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approved methods. This position has been recommended by these representatives as being one of the very urgent needs there.

Certain other adjustments in salaries of personnel have been made, but no increase in funds is requested.

The volume of work in the Juneau office has resulted in certain jobs which can be done by semiskilled or inexperienced clerical workers, leaivng more experienced and higher salaried clerks for more technical work. The fact that supplies for most of the schools must be bought and delivered during the summer months results in a peak of clerical work in connection with payment of bills. It is extremely difficult to take advantage of discounts allowed for payment within 30 days of date of invoice and other discounts when vouchers for the bulk of the year's purchases are received within a 3 months' period. Much of the work in connection with preparing these vouchers for payment is sorting, matching purchase order numbers with respective bills, and similar semiskilled work. Local teachers and older students have been pressed into service to expedite this work, but more permanent help is necessary. In addition to voucher work, there is much other work requiring a semiskilled type of clerical service. Large quantities of material must be mimeographed, assembled, and stapled. Large shipments of requisition forms must be prepared for mailing and delivered to the post office; packing cases of supplies must be opered, stock rearranged on shelves to accommodate new material, and the stockroom kept in order. Messenger service is frequently required between the administrative office and other Government offices and commercial establishments. To meet the need in part, one Indian assistant should be appointed in the Juneau office. An increase of $1,080 is requested to cover this item.

Seattle office, $21,000 (increase, $3,000).—We are requesting an increase of $3,000 for the operation of the Seattle office. This office is a consolidated purchasing and shipping office, which serves all Federal departments operating in Álaska and also does some purchasing for the Territory.

All purchases for the Indian Service in Alaska are made on orders or requisitions which have been approved in the Juneau office. Specifications are prepared, bids solicited, and contracts are awarded for building materials, school, medical, and reindeer supplies, equipment, fuel, and other items. Total purchases for the Indian Service in Alaska amount to approximately $400,000 per annum.

The sum of $18,000 has been apportioned annually to take care of the Seattle office costs, and at one time this amount was sufficient to pay all expenses chargeable to the Indian Service. However, the amount for purchasing supplies through the Seattle office has increased until the total cost during the fiscal year 1939 (according to statement from the purchasing agent) amounted to $30,040.78. Since the cost is exceeding the item allowed in the appropriation, it is necessary to increase this amount.

The Seattle office selects the personnel for the Indian Service ships, the North Star and Boxer, supervises the repair, upkeep, and operations of these vessels; prepares the itinerary for their Alaska cruises; and submits monthly reports relative to the work.

This office also supervises the delivery of all purchases to the various docks and ships and makes all arrangements for the transportation of supplies from Seattle to Alaska.

11. Repairs to "Boxer," $5,150 (increase, $5,150).—Certain repairs and improvements to the ship Boxer are necessary for the safety of the ship personnel and cargo. The proposed improvements are as follows:

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(a) Radio direction finder, $350.—It is strongly recommended that the direction finder be installed on the Boxer, because the radio-bearing shore stations in Alaska have been changed to radio-beacon stations, and a vessel must have a direction finder aboard to get a bearing. During fog and snowstorms the only safe way to navigate is by taking bearings on shore stations.

(b) Fathometer, $3,400.-There are very few ships being operated at the present time that are not equipped with fathometers, and this equipment should be installed on the Boxer at the earliest possible date.

(c) Radio telephone transmitter and receiver, $600.-A radiotelephone would enable the Boxer to ascertain weather conditions from schools which are practically

all equipped with these instruments. The vessel has to anchor in some cases as far as 12 miles from the schools. With a radiotelephone, the captain could save time and labor by knowing what the surf conditions were before leaving the ship for shore.

(d) Photoelectric steering apparatus, $800.-The Boxer is a very unhandy vessel to steer at speeds above 4 knots. It is, therefore, recommended that a photoelectric pilot be installed on the vessel. It would practically pay for itself in one season by the saving on fuel oil and running time between ports.

12. Administrative promotions, $7,320 (increase, $7,320). This sum is requested to permit awarding administrative promotions in meritorious cases in accordance with the formula explained elsewhere in the justifications. If good administration and high morale are to be attained, employees performing satisfactory services must be given an incentive to display an increasing interest in their work. This can be accomplished in part by rewarding good work with salary increases at not too infrequent intervals.

REDUCTION IN DAY SCHOOLS

Mr. JOHNSON of Oklahoma. What is the explanation of the reduction of $39,130, Mr. Beatty?

