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We must refrain from embarking upon the wide and rought sea of the intrigues, jealousies, bigotry, and turbulence which certainly disgrace the terminating portion of the Council of Trent; and remit our readers-who, if they are not acquainted with them, ought-to the pages of the work in which we believe them to be faithfully extracted and exhibited. We will content ourselves with observing, that the representations, unflattering as they certainly appear, are not discharged from the quills of heretics, dipped in the gall of hatred against those, who, if they obtained

any other than hatred, earned it not by their tender mercies. They proceed voluntarily from individuals who were true sons of the Roman church, and who would have bled themselves, or rather made others bleed, in proof of their devotedness to her cause. But case-hardened as such persons are, when the influence of their religion acts freely and directly upon them, there are times when they are off their guard ;-times, when they feel themselves communicating only with their friends, and the thought never intrudes of their having to encounter other witnesses and judges ;-times, when a strong and present passion carries them onward in its irresistible and absorbing torrent;-and times, when common natural sense and feeling, the wreck which the corruption of the human nature has yet left, to secure the world from the extremity of disorder and misery, —when these leavings of poor debased humanity rise against the dictates of a depraved faith, and persecuted innocence finds an occasional refuge from abused christianity in the pittance of charity which sin has left undestroyed in the heart of man. The turgid panegyric of Campian on the Council of Trent is notorious, and is found repeated in the pages which we have been examining. · Living near the time, and when the rays of truth were carefully restrained from reaching such a distance as England, it is very possible that this papal martyr, and fanatical traitor, may have really believed his own fiction. But how an acute modern, the late C. Butler, Esq., whose encomium upon the council likewise illuminates Mr. M.'s pages, could himself be deceived on the subject, or how, by some reserve or ambiguity, he could attempt to produce the belief in others which he did not feel himself, is among those phenomena which we do not like, without necessity, to account for. Certain it is, that the man who is not disabused of such a sentiment by the free and voluntary statements of the very competent--there could not be more competent-witnesses brought into court in the Memoirs before us, proves himself well entitled to a search warrant for his wits in the moon.

The train of observation which facts have obliged us to adopt, does not, it is true, speak much for the wisdom of the council. We cannot help that. We must take the truth as it is. If a portion of our fellow-creatures will believe and consequently

act unwisely as others, if not themselves, will believe and act wickedly-we are not to be prohibited the right of seeing, exposing, and to the best of our power demolishing, both the folly and the vice. Folly itself, and by itself, is a grievous evil. The follies, of men constitute or produce some of the gravest and most calamitous events of human history. It is not therefore, enough to laugh at them; it is both sin and inhumanity so to do. And therefore, although the doctrines of Trent be the fables of children, grown as well as young, yet, where they prevail, they are productive of substantial and serious injury; and none but the heartless atheist, or irreligionist of any cast, will regard them with mirth or indifference. During our short residence on earth we are on our trial for eternity; and woe to him who, either for himself or others, will say, and act accordingly, that life and its events are a jest.

In our review of the Memoirs we must not omit the Supplement. This contains some corrections, but more additions; all of which appear to be both remote from general knowledge, and important. The confirmation of the genuine papal origin and character of the Centum Gravamina from Zuingle, Claude d'Espense, and Cornelius Agrippa; the protestation of our King Henry VIII. against the council on its first proposal; the account of Cardinal Quignon's Reformed Breviary; the contents of Paul III.'s Bulla Reformationis, lately discovered and published by H. N. Clausen of Copenhagen; the account of the condemnation by certain fathers in the council, of the practice which prevailed among Romanists, of frequenting the Anglican service in the time of Queen Elizabeth ; the true cause of the refusal of Pius VII. to declare war against England ; together with several other articles of not common information, especially those derived from the Anecdota ad Hist. Conc. Trid. pertinentia, published from manuscripts in the Royal Library of the University of Göttingen, by G. Jac. Planck, in twenty-four numbers, from 1791 to 1815, and hardly known in this country--these are articles, which, in our opinion, could not be withheld from those who take an interest in the Council of Trent, or in the papal controversy, which has not yet come to its height, without loss.

There is a point to which we would awaken the attention of protestant scholars in ecclesiastical affairs. Fra. P. Sarpi's history, as translated by Sir Nathaniel Brent, is not an English form of the history worthy of the present age. All readers who understand French, betake themselves to Courayer's translation; and it deserves all their preference. It is excellent, and does honour to French ecclesiastical literature in every respect. Why should not an English translation be undertaken on the same plan, and with all the assistances which the Frenchman has supplied ready to hand? The marginal authorities, the notes, the contents of

the chapters, are executed with masterly ability. Let an English translator, acquainted with the Italian original, and availing himself to the full of all Courayer's contributions, (without servilely copying him, for he is sometimes redundant,) as well as of the new materials which he will find in ample measure in the Memoirs which have passed our review, issue proposals to the purpose marked out,--and we doubt not, that a Protestant public will do their duty.

