the Welsh

cent. of the whole school, are availing themselves if the privi. speaking districts of South Wales. Leaving out of lege, and it is noticed that the children of English parents are as consideration the insignificant voluntary schools, sharp as the Welsh children in picking up the lessons. Five out

of seven of the teaching staff of this school are capalle of carry. many of which have been a curse, rather than a

ing out the provisions of the code in this particular, the headblessing, to Welsh education,-it is seen that the mistress and second-mistress being both thoroughly conversant great schools, managed by elected representatives,

with the language. and taught by well-educated masters, are adopting the Code. The change must come about very

The Merthyr and Swansea School Boards have gradually,--the bilingual text-books for all stand

determined to put the new Code in its entirety in

force. But I shall not call attention to these imards are not ready, the teachers have not in all cases finished their own study of Welsh. The best

portant centres at present, as WALES will contain plan is to introduce Welsh, at first, into the lower

articles upon education in the coal and tinplate

districts. standards only, and to let the children continue to learn it as they pass into higher standards.

As a contrast to the schools of the great industrial The most humiliating confession comes from

centres, I give the evidence relating to a group of Treorky. It is a libel upon schoolmaster and in

country schools. The St. Clears district is interspector alike. " The masters, we understand, esting to the historian, being a district in which think that the taking of Welsh, in lieu of another

Welsh has ousted English; it is interesting to the special subject, would seriously affect the percent

educationalist because it was in it that Griffith age of passes.

Jones' Welsh circulating schools began.

LLANDDOWROR NATIONAL SCHOOL.-No Welsh taught; mistress

not capable ; P. T. has a conversational knowledge of Welsh. With deep gratitude to the Western Mail,—often BOARD SCHOOL (1st Class).- No Welsh taught; teachers capable. the Balaain of the Welsh press, intending to curso,

ST. CLEARS NATIONAL SCHOOL.--No Welsh taught ; master

and P. T. not capable. and really blessing, -I copy the report of the cor

TAVERNSPITE NATIONAL SCHOOL.- No Welsh taught; master respondents concerning some of the most important

not capable ; P. T. has a conversational knowledge of Welsh. schools in South Wales,

WHITLAND BOARD SCHOOL. No Welsh taught; may begin

after next examination in May next; staff capable. GELLIGAER (Glamorganshire).

VAUGHAN'S CHARITY SCHOOL, LLANGUNNOCII.--No W sh BARGOED BOARD SCHOOL.--Welsh has been taken here as a taught. In the opinion of the master, teaching Welsh would specific subject since 1886. Only two cases have occurred in delay acquisition of English. Teachers able to teach Welsh,

This collection of traditions is the work of many hands. The traditions are given, as far as possible, in the words of those who related them as received from times that have gone. May I appeal to those who have collected traditions, ghost stories, and all manner of we tales, to them appear on these pages?. Of the following, I found the first in a collection of Penllyn traditions, written by a farmer. The second tradition, which will be found in the next number, was related to me by a very old man.

a n d


each with his spear at rest beside him and

his shield at his feet, and they were all N the old times sleeping. Far away, right in the middle a boy was taken

of the cave, was a throne and a round table. by his father

A crowned king sat on the throne, and his from Llan

crown glittered so that it could be seen from

the furthest recesses of the cave.
uwchllyn to see
Bala fair.

“That is Arthur," whispered the magician,

"and those are his knights. They are all While the

asleep, they have been asleep for a thouboy was stroll

sand years, awaiting the fulness of the time ing among the

for delivering their country.” crowd

wondering at While they stood at the entrance of the the grandeur of cave, they noticed a table, on which stood

all the stalls, he saw a bell. "Do not touch it," said the magician an old man watching to the boy, "if anyone rings it, all the army

him intently. At last you see will awake.” the old man asked him,-point They passed among the armed multitude, ing to his hazel stick,

and 'caine near the throne.

There they "Where did you get that stick, my boy?" found endless heaps of gold. The magician

took as much of the gold as he could carry. “I cut it in a hazel grove, near a big rock,

But the boy took none,—his mind was full just where you leave our fields and go to of the desire for seeing that mighty army the mountain.”

awaking. And when they caine to the “Will you show me the place ?"

bell, he rung it before the terror stricken “Yes, that I will."

magician could interfere. Before many days had gone, the old

The vast army rose, Arthur's crown magician,-for a magician he was, --came gleamed with greater light, and the whole to the boy's home, and asked him to come

mountain shook. Many of the awakened and show the place where he had cut the knights shouted,—“Has the day come ?" hazel stick. The boy led him to a gloomy “No," said the magician, “sleep, Arthur, place, and they saw the desolate mountain sleep. ." stretching its wide expanse before them.