Mr. BEATTY. It is a real reduction of $72,400 for day schools, deductions which are made because of low attendance.

REQUESTED INCREASES FOR 1941

There are some small items of increase: $4,320 for the apprentice program; repair and maintenance of buildings, $8,500, which has been urged by Mr. Dimond year after year; $400 for rent for additional school space; $7,580 for supervision and maintenance; $5,150 for repairs to the Borer which we are using more than ever this year because the North Star is with the Byrd expedition to Little America; and $7,320 for administrative promotions.

TONNAGE OF "NORTH STAR" AND "BOXER"

Mr. LEAVY. The North Star was formerly used in your transportation service?

Mr. BEATTY. It has been the major transportation boat to Alaska for several years.

Mr. LEAVY. Was it a larger boat than the Boxer?

Mr. BEATTY. Yes; it carried about 2,000 tons compared to the Boxer's three or four hundred.

Mr. LEAVY. How much of a handicap is that to you?

Mr. BEATTY. It will undoubtedly result in increasing the transportation costs this year, for we will be compelled to make greater use of commercial boats.

Mr. LEAVY. Do you have any way of estimating what that increase will be?

Mr. GREENWOOD. We do not have the figures at this time, Mr. Leavy. We expect a report soon from the Department's agent in Seattle who has charge of the ships.

Mr. LEAVY. For the record would you give us the difference in tonnage between the two ships?

Mr. GREENWOOD. North Star, 2,000 tons capacity; Boxer, 400 tons capacity.

EFFECT OF LIMITED TONNAGE OF THE "BOXER"

Mr. LEAVY. Are you finding it difficult to meet the needs of the service by the limited tonnage on the Boxer?

Mr. GREENWOOD. To a considerable extent we are having to transport supplies in commercial vessels and that is not always satisfactory because they are not familiar with the stations as a rule and the supplies get misshipped. We have had quite a bit of difficulty along that line, specifically with some construction materials. Mr. RICH. May I ask you a question?

Mr. BEATTY. Yes, sir.

Mr. RICH. If you have to ship by merchant ships because of the loss of the use of that vessel, the ship that you had for your ownand this is an item for maintaining the ships, this extra cost is paid by the Interior Department?

Mr. BEATTY. Yes, sir.

Mr. RICH. Then what proportionate part of the increase would revert to your shipments to Alaska and what percentage is represented in increased costs?

Mr. BEATTY. We do not have the figures, Mr. Rich. Those figures will be furnished us by the Seattle office after we have had opportunity to find out the increased costs of commercial shipment resulting from the loss of the North Star.

Mr. RICH. Then I would like to ask you this question: Do you keep that boat in service 12 months of the year?

Mr. BEATTY. The committee last year made it possible for the first time for us to keep the boat in service continuously. Up until that time the date at which the appropriation became applicable did not permit the use of the boat during the winter months. Mr. Dimond appeared before this committee last year and described so eloquently the conditions which result from delayed shipments to Alaska, that you made it possible for us to use the North Star continuously, thereby providing for six or seven trips a year.

Mr. RICH. What month of the year, as a rule, are you unable to operate the boat?

Mr. BEATTY. Heretofore we had not been operating the boat during the winter months. From about December on we had no funds with which to pay for purchases of supplies which could be shipped during those months.

The new language has made it possible for us to purchase supplies in advance of the new appropriation. That means that we can serve southeast Alaska during the winter months, and send the boats to the northerly points during the summer months.

Mr. JOHNSON of Oklahoma. Do you know about how much saving you actually made?

Mr. BEATTY. I do not; this would have been the first winter of the new service.

Mr. SHEPPARD. What is the comparable size of the North Star and the Boxer?

Mr. BEATTY. The North Star carries about 2,000 tons; the Boxer, less than 400 tons.

Mr. SHEPPARD. Less than 400?

Mr. BEATTY. Yes.

REPAIRS TO "BOXER"

Mr. SHEPPARD. Had you been able to retain the North Star in service, as you have indicated, it would not have been necessary to have had this item of $5,150, as charges for repairs, in the appropriation, would it?

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Mr. GREENWOOD. I do not think that would have made any difference, Mr. Sheppard.

Mr. SHEPPARD. In other words, you feel that the North Star would have needed the same amount as the Boxer?

Mr. GREENWOOD. This provides for needed improvements on the Boxer.

Mr. FICKINGER. We have to use both boats, the Boxer and the North Star.

Mr. SHEPPARD. And because you have only the smaller vessel now you are having additional expense for transportation.

