Council Bluffs, Pottarvattamie County. The Iowa Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was established at Iowa City by an act of the General Assembly, approved January 21, 1855. The number of deaf mutes then in the State was 301; the number attending the Institution, 50.

A strong effort was made, in 1866, to remove this important institution to Des Moines, but it was located permanently at Council Bluffs, and a building rented for its use. In 1868, Commissioners were appointed to locate a site for, and to superintend the erection of a new building, for which the Legislature appropriated $125,000 to commence the work of construction. The Commissioners selected ninety acres of land about two miles south of the city of Council Bluffs. The main building and one wing were completed October 1, 1870, and immediately occupied by the Institution. February 25, 1877, the main building and east wing were destroyed by fire; and August 6th, following, the roof of the new west wing was blown off and the walls partially demolished by a tornado. At the time of the fire about one hundred and fifty pupils were in attendance. After the fire, half the classes were dismissed and the number of scholars reduced to about seventy, and in a week or two the school was in running order.

Trustees, 1881:--B.F. Clayton, Macedonia, President; J.H. Stubenrauch, Pella, Treasurer; Louis Weinstein, Burlington. Rev. A. Rogers, Superintendent.


Davenport, Cedar Falls, Glinwood. The movement which culminated in the establishment of this benificent institution was originated by Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, during the civil war of 1861-65. This noble and patriotic lady called a convention at Muscatine, on the 7th day of October, 1863, for the purpose of devising measures for the support and education of the orphan children of the brave sons of Iowa, who had fallen in defense of national honor and integrity. So great was the public interest in the movement that there was a large representation from all parts of the State on the day named, and an association was organized called the Iowa State Orphan Asylum.

The first meeting of the Trustees was held February 11, *1864, in the Representative Hall, at Des Moines. Committees from both branches of the General Assembly were present and were invited to participate in their deliberations. Arrangements were made for raising funds.

At the next meeting, in Davenport, in March 1864, the Trustees decided to commence operations at once, and a committee was appointed to lease a suitable building, solicit donations, and procure suitable furniture. The committee secured a large brick building in Lawrence, Van Buren County, and engaged Mr. Fuller, of Mt. Pleasant, as Sieward.

At the annual meeting. in Des Moines, in June, 1864, Mrs. C. B. Baldwin, Mrs. G. G. Wright, Mrs. Dr. Horton, Miss Mary E. Shelton and Mr. George Sherman, were appointed a committee to furnish the building and take all necessary steps for opening the "Home," and notice was given that at the next meeting of the Association, a motion would be made to change the name of the Institution to Iowa Orphans' Home.

The work of preparation was conducted so rigorously that on the 13th day of July following, the Executive Committee announced that they were ready to receive the children. In three weeks twenty-one were admitted, and the number constantly increased, so that, in a little more than six months from the time of opening, there were seventy children admitted, and twenty more applications, which the Committee had not acted upon-all orphans of soldiers.

The "Home" was sustained by the voluntary contributions of the people until 1866, when it was assumed by the State. In that year, the General Assembly provided for the location of several such “Homes" in the different counties, and which were estab lished at Davenport, Scott County; Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, and at Glenwood, Mills County.

The Board of Trustees, elected by the General Assembly, had the oversight and management of the Soldiers' Orphans' Homes of the State, and consisted of one person from each county in which such Home was located, and one for the State at large, who held their offices two years, or until their successors were elected and qualified. An appropriation of $10 per month for each orphan actually supported was made by the General Assemby.

The Home in Cedar Falls was organized in 1865, and an old hotel building was fitted up for it. January, 1866, there were ninety-six inmates.

October 12, 1869, the Home was removed to a large brick buildinw, about two miles west of Cedar Falls, and was very prosperous for several years, but in 1876, the General Assembly established a State Normal school at Cedar Falls, and appropriated the buildings and grounds for that purpose.

By "An act to provide for the organization and support of an asylum at Glenwood, in Mills County for feeble-minded children," approved March 17, 1876, the buildings and grounds used by the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place were appropriated for this purpose. By another act, approved March 15, 1876, the soldiers' orphans, then at the Homes at Glenwood and Cedar Falls, were to be removed to the Home at Davenport within ninety days there

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after, and the Board of Trustees of the Home were authorized to ' receive other indigent children into that institution, and provide for their education in industrial pursuits.

Trustees, 1881-C.M. Holton, Iowa City; Seth P. Bryant, Davenport; C. C. Horton, Muscatine. S. W. Pierce, Davenport, Superintendent.


Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County. Chapter 129 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, in 1876, established a State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, and required the Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home to turn over the property in their charge to the Directors of the new institution.

The Board of Directors met at Cedar Falls June 7, 1876, and duly organized. The Board of Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home met at the same time for the purpose of turning over to the Directors the property of that institution, which was satisfactorily done and properly receipted for as required by law.

On the 12th of July, 1876, the Board again met, when executive and teachers' committees were appointed and their duties assigned. A Steward and a Matron were elected, and their respective duties defined.

The buildings and grounds were repaired and fitted up as well as the appropriation would admit, and the first term of school opened September 6, 1876, commencing with twenty-seven and closing with eighty-seven students.