Before we dismiss the present work, we cannot forbear some notice of the plates which accompany it. The fac-similes of the signatures to the authenticated copies of the canons and decrees, with some others of eminent persons connected with the council, possess undoubtedly a considerable interest with those who value every memorial of important events as associated with Christianity. But the fac-simile, as far as an outline executed with eminent skill can convey it, of an engraving taken from a well-finished painting of the council in session, in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, in Trent—the church where the congregations were held, and now in a state of comparative decay, is an ornament and acquisition to the work, which the man of taste, as well as the student in theology, will know how to appreciate. The original is noticed by Mr. Inglis in his “ Travels in the Tyrol," as Mr. M. has observed, p. 17. There is a plate, as we understand, of very inferior execution and size, and yet possessing rude merit, exhibiting the fathers assembled in their congregations in the church just mentioned: the sessions were held in the cathedral dedicated to St. Vigilio. A theologian is represented in a rostrum delivering his opinion; and two inscriptions, the one in Latin and the other in an Italian translation, state the fact, that the public were admitted to the audience of the theologians, but were excluded when the bishops spake. The print is plainly cotemporary.

Art. VI.-An Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles of the

Church of England. By GILBERT, Bishop of Sarum. Revised and corrected, with copious Notes and additional References, by the Rev. J. R. Page, M. A. London: Scott, Webster, and Geary, Charterhouse-square. 1837.

IT is now some years since Archbishop Magee--alluding to Romanism on one hand and to dissent on the other--described the church of England as assailed by a church without a religion and a religion without a church. Had that penetrating and lynx-eyed prelate only lived a few years longer, it would have been his lot, as it has been ours, to witness a solemn league and covenant entered into between these parties,-for extremes will often meet in the things of religion and politics, as in other matters:-he would have seen one common object sought, as well as one common effort made by them, for the subversion of that noble Establishment, which, in having a religion pure and primitive, is a standing evidence against Romanism; and in having a church scriptural and apostolic, is enabled to look down upon dissent as it grovels in that precise position to which all that is truly religious and sober in the land has long since consigned it.

This is not the first time, however, that this "solemn league and covenant” was entered into and sealed between these parties. In times long since gone by, we find them mutually assisting each other in the same object. Both before and after the fearful yet glorious struggle of the Revolution, we find the Romanists, when in power, endeavouring to weaken the church of England by conferring privileges and giving encouragement to the dissenters, and the ill-fated and bigoted James extending to them all the patronage and countenance of the court. While on the other hand we see the dissenters at the same period endeavouring to thwart every measure for the advancement and settlement of Protestantism in connexion with the established Church; and actually withdrawing from the field of controversy, and, just as they are doing at the present day, leaving the great conflict between scriptural Protestantism and traditional Romanism to be fought by the church of England.

There never was a period in the history of the church of Christ in which the controversy between Protestantism and Romanism was so intensely and ably contested, as at the period of the Revolution; and the fact of the dissenters having refused to take part in the glorious struggle for all that is dear to the Christian and precious to the Church, has left a stain upon this body, which the stream of ages cannot efface; while at the same time it has enabled the church of England to claim and to wear, as she has well deserved, the laurels of that noble triumph. The God of the armies of Israel was in her host of defenders, and they were more than conquerors through Him that loved them.

When the last of the house of Stuart was set upon establishing popery in this land, he proceeded in precisely that course which was suitable to the character of popery. His grand obstacle was the power and influence of the established Church; and he felt that all his efforts were unavailing, so long as that Church remained shrined in the hearts of the people of England. He felt too that the spirit of Protestantism was abroad; and that, so long as Protestantism was identified with the established Church, there was an innate power, which might to be sure seem inert for a season, but which, when occasion demanded its movement, might be wielded with a power with which even the throne could not contend;-as he lived to experience. It was necessary, therefore, for him to fling some apple of discord among the Protestants of England - to create some great division among them-to raise up and cherish some potent rival to the established Church; and thus, by setting the rivals to consume and devour each other, he might succeed in withdrawing the vigilance of Protestants in general from the development of his designs of establishing popery upon the ruins of the contending parties.

“The maxim that the king set up," as Burnet informs us, “and about which he entertained all that were about him, was the great happiness of a universal toleration. On this the king used to enlarge in a great variety of topics. He said, nothing was more reasonable, more christian, and more politic; and he reflected much on the church of England for the severities with which dissenters had been treated. This, how true or just soever it might be, yet was strange doctrine in the mouth of a professed papist; and of a prince, on whose account and by whose direction the church party had been, indeed, but too obsequiously pushed on to that rigour. But since the church party could not be brought to comply with the design of the court, applications were now made to the dissenters; and all on a sudden the churchmen were disgraced and the dissenters were in high favour. Chief Justice Herbert went the western circuit after Jefferies's bloody one; and now all was grace and favour to them; their former sufferings were much reflected on and pitied. Every thing was offered that could alleviate their sufferings; their teachers were now encouraged to set up their conventicles again, which had been discontinued, or held secretly for four or five years.

Intimations were everywhere given, that the king would not have them or their meetings disturbed. Some of them began to grow insolent on this show of favour. But wiser men among them saw through all this, and perceived the design of the papists was now to set on the dissenters against the Church, as much as they had formerly set the Church against them; and, therefore, though they returned to their conventicles, yet they had a just jealousy of the ill designs that lay hid under all this sudden and unexpected show of grace and kindness; and they took care not to provoke the church party." (Book 4.)

Thus the king endeavoured to evoke a potent rival to the established Church. He assumed the profession of liberalism, and wore the garment of conciliation in reference to the dissenters; and they, for their own selfish interests, and the advancement of their petty communities, yielded to his blandishments. They conceitedly imagined that they could compete with the intrigues of Rome; and thought that they were using the papists, while in reality the papists were using them. It was at the period of which we write, precisely as in our own times. The spirit of faction and of selfishness seized on the dissenters; they cared not how popery increased, if only the protestantism of the established Church was diminished; and they became the veriest tools, the unprincipled and selfish tools of the court party,

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