Mr. GREENWOOD. Yes, sir; that is why we are now having to use commercial vessels.

Mr. SHEPPARD. I see. And I believe you stated you have not compiled the figures up to this time.

Mr. BEATTY. That is right.

Mr. SHEPPARD. And evidently do not know what the additional cost may be.

Mr. BEATTY. That is right.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE CAUSE FOR REDUCTION IN NUMBER OF TEACHERS

Mr. JOHNSON of Oklahoma. Do you have any further statement with reference to reductions in this item?

Mr. BEATTY. There is a reduction of 1 teacher at each of 24 stations, and 1 station where there is a reduction of 2 teachers.

The reduction was made because of failure to maintain an average daily attendance sufficient to justify continuance of two teachers. You will find a tabulation on pages 96 to 100 of the 3 years' average enrollment and attendance in the schools, and these attendance figures compared to the 1939.

In the 26 cases referred to, the average daily attendance fell below the standards maintained in the States, where 1 teacher is allowed for 30 pupils or less; 2 teachers for 45 or more.

Mr. SHEPPARD. What is that chargeable to?

Mr. BEATTY. There are three or four reasons; in the majority of cases, the enrollment of pupils is adequate to justify the number of teachers allowed last year, but at practically every station involved the natives leave the villages twice a year, either for fishing, during one season of the year, or hunting and trapping during another season of the year.

The children are taken with their parents, the entire village moves and we have a short school session, which brings down the average daily attendance.

Two years ago we began to compensate for that by requesting the teachers at a number of these stations to accompany the people to their fishing or trapping camps. You will find this described in the justification which indicates the desirability of purchasing some additional equipment, consisting of boats, outboard motors, camping outfits, and so forth, to make it possible for the teachers to be with the Indians and Eskimos on their summer and winter fishing or trapping movements.

Mr. SHEPPARD. Is that not a rather drastic requirement?

Mr. BEATTY. Yes; but we have found most teachers quite willing to go. They are finding that the results amply justify the additional efforts that are being made.

You will find one or two letters quoted in the justifications.
Mr. SHEPPARD. I want to commend your teaching staff.
Mr. BEATTY. They are very cooperative.

Mr. SHEPPARD. As compared with the experience here?

Mr. BEATTY. I think they show a very cooperative attitude. They are very much concerned with the problems with which they are faced. They carry on a great deal of community service beside their teaching. The additional time given to such work is shown in the table on pages 115 through 119.

You will see that the average teacher puts in a lot more than enough time to supplement the loss in the average daily attendance.

In 14 of the stations affected by the cut the teacher is also responsible for the reindeer round-ups, for the native cooperative reindeer company; where we have had 2 teachers 1 is away anywhere from a month and one-half to two months during the year in charge of reindeer when the man is away the wife teaches all the children regardless of how many there may be, up to 40 or 50.

Seven other of these stations are what we speak of as clearing-house stations. Kotzebue for instance is a shipping point, receiving supplies for three or four additional inland stations, and transshipping them. Teachers on the way to and from these inland points use the quarters at these coastal points as a way station, and expect to be entertained, while waiting for their boats.

Mr. SHEPPARD. Are these teachers under civil service?
Mr. BEATTY. They are all civil-service appointees.

DUTIES AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS

Mr. SHEPPARD. Do you have a special examination for teachers to serve in Alaska as compared with those within the States?

Mr. BEATTY. The examination for Alaska and for the States is the same, but we do not send a person to Alaska who has not first indicated a willingness to go.

Mr. SHEPPARD. Do you experience very much difficulty getting persons to go?

Mr. BEATTY. We have been able to staff the schools but we have never had a waiting list. Our Alaska employees are not only teachers, they are first-aid nurses; they have charge of the reindeer work; they carry on the census; they are responsible often as Territorial commissioners. They may be the postmaster, or postmistress, and they are often the only representatives of the Federal Government in their particular community.

Mr. SHEPPARD. In other words they are the Government, ex officio, Mr. BEATTY. The Government ex officio.

Mr. JOHNSON of Oklahoma. How long do they work each year? Mr. BEATTY. They are employed for 12 months and they are on the job 12 months in the year, for most of thm can take-annual leave only once in 3 years.

Mr. JOHNSON of Oklahoma. Do you pay them for 12 months?
Mr. BEATTY. Yes; they are paid for 12 months.

Mr. JOHNSON of Oklahoma. Are you paying higher salaries for teachers there than in the Indian Service in the States? And if so, how much?

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