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largest expansive force of any other rock known upon the globe. Having recently traced this rock for several miles up the Little Iowa, and again into Wisconsin up and along the Kickapoo, and determined that it has both a northern and southern dip, I am therefore prepared to say that it forms a ridge in this neighborhood of only about ten miles across, when it is lost again from sight upon either side. How far this new rock can be traced east and west froni Lansing I am not prepared to say, but I am inclined to believe that ten by thirty miles will cover the whole area of its exposure, when it fades out of sight beneath the Potsdam sandstone. This new rock is undoubtedly of vast thickness, and like some huge monster of the great deep, is pushing its way upward with giant strength, lifting and tilting everything above it, as if they were but feathers in its way. It contains within its folds the remains of a dead world that flourished in the dim long ago, and over these remains the future geologist may well ponder, and contemplate the vast cycle of time that has elapsed since they flourished in life and activity."

And again, from an article published in 1876:

"Several years ago while wandering over the beautiful bluffs that overlook the thriving city of Lansing, in Allamakee County, in company with James I. Gilbert, he called my attention to a peculiar ledge of rocks that forms the base of the hill in the immediate rear of the city. Since that time, I have found that it run under the Potsdam sandstone.

"With the exception of this fact, I supposed it to be devoid of geological interest, and it was not until a recent visit to Lansing that I discovered this rock to be rich in fossil remains. I discover both the vertebrated fish and the articulated worm in great numbers, and I have no doubt that upon a close examination, both the Radiates and Mollusks could be found in equal numbers.

"Dr. Ranney, an intelligent scientist of Lansing, while disputing with me the fact that this rock underlies the Potsdam, but claims that it only exists in a basin, and is of a modern lake deposit, informs me that he found in this rock in a fossil state, a perfect catfish, resembling in every particular its fellows of our present rivers.

"The city of Lansing is built upon this rock, while it still rises above the town and forms a second bench about two hundred feet above the level of the river, while its lowest strata runs beneath the water.

"About two miles south of the city it is again seen beneath the Potsdam, but at a much lower level than its surface at the city, and here it is rapidly dipping to the south, while at the city, it rapidly dips to the north, and in a few miles either way it 'descends out of sight.

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"Some great internal force has served to raise it up north of the valley of the Lansing creek that did not operate south of that stream, and must have broken a fissure which afterwards became the valley of the stream.

"This rock is composed of lime, sand and shale in alternate deposits; the streaks of sand often very thin, and alternating through the entire mass.

The "Iron Mountain."-Prof. Hall failed to notice any evidences of iron ore other than “in some localities the rock is highly charged with oxide of iron * * of which the origin appears to be from the decomposition of iron pyrites.” “Oxide of iron, or hematite, is occasionally present in small nodules" in the Potsdam sandstone, etc. But it has long been known to some residents of the county that fragments and boulders of iron ore were scattered over the surface of the ground along and on either side of Makee Ridge, two or three miles northeast of Waukon, and that in some places the road-bed seemed to be of solid iron. No particular notice had been taken of this, however, by outsiders, until within the past few years, through the efforts of Mr. Chas. Barnard, who has taken pains to furnish several experienced iron men with samples of this ore, who have in every instance given analysis showing it to be a good quality of red hematite, of a purity ranging from 50 to 70 per cent. Mr. Barnard has examined the deposit carefully for several years, and is satisfied that it is not merely a shell, but a rich mine of great depth, and that if the surface ore which has been exposed to the air yields 65 per cent. of the pure metal, the interior deposits must be as rich as any now known. Nothing but actual trial can determine whether this apparently great, solid mass of iron ore is really what it appears. However, now that outside parties of capital are becoming interested in the matter, it would seem, at this writing (July, 1882,) that its value will soon be ascertained. The following extracts from an article by A. M. May, editor of the Waukon Standard, published in that paper of May 18, 1882, will give a tolerably clear idea of the situation of this bed of ore:

“We know it is against the geological arrangement of strata as usually seen in this part of Iowa, that such a bed should exist, and that it is not mentioned in any report; and that we have been laughed at in years gone by for suggesting that iron did exist here in any appreciable quantity; but we have believed it because we have seen it and know it is here. The only question in our mind was: Is it rich enough to pay for working?

“The ore bed is situated about two miles northeast of town. The Lansing road crosses it near the old Sloan place. It extends east or beyond where the road turns nearly north towards the poor farm. Thence irregularly southwest to a little below the

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old C. J. White place, and then with a northwesterly curve to the place of beginning. The old Stoddard house is somewhere near the northern center of the bed.

"Not long since we made a thorough examination of it in company with Mr. C. Barnard, who came from an iron and coal.country and has had years of experience in mining. We first struck the ore on the south side near the old White place, and followed up the ravine nearly to the top of the hill; crossed the ridge to another ravine; and made a general examination of fields, ravines and washes. The bed is bounded on the south and east by the St. Peter sandstone; on the west and north by the Trenton limestone. The bed extends much further down the hill going south than it does going north. The change from the iron bed proper to the other formations is abrupt. At the old White and Stoddard places, there are springs of soft water, while all other springs in this county, so far as we know, are hard water. In following up the ravines a person can walk almost the entire distance on ore. No other rock formation shows itself.