Directors, 1881:-C. C. Cory, Pella; E. H. Thayer, Clinton; G. S. Robinson, Storm Lake; N. W. Boyes, Dubuque; L. D. Lewelling, Mitchellville; J. J. Tollerton, Cedar Falls; E. Townsend, Cedar Falls, Treasurer. ASYLUM FOR FEEBLE-MINDED CHILDREN.

Glenwood, Mills County. Chapter 152 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, approved March 17, 1876, provided for the establishment of an asylum for feeble-minded children at Glenwood, Mills County, and the buildings and the grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place were to be used for that purpose. The asylum was placed under the management of three Trustees, one at least of whom should be a resident of Mills County. Children between the ages of 7 and 18 years are admitted. T'en dollars per month for each child actually supported by the State was appropriated by the act, and $2,000 for salaries of officers and teachers for two years.

Hon. J. W. Cattell, of Polk County; A. J. Russell, of Mills County, and W. S. Robertson, were appointed Trustees, who held their first meeting at Glenwood, April 26, 1876. The Trustees found the house and farm which had been turned over to them in a shamefully dilapidated condition. The fences were broken down and the lumber destroyed or carried away; the windows broken, doors off their hinges, floors broken and filthy in the extreme, cellars reeking with offensive odors from decayed vegetables, and every conceivable variety of filth and garbage; drains obstructed, cisterns broken, pump demoralized, wind-mill broken, roof leaky, and the whole property in the worst possible conditition. It was the first work of the Trustees to make the house tenable.

The institution was opened September 1, 1876; the first pupil admitted September 4, and the school was organized September 10.

Trustees, 1881:-Fred. O'Donnell, Dubuque; S. B. Thrall, Ottumwa; E. R. S. Woodrow, Glenwood; 0. W. Archibald, M. D., Medical Superintendent.


Eldora, Hardin County. By "An act to establish and organize a State Reform School for Juvenile Offenders," approved March 31, 1868, the General Assembly established a State Reform School at Salem, Lee (Henry) County; provided for a Board of Trustees, to consist of one person from each Congressional District. For the purpose of immediately opening the school, the Trustees were directed to accept the proposition of the Trustees of White's luwa Manual Labor Institute, at Salem, and lease, for not more than ten years, the lands, buildings, etc., of the Institute, and at once proceed to prepare for and open a reform school as a temporary establishment.

The contract for fitting up the buildings was let September 21, 1868, and on the 7th of October following, the first inmate was received from Jasper County. The law provided for the admission of children of both sexes under 18 years of age. In 1876 this was amended, so that they are now received at ages over 7 and under 16 years.

April 10, 1872, the Trustees were directed to make a permanent location for the school, and $45,000 was appropriated for the erection of the necessary buildings. The Trustees were further directed, as soon as practicable, to organize a school for girls in the buildings where the boys were then kept.

The Trustees located the school at Eldora, Hardin County, and in the code of 1873, it is permanently located there by law.

The institution is managed by five Trustees, who are paid mileage, but no compensation for their services.

The object is the reformation of children of both sexes, under the age of 16 and over 7 years of age; and the law requires that the Trustees shall require the boys and girls under their charge to be instructed in piety and morality, and in such branches of useful knowledge as are adapted to their age and capacity, and in some regular course of labor, either mechanical, manufacturing or agricultural, as is best suited to their age, strength, disposition and capacity, and as may seem best adapted to secure the reformation and future benefit of the boys and girls.

A boy or girl committed to the State Reform School is there kept, disciplined, instructed, employed and governed, under the direction of the Trustees, until he or she arrives at the age

of majority, or is bound ont, reformed or legally discharged. The binding out or discharge of a boy or girl as reformed, or having arrived at the age of majority, is a complete release from all penalties incurred by conviction of the crime for which he or she is committed.

Trustees, 1881:-J. A. Parvin, Muscatine, President; W.J. Moir, Eldorado, Treasurer; W. G. Stewart, Dubuque; J. T. Moorhead, Ely; T. E. Corkhill, Mount Pleasant; B. J. Miles, Eldora, Superintendent. L. D. Lewelling is Superintendent of the Girl's Department, at Mitchellville, Polk County.


Near Anamosa, Jones County. The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874. passed “An act to provide for the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction of fisb ways for the protection and propagation of fish;" also "an act to provide for furnishing the rivers and lakes with fish and fish spawn." This act appropriated $3,000 for the purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the first act above mentioned, on the 9th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans, of Ottumwa, Wapello County; B. F. Shaw, of Jones County, and Charles A. Haines, of Black Hawk County, were appointed to be Fish Commissioners by the Governor. These Commissioners met at Des Moines, May 10, 1874, and organized by the election of Mr. Evans, President; Mr. Shaw, Secretary and Superintendent, and Mr. Haines, Treasurer.

The State was partitioned into three districts or divisions to enable the Commissioners to better superintend the construction of fishways as required by law. At this meeting, the Superintendent was authorized to build a State Hatching House; co procure the spawn of valuable fish adapted to the waters of Iowa; hatch and prepare the young fish for distribution, and assist in putting them into the waters of the State.

In compliance with these instructions, Mr. Shaw at once commenced work, and in the summer of 1874, erected a "State Hatching House" near Anamosa, 20x40 feet, two stories; the second story being designed for a tenement; the first story being the "hatching room." The hatching troughs are supplied with water from a magnificent spring, four feet deep and about ten

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