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through more labour and difficulties for the and self-partiality may be in all different sake of his children than he would undergo degrees. It is a lower degree of it which from that affection alone if he thought it, David himself refers to in these words, Who and the course of action it led to, either in can tell how oft he offendeth? O cleanse thou different or criminal.

me from my secret faults. This is the ground This indeed is impossible, to do that which of that advice of Elihu to Job: Surely it is is good and not to approve of it; for which meet to be said unto God,That which I see reason they are frequently not considered as not, teach thou me; if I have done iniquity, I distinct, though they really are: for men will do no more. And Solomon saw this often approve of the actions of others which thing in a very strong light when he said, they will not imitate, and likewise do that He that trusteth his own heart is a fool. This which they approve not. It cannot possibly likewise was the reason why that precept, be denied that there is this principle of re- Know thyself, was so frequently inculcated flection or conscience in human nature. Sup-by the philosophers of old. For if it were pose a man to relieve an innocent person in not for that partial and fond regard to ourgreat distress; suppose the same man after-selves it would certainly be no great difficulty wards, in the fury of anger, to do the greatest to know our own character, what passes mischief to a person who had given no just within the bent and bias of our mind ; much cause of offence; to aggravate the injury, less would there be any difficulty in judging add the circumstances of former friendship rightly of our own actions. But from this and obligation from the injured person : let partiality it frequently comes to pass that the man who is supposed to have done these the observation of many men's being themtwo different actions coolly reflect upon themselves last of all acquainted with what falls afterwards, without regard to their conse- out in their own families may be applied to quences to himself: to assert that any com- a nearer home,-to what passes within their mon man would be affected in the same own breasts. way towards these different actions, that he There is plainly, in the generality of man would make no distinction between thein, kind, an absence of doubt or distrust, in a but approve or disapprove them equally, is very great measure, as to their moral chartoo glaring an absurdity to need being con- acter and behaviour; and likewise a disposifuted. There is therefore this principle of tion to take for granted that all is right and reflection or conscience in mankind. It is well with them in these respects. The former needless to compare the respect it has to is owing to their not reflecting, not exercising private good with the respect it has to their judgment upon themselves; the latter, to public; since it plainly tends as much to self-love. I am not speaking of that extravathe latter as to the former, and is commonly gance, which is sometimes to be met with ; thought to tend chiefly to the latter. This instances of persons declaring in words at faculty is now mentioned merely as another length, that they never were in the wrong, part in the inward frame of man, pointing nor ever had any diffidence of the justness out to us in some degree what we are in- of their conduct, in their whole lives. No, tended for, and as what will naturally and these people are too far gone to have anyof course have some influence.

thing said to them. The thing before us is Sermon upon Human Nature.

indeed of this kind, but in a lower degree,

and confined to the moral character; someSelf-DeceIT.

what of which we almost all of us have,

without reflecting upon it. Now consider There is not anything relating to men and how long and how grossly a person of the characters, more surprising and unaccount- best understanding might be imposed upon able, than this partiality to themselves which by one of whom he had not any suspicion, is observable in many; as there is nothing and in whom he placed an entire confidence; of more melancholy reflection, respecting especially if there were friendship and real morality, virtue, and religion. Hence it is kindness in the case : surely this holds even that many men seem perfect strangers to stronger with respect to that self we are all their own characters. They think, and so fond of. Hence arises in men a disregard reason, and judge quite differently upon any of reproof and instruction, rules of conduct natter relating to themselves from what they and moral discipline, which occasionally to in cases of others where they are not in come in their way: a disregard, I say, of erested. Hence it is one hears people ex- these; not in every respect, but in this vosing follies which they themselves are single one, namely, as what may be of minent for; and talking with great severity service to them in particular towards mendcaiast particular vices which, if all the ing their own hearts and tempers, and makTorld be not mistaken, they themselves are ing them better men. It never in earnest otoriously guilty of. This self-ignorance comes into their thoughts whether such ad166

PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE.

monitions may not relate and be of service immoral man who invades another's propto themselves, and this quite distinct from a erty is justly hanged for it; and the ill-bred positive persuasion to the contrary, a per man who by his ill manners invades and suasion from reflection that they are innocent disturbs the quiet and comforts of private and blameless in these respects.

life is by common consent as justly banished Sermon upon Self-Deceit.