The ravines wash out till the ore is struck and can wash no lower. The sides of the washes are lined with ore. It crops out on the summits of the hills in large boulders. From our examinations, should say there was at least two hundred acres two hundred feet deep of the ore. There are now thousands of tons of it in sight. This is an estimate, and not by measurement. Of course it cannot be positively determined to what depth it does extend; sinking a shaft only can determine that. Our opinion is that it is an upheaval of considerable and perhaps great depth, and not merely a shell on the surface."

And the following from the Dubuque Trade Journal of about the same date relates to iis availability:

"Here would seem to be a mine of wealth, a genuine bonanza awaiting the advent of capital, enterprise and skill, to establish an industry that would redound in fortunes to all concerned. The only drawback is the want of fuel in the immediate vicinity. But fortunately, from the deposit to the Mississippi river, which is not far off, there is a continuous down grade. The ore can therefore be easily taken to the water and then floated in barges to Dubuque to be smelted. If thought advisable, smelting furnaces might be established in the Turkey river district, where an abundance of the best wood is found; or, for that matter, anywhere along the banks of the river on either side for a distance of more than seventy-five miles. Furthermore, a railroad connection of not more than three miles would place the valuable freightage in the hands of the Waukon railroad. By water or rail the grade is downward, so that under any circumstances the transportation would be of the easiest kind."

From a personal examination of this iron bed, in company with Mr. Barnard, we found that recent heavy rains had washed out

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the ravines so as to expose the ore in better shape, giving more favorable indications than before. In several places strata of fine blue clay are found of considerable thickness, possibly in sufficient quantities to warrant the undertaking of the manufacture of white brick. In other places, at the base of the iron exposure, there was observed a heavy bed of what is pronounced by those familiar with its appearance to be a superior quality of potter's clay.

The main portion of this iron deposit lies on Section 17, extending to the south on to Section 20, and to the west on to Section 18, covering a total area of about 328 acres. On its southern border is nothing but sandstone; to the west it abuts abruptly upon a limestone filled with fossils; a limestone without fossils lies on its north; while on the east are found sandstone, limestone and a black granite, the latter being found nowhere else in this region with the exception of small boulders of glacial deposit in some localities. The springs of soft water which flow from near the centre of this area, are strongly impregnated with iron, but no complete analysis has yet been made. Numerous beds of blue clay are also found here and there over this area; and the more the region is studied the more wonderful geological surprises does it present to the observer.

Since the above was written one of the numerous analysis, made by a thoroughly competent man, has been published, as follows: Sesquioxide of iron.....

52.571 Sesquioxide of manganese.

8.054 Sesquioxide of cobalt....

.230 Alumina...

1.777 Lime ...

1.090 Magnesia.

.374 Sulphuric acid.

.047 Phosphoric acid.

4.092 Water and organic matter.

13.134 Silicious matter..

18.631

100,000 In regard to the extent of the ore, Mr. Barnard, after careful examination, has made out the following list of owners and number of acres owned by each: Thomas Meroney, acres. John Barthell James Hall

35 John Kasser.

35 G. Schellschmidt.

40 John Griffin......

20 C. Helman..

20 Mrs. S. S. Johnson.

.25 Gilman Nelson....

20 Total number of acres exposed.......

.333 Fossil Marble.—This term is applied to the fossiliferous layers of blue limestone found in such profusion in certain quarries in

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the central portion of the county. These layers or strata are composed almost entirely of a mass of organic forms, the fossil remains of the numerous pieces of mollusks so characteristic of that epoch, possessing such a degree of cohesion, however, that the rock which they compose is used extensively in building, and is susceptible of a high degree of polish, like marble. When so polished, the surface presents a most beautiful appearance, showing as it does the hundreds of curious forms of shells, corals, etc., in one solid mass of confusion, though each distinctly preserved as they were huddled together by the waters of the ancient ocean in which they had their existence, and from which they were so wonderfully preserved for our study and admiration. So wrought, this rock is useful for all ornamental purposes; is inexpensive and much used for mantels, table tops, etc., in place of marble, and is aptly christened “fossil marble."

Artesian Wells. The well near Harper's Ferry was bored in 186—, with the hope of finding petroleum. Of course the

project was a failure. Prof. White says: “It is quite remarkable that the most careful tests failed to find any iron in it. This water has been reported to be strongly impregnated with salt. The analysis will show no warrant for such a statement. One liter of the water contains .79 grains of solid matter, of which there are of Sulphuric acid. Hydrochloric acid.

.193 Calcium oxyd..

.096 Magnesium oxyd...

.045 "The depth of this well has been variously stated, ** and it has been found impossible to get a perfectly satisfactory account of the strata passed through by the drill."

The first artesian well at the foot of Main street, in Lansing, was drilled in April, 1877, and began to flow at a depth of 366 feet. Granite was struck at 760 feet, and the work ceased, with a flow of 320 gallons per minute; but this well not having a sufficient "head" of water for practical purposes (331 feet only), another was started, but abandoned at 440 feet, and a third one undertaken further up town, which was completed in July, the depth being 676 feet, and the flow greater than at the first well. The water is clear, cold, and soft, with no bad taste.

.082 grams

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