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vices amounted to $2,206.57. The Commissioners made a report of their proceedings to the Governor, as required by law, but the location was generally condemned.

When the report of the Commissioners, showing this brilliant financial operation, had been read in the House of Representatives at the next session, and while it was under consideration, an indignant member, afterward known as the eccentric Judge McFarland, moved to refer the report to a select committee of five, with instructions to report "how much of said city of Monroe was under water and how much was burned.” The report was referred, without the instructions, however, but Monroe City never became the seat of government. By an act approved January 15, 1849, the law by which the location had been made was repealed and the new town was vacated, the money paid by purchasers of lots being refunded to them. This, of course, retained the seat of government at Iowa City, and precluded for the time, the occupation of the building and grounds by the University.

At the same session $3,000 more were appropriated for completing the State building at Iowa City. In 1852 the further sum of $5,000, and in 1854 $4,000 more were appropriated for the same purpose, making the whole cost $123,000, paid partly by the General Government and partly by the State, but principally from the proceeds of the sale of lots in Iowa City.

But the question of the permanent location of the seat of government was not settled; and in 1851 bills were introduced for the removal of the capital to Pella and to Fort Des Moines. The latter appeared to have the support of the majority, but was finally lost in the House on the question of ordering it to its third reading.

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was introduced in the Senate for the removal of the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, and, on final vote, was just barely defeated. At the next session, however, the effort was more successful, and on the 15th day of January, 1855, a bill re-locating the capital within two miles of the Racoon Fork of the Des Moines, and for the appointment of Commissioners, was approved by Gov. Grimes. The site was selected in 1856, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the land being donated to the State by citizens and property-holders of Des Moines. An association of citizens erected a building for a temporary capitol, and leased it to the State at a nominal rent,

The third constitutional convention to revise the Constitution of the State assembled at Iowa City, January 19, 1857. The new constitution framed by this convention was submitted to the people at an election held August 3, 1857, when it was approved and adopted by a vote of 40,311 "for" to 38,681 "against,' and on the 3rd day of September following was declared by a proclamation of the Governor to be the supreme law of the State of Iowa.

Advised of the completion of the temporary State House at Des Moines, on the 19th of October following, Governor Grimes issued another proclamation, declaring the city of Des Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa.

The removal of the archives and offices was commenced at once and continued through the fall. It was an undertaking of no small magnitude; there was not a mile of railroad to facilitate the work, and the season was unusually disagreeable. Rain, snow. and other accompaniments increased the difficulties, and it was not until December that the last of the effects---the safe of the State Treasurer, loaded on two large "bob-sleds"-drawn by ten yoke of oxen, was deposited in the new capitol. It is not imprudent now to remark that, during this passage over hills and prairies, across rivers, through bottom lands and timber, the safes belonging to the several departments contained large sums of money, mostly individual funds, however. Thus, Iowa City eeased to be the capital of the State, after four Territorial Legislatures, six State Legislatures and three Constitutional Conrentions had held their sessions there. By the exchange, the old capitol at Iowa City became the seat of the University, and except the rooms occupied by the United States District Court, passed under the immediate and direct control of the trustees of that institution.

Des Moines was now the permanent seat of government, made so by the fundamental law of the State, and on the 11th day of January, 1858, the seventh General Assembly convened at the new capital. The building used for governmental purposes was purchased in 1864. It soon became inadequate for the purposes for which it was designed, and it became apparent that a new, large and permanent State House must be erected. In 1870, the General Assembly made an appropriation, and provided for the appointment of a Board of Commissioners to commence the work. The board consisted of Gov. Samuel Merrill, ex-officio President; Grenville M. Dodge, Council Bluffs; James F. Wilson, Fairfield; James Dawson, Washington; Simon G. Stein, Muscatine; James 0. Crosby, Gainsville; Charles Dudley, Agency City; John N. Dewey, Des Moines; William L. Joy, Sioux City; Alexander R. Fulton, Des Moines, Secretary.

The act of 1870 provided that the building should be constructed of the best material and should be fire proof, to be heated and ventilated in the most approved manner; should contain suitable legislative halls, rooms for State officers, the judiciary, library, conmittees, archives and the collections of the State Agricultural Society, and for all purposes of State Government, and should be erected on grounds held by the State for that purpose. The sum first appropriated was $150,000; and the law provided that no contract should be made, either for constructing or furnishing the building, which should bind the State for larger sums than those at the time appropriated. A design was drawn and plans and

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specifications furnished by Cochrane & Piquenard, architects, which were accepted by the board, and on the 23d of November, 1871, the corner stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies. The estimated cost and present value of the capitol is fixed at $2,000,000.

From 1858 to 1860, the Sioux became troublesome in the northwestern part of the State. These warlike Indians made frequent plundering raids

upon the settlers, and murdered several families. In 1861, several companies of militia were ordered to that portion of the State to hunt down and punish the murderous thieves. No battles were fought, however, for the Indians fled when they ascertained that systematic and adequate measures had been adopted to protect the settlers.