society. Mutual complaisances, attentions, and sacrifices of little conveniences, are as natural an implied contract between civilized

people as protection and obedience are be PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE, tween kings and subjects; whoever, in either EARL OF CHESTERFIELD

case, violates that compact justly forfeits all

advantages arising from it. For my own born 1694. died 1773, famous in his day as part I really think that, next to the cona wit, a courtier, & politician, and patron of sciousness of doing a good action that of literature is still remembered for his Letters doing a civil one is the most pleasing ; and to his Son Philip Stanbope, Lond., 1774, 2 the epithet which I should covet the most, yols. 4to: New edition, with Additions. next to that of Aristides, would be that of edited by Lord Mahon (5th Earl Stanhopel. / well-bred. Thus much for good breeding in Lond., 1845-53, 5 vols. Sro. The first edition general: I will now consider some of the was republished in Boston, Mass., in 1779. | various modes and degrees of it. Miscellaneous Works, with Memoirs by M. Very few, scarcely any, are wanting in Maty. M.D., Lond., 1777–78, 2 vols. 4to: the respect which they should show to those Supplement to his Letters, Lond., 1787, 4to. whom they acknowledge to be infinitely

their superiors, such as crowned heads. " It was not to be wondered at that they bad so princes, and public persons of distinguished great & sale, considering that they were the let

let: and eminent posts. It is the manner of ters of a statesman, a wit, one who had been much in the mouths of mankind, one long accustomed

showing that respect which is different. The virum colitare per ora. ... Does not Lord Ches. | man of fashion and of the world expresses terfield give precepts for uniting wickedness and it in its fullest extent, bat naturally, easily, the graces? .:. Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his and without concern; whereas a man who Son, I think, might be made a very pretty book. is not used to keep good company espresses Take out the immorality, and it should be put into it awkwardly: one sees that he is not used the hands of every gentleman.”—DR. Jouxsox.

to it, and that it costs him a great deal; It may here be remarked that Johnson's but I never saw the worst-bred man living letter to Chesterfield was grossly unjust.

guilty of lolling. whistling, scratching his

head, and such like indecencies, in company GooD BREEDING.

that he respected. In such companies, there

fore, the only point to be attended to is, to A friend of yours and mine has very show that respect which everybody means justly defined good breeding to be, the re- to show, in an easy, unembarrassed, and sult of inuch good sense, some good nature, graceful manner. This is what observation and a little self-denial for the sake of others, and experience must teach you. and with a view to obtain the same indul. In mixed companies, whoever is admitted gence from them." Taking this for granted to make part of them is, for the time at least, (as I think it cannot be disputed), it is aston-supposed to be on a footing of equality with ishing to me that anybody who has good the rest: and, consequently, as there is no sense and good nature can essentially fail in one principal object of awe and respect, peogood breeding. As to the modes of it, ple are apt to take a greater latitude in their indeed, they vary according to persons, behaviour, and to be less upon their guard: places, and circumstances, and are only to and so they may, provided it be within cer he acquired by observation and experience ; tain bounds, which are upon no occasion to but the substance of it is everywhere and be transgressed. But upon these occasions, eternally the same. Good manners are, to though no one is entitled to distinguished particular societies, what good morals are to marks of respect, every one claims, and very society in general-their cement and their justly, every mark of civility and good security. And as laws are enacted to enfuree breeding. Ease is allowed, but careless good morals, or at least to prevent the ill ness and negligence are strictly forbidden. effects of bad ones, so there are certain rules If a man aceosts you, and talks to you ever of civility, universally implied and received, so dully or frivolously, it is worse than rude to enforce good manners and punish had ness, it is brutality, to show him, by a mant ones. And indeed there seems to be less ' fest inattention to what he says that you difference between the crimes and punish- think him a fool or a blockhead, and not ments than at first one would imagine. The worth bearing. It is much more so with

WILLIAM WARBURTON.