Arthur's voice came, like the sound of "It was here I cut the stick," he said, “under the shadow of this big rock."

many waters, and hushed the army into

sleep again,—“He seeks gold, not deliver“Let us dig," said the magician.

ance; the time has not come. Sleep." They dug, and before long they raised a The light of the crown paled, and darkslab, and the mouth of a cave yawned le


the cave. The boy found fore them. They entered into the cave, and himself near the copse where he had cut the boy saw many wonders. The cave the hazel stick, but the magician had diswas vast, and full of knights, in a sitting appeared. Often did the boy watch the posture, all clad in bright steel armour, spot, expecting Arthur's army to appear.


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The literature of Wales, like its incomparably more important than its Medieval history, falls into two well-defined poetry; the magnificent collection of romodern. periods. The first period is that mances known as the Mabinogion, with

of the literature of the princes, their varied contents ard highly polished when the literary language was the Welsh style, must have been recited for censpoken in the courts of the princes, and turies before they became the delight of when every poet had some prince as his mediæval baron and monk. Probably they patron. The second period is that of are the work of the age which came between the literature of the people; the period the struggle against the English and the in which we are now living. For want struggle against the Normans. Some of of a better, we might, perhaps, take the the romances are older than Arthur, some following rough division,

older than Christianity, but the tendency

is to connect everything with Arthur 1. THE LITERATURE OF THE PRINCES. 1063-1536.

and his knights. 1. The Patriotic Period, 1063-1284.

The century which saw the perfection 2. The Golden Period, 1284-1536.

of the romance, saw also the beginning II. THE LITERATURE OF THE PEOPLE. 1536 of the study of contemporary history and 1. The Period of Translations, 1536-1730.

manners. Giraldus Cambrensis, combining 2. The Period of Awakening, 1730

Welsh imagination with Norman keenness

of observation, gives descriptions of WelshThe first extant collections of Welsh lit

men that are true up to this day. But, erature belong to the twelfth and thirteenth like Walter de Map, he is important in centuries. But the style of these earliest Welsh literature only in so far as he gives specimens of poetry and prose show that material for others, for he wrote in Latin. they are the products of an advanced

It was the union of Welsh and stage of literary development. Geoffrey

The patriotic Normans that brought the Mabof Monmouth, and a host of chroniclers,

1100-1282. inogion into their perfect form; romancers, and poets found plentiful ma

it terial in the literature of Wales; and it

the struggle between


Welsh and Normians that brought into beis difficult to know how much the historians and romancers of Norman times ing the first poems whose history we know. give as they found it, and how much they the man who wrested Gwynedd from

The first great opponent of the Normans, added to suit the spirit of their own

them, was Gruffydd ab Cynan; and it is times.

his death, in 1137, that makes Meilir strike The struggle between the Welsh

the first note in the poetry of mediæval The making princes and the Norman lords Wales. Mabinogion. caused a great literary awak

The second struggle against the Norman ening in Wales.

Before 1150,

kings, under Owen Gwynedd and Rhys ab Geoffrey of Monmouth had written his history of the kings of Britain, while The earlier works mentioned, up to about 1282, are

found either in the Black Book of Carmarthen, a twelfth wandering reciters were carrying the Welsh

century book reproduced in facsiinile by J. Gwenogvryn tales from the courts of Welsh princes to

Evans, or in the Red Book of Hergest, that "corpus of

Cymric literature," parts of which are published in Mr. the halls of Norman barons. The poetry Gwenogfryn Evans' beautiful volumes, and in the Myfyrian

Archæology. of an earlier age was recited and written, Some of the works of the poets between 1282 and 1536, are

to be found in Rhys Jones' Gorchestion Beirild Cymru, and probably with many changes,—the war

Dr. W. 0. Pughe published an edition of Dafydd ab songs and querulous wisdom of gods or Gwilym's works. But most of the poetry of the Golden Age

is still in manuscripts scattered all over Wales. The works heroes like Taliesin, Aneurin, or Llywarch of Huw Morus are published, but most of the seventeenth

and eighteenth century poetry is in manuscripts. From Hen. The prose of the time is, however, the “awakening” on, everything available is published,


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