"The year 1856 marked a new era in the history of Iowa. In 1854, the Chicago & Rock Island Railroad had been completed to the east bank of the Mississippi River, opposite Davenport. In 1854, the corner stone of a railroad bridge, that was to be the first

the "Father of Waters," was laid with appropriate ceremonies at this point. St. Louis had resolved that the enterprise was unconstitutional, and by writs of injunction made an unsuccessful effort to prevent its completion. Twenty years later in her history, St. Louis repented her folly, and made atonement for her sin by imitating our example. On the first day of January, 1856, this railroad was completed to Iowa City. In the meantime, two other railroads had reached the east bank of the Mississippi-one opposite Burlington, and one opposite Dubuque--and these were being extended into the interior of the State. Indeed, four lines of railroad had been projected across the State from the Mississippi to the Missouri, having eastern connections. On the 15th of May, 1856, the Congress of the United States passed an act granting to the State, to aid in the construction of railroads, the public lands in alternate sections, six miles on either side of the proposed line. An extra session of the General Assembly was called in July of this year, that disposed of the grant to the several companies that proposed to complete these enterprises. The population of our State at this time had increased to 500,000. Public attention had been called to the necessity of a railroad across the continent. The position of Iowa, in the very heart and center of the Republic,on the route of this great highway across the continent, began to attract attention. Cities and towns sprang up through the State as if by magic. Capital began to pour into the State, and had it been employed in developing our vast coal measures and establishing manufactories among us, or if it had been expended in improving our lands, and building houses and barns, it would have been well. But all were in haste to get rich, and the spirit of speculation ruled the hour.

In the meantime every effort was made to help the speedy completion of the railroads.

Nearly every county and city on the

Mississippi, and many in the interior, voted large corporate subscriptions to the stock of the railroad companies, and issued their negotiable bonds for the amount. Thus enormous county and city debts were incurred, the payment of which these municipalities tried to avoid upon the plea that they had exceeded the constitutional limitation of their powers. The Supreme Court of the United States held these bonds to be valid, and the courts by mandamus compelled the city and county authorities to levy taxes to pay the judgments. These debts are not all paid eveu yet, but the worst is over and ultimately the burden will be entirely removed.

The first railroad across the State was completed to Council Bluffs in January, 1871. The others were completed soon after. In 1854 there was not a mile of railroad in the State. In 1874, twenty years after, there were 3,765 miles in successful operation.

GROWTH AND PROGRESS. When Wisconsin Territory was organized, in 1836, the entire population of that portion of the Territory now embraced in the State of Iowa was 10,531. The Territory then embraced two counties; Dubuque and Des Moines, erected by the Territory of Michigan, in 1834. From 1836 to 1838, the Territorial Legislalature of Wisconsin increased the number of counties to sixteen, and the population had increased to 22,859. Since then the counties have increased to vinety-nine, and the population, in 1875, was 1,366,000. The following table will show the population at different periods since the erection of Iowa Territory: Year. Population. Year.

Population. 1838. 22,589 1859.

638,775 1840. 43,115 1860.

674,913 1844. 75, 152 1863.

701,732 1846. 97,588 1865.

754,699 1847. 116,651 1867

902,040 1849. 152,988 1869.

1,040,819 1850. 191,982 1870.

1,191,727 1851. 204,774 1873.

1,251,333 1852. 230,713 1875.

1,366,000 1853. 326,013 1880.

1,624,469 1856..

519,055) The most populous county in the State is Dubuque. Not only in population, but in everything contributing to the growth and greatness of a State has Iowa made rapid progress. In a little more than thirty years, its wild but beautiful prairies have advanced from the home of the savage to a highly civilized commonwealth, embracing all the elements of progress which characterizė the older States.

Thriving cities and towns dot its fair surface; an iron net-work of thousands of miles of railroads is woven over its broad acres; ten thousand school houses, in which more than five hundred

thousand children are being taught the rudiments of education, testify to the culture and liberality of the people; high schools, colleges and universities are generously endowed by the State; manufactories spring up on all her water courses, and in most of her cities and towns.

Whether measured from the date of her first settlement, her organization as a Territory, or admission as a State, Iowa has thus far shown a growth unsurpassed, in a similar period, by any commonwealth on the face of the earth; and, with her vast extent of fertile soil, with her inexhaustible treasures of mineral wealth, with a healthful, invigorating climate; an intelligent, liberty-loving people; with equal, just and liberal laws, and her free schools, the future of Iowa may be expected to surpass the most hopeful anticipations of her present citizens.

Looking upon Iowa as she is to-day--- populous, prosperous and happy-it is hard to realize the wonderful changes that have occurred since the first white settlements were made within her borders. When the number of States was only twenty-six, and their total population about twenty millions, our republican form of government was hardly more than an experiment, just fairly put upon trial. The development of our agricultural resources and inexhaustible mineral wealth had hardly commenced. Westward the "Star of Empire” had scarcely started on its way. West of the great Mississippi was a mighty empire, but almost unknown, and marked on the maps of the period as "The Great American Desert."

Now, thirty-eight stars glitter on our national escutcheon, and fifty millions of people, who know their rights and dare maintain them, tread American soil, and the grand sisterhood of States extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border, and from the rocky coast of the Atlantic to the golden shores of the Pacific.

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE AND FARM.

Ames, Story County. The Iowa State Agricultural College and Farm were established by an act of the General Assembly, approved March 220, 1858. A Board of Trustees was appointed, consisting of Governor R. P. Lowe, John D. Wright, William Duane Wilson, M. W. Robinson, Timothy Day, Richard Gaines, John Pattee, G. W. F. Sherwin, Suel Foster, S. W. Henderson, Clement Coffin, and E. G. Day; the Governor of the State and President of the College being ex-officio inembers. Subsequently the number of Trustees was reduced to five. The Board met in June, 1859, and received propositions for the location of the College and Farm from Hardin, Polk, Story and Boone, Marshall, Jefferson and Tama counties. In July, the proposition of Story County and some of its citizens and by the

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