167

regard to women, who, of whatever rank us ; but I shall certainly observe that degree they are, are entitled, in consideration of of good breeding with you which is, in the their sex, not only to an attentive, but an first place, decent, and which, I am sure, officious good breeding from men. Their is absolutely necessary to make us like one little wants, likings, dislikes, preferences, another's company long. antipathies, and fancies must be officiously Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son. attended to, and, if possible, guessed at and anticipated, by a well-bred man. You must never usurp to yourself those conveniences and gratifications which are of common right,

WILLIAM WARBURTON, D.D., such as the best places, the best dishes, &c.; but on the contrary always decline them born 1698, left school (he was never at colyourself, and offer them to others, who, in lege) 1715, and for about four years practheir turns, will offer them to you; so that, tised as an attorney at Newark; received upon the whole, you will in your turn enjoy deacon's orders, 1723, Preacher to Lincoln's your share of the common right. It would Inn, 1746, Prebendary of Gloucester, 1753, be endless for me to enumerate all the par- and of Durham, 1755, Dean of Bristol, 1757, ticular instances in which a well-bred man Bishop of Gloucester, 1759, died 1779. He shows his good breeding in good company; was author of Miscellaneous Translations, and it would be injurious to you to suppose Lond., 1723 (some 1724), 12mo; Critical and that your own good sense will not point Philosophical Enquiry into the Causes of them out to you, and then your own good Prodigies and Miracles, as related by Ilisto nature will recommend and your self-inter- rians, Lond., 1727, 12mo (this and the Transest enforce the practice.

lations were suppressed); The Alliance beThere is a third sort of good breeding in 'tween Church and State, Lond., 1741, 8vo ; which people are the most apt to fail from a Julian, 1750, 8vo; and other works. His very mistaken notion that they cannot fail greatest production was The Divine Legation at all. I mean with regard to one's most of Moses Demonstrated, Lond., 1737, etc., familiar friends and acquaintances, or those never completed : new edition, Lond., Tegg, who really are our inferiors; and there, un | 1846, 3 vols. 8vo ; Warburton's Works doubtedly, a greater degree of ease is not sedited by Bishop IIurd], Lond., 1788, 7 vols. only allowed, but proper, and contributes 4to; new edition, Lond., 1811, 12 vols. 8vo. much to the comforts of a private social life.

“Warburton's Divine Legation delighted mo But ease and freedom have their bounds, I

more than any book I had yet (at 15] read. ... which must by no means be violated. A | The luminous theory of hieroglyphics, as a stage certain degree of negligence and careless in the progress of society, between picture writing ness becomes injurious and insulting, from and alphabetic character, is perhaps the only the real or supposed inferiority of the per

addition made to the stock of knowledge in this sons; and that delightful liberty of conver

extraordinary work; but the uncertain and prob.

ably false suppositions about the pantheism of the sation among a few friends is soon destroyed,

ancient philosophers and the object of the mysteas liberty often has been, by being carried to

ries (in reality, perhaps, somewhat like the freelicentiousness. But example explains things masonry of our own times) are well adapted to best, and I will put a pretty strong case : rouse and exercise the adventurous genius of Suppose you and me alone together: I be- / youth."--Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH: Life, ch. i. lieve you will allow that I have as good a

“ The Divine Legation of Moses is a monument, right to unlimited freedom in your company weakness of the human mind. If Warburton's

already crumbling into dust, of the vigour and the as either you or I can possibly have in any

new argument proved anything, it would be a other; and I am apt to believe, too, that demonstration against the legislator who left his you would indulge me in that freedom as people without the knowledge of a future state. far as any body would. But, notwithstand- | But some episodes of the work, on the Greek ing this, do you imagine that I should think

philosophy, the hieroglyphics of Egypt, &c., are there was no bounds to that freedom? I

entitled to the praise of learning, imagination,

and discernment." - EDWARD GIBBON : Miscell. assure you I should not think so; and I

Works, edit, 1837, 88, n. take myself to be as much tied down by a certain degree of good manners to you, as

The reader will find a graphic portrait of by other degrees of them to other people.

Warburton by a good painter in our article The most familiar and intimate habitudes. I on Lord Bolingbroke in this volume. connexions, and friendships require a de

Bishop WARBURTON TO IIURD. gree of good breeding both to preserve and cement them. The best of us have our bad

Prior PARK, Dec. 27, 1761. sides, and it is as imprudent as it is ill-bred Let me wish you (as we all do) all the to exhibit them. I shall not use ceremony happiness that goodness can derive from with you; it would be misplaced between this season.

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The honour this country derives from the

JOSEPH SPENCE, Duke of York's visit can bardly compensate the bad news of a Spanish war, which puts

born 1699, Professor of Poetry at Oxford,

1728–38, and Regius Professor of Modern the city of London in a consternation. This

Ilistory, 1742, Prebendary of Durham, 1754. event does honour to Mr. Pitt's sagacity, and the wisdom of his advice upon it. Whether

was drowned in a canal in his garden, 1768.

Among his works are An Essay on Pope's this war, which was foreseen by nobody to

Translation of Homer's Odyssey, Lond., be inevitable but by him, can be successfully

1727, 8vo; Polymetis; or, An Enquiry conmanaged by any body but by him, time must show ; for I would not pretend to be wiser

cerning the Agreement between the Works

of the Roman Poets and the Remains of the than our teachers, I mean, the news-writers, who refer all doubtful cases, as the Treasury

| Ancient Artists, Lond., 1747, royal fol. ; does all desperate payments, to time. ...|

| Crito, by Sir Harry Beaumont, Lond., 1752,

8vo; Moralities, by Sir Harry Beaumont, What you say of lume is true; and (what either I said in my last, or intended to say)

Lond., 1753, 8vo. He left a valuable MS.

collection of Observations. Anecdotes, and you have taught him to write so much bet

Characters, which were first published in ter, that he has thoroughly confirmed your

our 1820, crown Sro, two editions, -one edited system.

by E. Malone, one by S. W. Singer,-pab I have been both too ill and too lazy to finish my Discourse on the Holy Spirit. Not

lished the same day: Malone's edition is above half of it is yet printed.

only a Selection ; Singer's edition, 2d edit., I have been extremely entertained with 1858, fp. 8vo, professes to be authentic. the wars of Fingal (Ossian). It can be no «Enougb has been proved to show that, instead cheat, for I think the enthusiasm of this su- of a verbatim' reprint, what was wanted was a perficial sublime could bardly be counterfeit. carefully revised, collected, and annotated edition,

and that Mr. Singer's, beat and ebeap, unhappily A modern writer would have been less

stops the way."— Lond. Ather., 1359, 250. simple and uniform. Thus far bad I written when your letter of Christmas-day came

THE EXED AND VIRGIL's Gesirs. to band; as you will easily understand by ny submitting to take shame upon me, and It preserves more to us of the religion of assuring you that I am fully convinced of the Romans than all the other Latin poets my false opinion delivered just above con- (exeepting only Ovid) put together; and cerning Hingal. I did not consider the mat gives us the forms and appearances of their ter as I ought. Your reasons for the fon deities as strongly as if we haut so many pie gery are unanswerable. And of all these tures of them preserved to us, done by some reasons but one occurred to me, the want of of the best hands in the Augustan age It external evidence, and this. I ownt, did shock is remarkable that he is commended by some ine. But you have waked me from a very of the ancients themselves for the strength pleasing dream ; and made me hate the im- of his imagination as to this partienlar, postor, which is the most uneasy sentiment though in general that is not his character of our waking thoughts....

so much as exactness. He was certainly Sterne has published his fifth and sixth the most correet puet eren of his time : in volumes of Tristram. They are wrote pretty which all false thoughts and idle ornaments much like the first and second ; but whether in writing were discouraged: and it is eerthey will restore his reputation as a writer tain that there is but little of intention in his with the publio is another question. The Eneid ; much less, I believe. than is gener fellow himself is an irrecoverable seoun ally imagined. Almost all the little facts in drel. ...

it are built on history, and even as to the I think the booksellers have an intention particular lines no one perhaps ever bor of employing Baskerville to print Pope in rowed more from the poets that preceded 4to; so they sent me the last octavo to look him than he did. He goes so far back as to over, I have added the enclosed to the long old Ennius: and often inserts whole reres note in the beginning of the Rape of the from him and some other of their enrliest Lock, in answer to an impertinence of Joseph writers. The obsoleteness of their style Warton. When you have perused it, you not hinder bim mueh in his : for be is a will send it back. I have sometimes thought particular lover of their old language : ind of collecting my seatcered anecdotes and no doubt inserted many more antiquntri critical observations together, for che foun- words in his poem than we can diserer dation of a life of Pope, which the booksellers at present. Juugmens is his disinguishing tease me for. If I do that, all of that kind character; and his great excellence consistei Dust be struck out of the notes of last edi in chusing and ranging things arichs. What tion. You could help me nubiy to fill up ever he borrowed he had the still fanking the canvas.

his own, by weaving it so well into his wort

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that it looks all of a piece ; even those parts is in these that he shews that talent for critof his poems where this may be most prac-icism in which he so very much excelled ; tised resembling a fine piece of Mosaic, in especially in his long epistle to Augustus; which all the parts, though of such different and that other to the Pisos, commonly called marbles, unite together; and the various his Art of Poetry. They abound in strokes shades and colours are so artfully disposed which shew his great knowledge of mankind, as to melt off insensibly into one another. and in that pleasing way he had of teaching

One of the greatest beauties in Virgil's philosophy, of laughing away vice, and inprivate character was his modesty and good- sinuating virtue into the minds of his readnature. He was apt to think humbly of him ers. They may serve as much as almost self and handsomely of others; and was any writings can, to make men wiser and ready to show his love of merit even where better: for he has the most agreeable way it might seem to clash with his own. He of preaching that ever was. He was, in was the first who recommended Horace to general, an honest good man himself: at Mæcenas.

least he does not seem to have had any one

ill-natured vice about him. Other poets we OBSERVATIONS on HORACE.

adinire; but there is not any of the ancient

poets that I could wish to have been acIlorace was the fittest man in the world quainted with so much as Horace. One for a court where wit was so particularly cannot be very conversant with his writings encouraged. No man seems to have had without having a friendship for the man; more, and all of the genteelest sort; or to and longing to have just such another as he have been better acquainted with mankind. was for one's friend. His gaiety, and even his debauchery, made him still the more agreeable to Mæcenas: so that it is no wonder that his acquaintance with that Minister grew up to so high a

GILBERT WEST, LL.D., degree of friendship as is very uncommon born about 1700 to 1705, died 1756, pubbetween a first Minister and a poet; and lished among other things Odes of Pindar, which had probably such an effect upon the with several other Pieces in Prose and latter as one shall scarce ever hear of be

Verse, translated from the Greek, etc., tween any two friends the most on a level :

Lond., 1749, 4to; Observations on the Ilisfor there is some room to conjecture that he

tory and Evidences of the Resurrection of hastened himself out of this world to accom

Jesus Christ, Lond., 1747, Svo. pany his great friend in the next. Horace has been most generally celebrated for his

“This is one of the acutest and best-reasoned lyric poems; in which he far exceeded all

works which have appeared in English on the

Resurrection of Christ."-ORME's Bibl. Bib., 464. the Roman poets, and perhaps was no un

“His work is poticed here on account of the lumi. worthy rival of several of the Greek: which nous and satisfactory manner in which be has har. seems to have been the height of his ambi monized the several accounts of the evangelical bistion. His next point of merit, as it has tory of the resurrection.”—Horne's Bibl, Bib., 138. been usually reckoned, was his refining satire ; and bringing it from the coarseness

Tae SimpliCITY OF THE Sacred WRITERS. and harshness of Lucilius to the genteel, / I cannot forbear taking notice of one other easy manner which be, and perhaps nobody mark of integrity which appears in all the but he and one person more in all the ages compositions of the sacred writers, and parsince, bas ever possessed. I do not remem- ticularly the evangelists; and that is the ber that any one of the ancients says any- simple, unaffected, unornamental, and unosthing of his Epistles: and this bas made tentatious manner in which they deliver me sometimes imagine that his Epistles and truths so important and sublime, and facts Satires might originally have passed under so magnificent and wonderful, as are capaone and the same name; perhaps that of ble, one would think, of lighting up a flame Sermons. They are generally written in a of oratory, even in the dullest and coldest style approaching to that of conversation ; l breasts. They speak of an angel descendand are so much alike that several of the ling from heaven to foretell the miraculous satires might just as well be called epistles, I conception of Jesus ; of another proclaimas several of his epistles have the spirit of ling his birth, attended by a multitude of the satire in them. This latter part of his heavenly host praising God, “and saying works, by whatever name you please to call Glory to God in the highest, and on earth them (whether satires and epistles, or dis- peace, good-will towards men ;' of his star courses in verse on moral and familiar sub-appearing in the East; of angels ministerjects), is what, I must own, I love much bet- | ing to bim in the wilderness ; of his glory ter even than the lyric part of his works. Itin the mount; of a voice twice heard from

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