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Evidently the voyages to Ophir were undertaken with a view to this trade. Whether Tychsen's idea, that Ophir means "rich countries,” according to the Arabic, be correct; whether it be the same as Uphaz in Dan. x. 5; Jer. x. 9; and Uphaz be compounded of 15 x an island of gold, i. e. producing gold; whether the Sanskrit Oh Peru (with the prefix 37T) the golden mountain, or ufagt avăpăra, the City of the Sun, which in colloquial dialects would answer to the Hebrew sound—or any other etymology be offered—all will be mere conjecture, and incapable of defining its situation. Similar difficulties hang over Tarshish. Critics of excellent learning have identified it with Tartessus in Spain: some have placed it on the southern shores of Africa; and Hensler in Ethiopia, or one of the islands in the Arabian Gulf near that coast; whilst Eichhorn denies the existence of a Tarshish in those parts. Ezekiel mentions silver, iron, tin, and lead, among the things brought by the ships of Tarshish; and as Jonah took a vessel to Tarshish from Joppa in the Mediterranean, the argument becomes in favour of Tartessus; but when we recollect, on the other hand, that the apes, ivory, &c. which Solomon received, must have come from Africa or India—that his ships of Tarshish were in the Red Seaand that even silver, iron, tin, and lead, were also to be found in the east-we shall perceive that we have not advanced in the inquiry; and that if Tarshish be the name of a place, it will be reasonable to suppose that more than one had this appellation.
But, was the Tarshish of Solomon and Jehoshaphat the name of a place? Gosselin, Dr. Vincent, and it would seem Dr. Russell, incline to the supposition, that it denoted the sea in general. Their argument is founded on the ships of Tarshish : and if it be correct, every passage in which the term occurs will receive an easy explanation. În 1 Kings xxii. 48, Jehoshaphat is said to have made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir; but why, if Tarshish here were a place, he should have made such ships for that purpose, is incomprehensible. Yet, if Tarshish be the sea, the whole is plain. In support of this we remark, that do tărshă -aita, tărīshă, and artta, tārīshå, mean the ocean in Sanskrit—that tăr - tărănă-tără-tărănă, &c. mean a vessel, &c.; and that if India were the place to which the trade was directed, the introduction of the word may readily be explained; and even if not, that the general commerce of the times would afford a sufficient solution of its occurrence. То this we may, as no inconsequential corroboration, add the epithet of daughter of Tarshish, which is applied to Tyre in the sacred page. The etymology quoted by the author from Parkhurst is quite untenable.
Tarshish, however, as Dr. Russell notices, is one of the jewels in the breastplate of the high priest, which some conjecture to be the aigue marine, which is the colour of sea-water ; but we know too little of Hebrew precious stones to be positive concerning any of them. It is ordinarily accepted as the chrysolite. But, whatever it was is unimportant, for it is not connected with the present inquiry; nor does it follow, as Braunius thinks, that it came from a place so called, because it can legitimately be derived from the root wor; though, on the other hand, it might have been a jewel furnished by the traders to India.
To this hypothesis (for more it is not professed to be) 2 Chron. ix. 21, (cf. 1 Kings, x. 22,) opposes no difficulty. For the preceding remarks tend to show, that Tarshish may have been the name by which the Hebrews called the Indian Ocean; the word having perhaps been accommodated from some Indian dialect to their language, in which case Ophir must be sought on its shores; accordingly, the ships of Tarshish would be merely those employed in the Indian trade, which amply explains the account of Šehoshaphat having made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir. In many instances the Vulgate and other versions seem to have regarded the word, * as merely implying the sea. This interpretation might certainly be extended to the history of Jonah, viz. that he intended to go to sea, and that he found at Joppa a ship ready for sea: but if Tarshish in his book were a place, Tartessus in Spain, where the Phænicians had been in the long habit of trading, will better than any other agree with the port from which he sailed.
This commerce, therefore, even without adverting to Vans Kennedy's theory, will account for the introduction of Indian words into these parts.
Dr. Russell's remarks on the intercourse of ancient nations are everywhere perspicuous. His judgment is clear, his research indefatigable, and his propositions are ably substantiated. He conjectures, “ that the stream of knowledge accompanied the progress of commerce along the banks of those great rivers which fall into the Persian Gulf, and thence along the coast of Arabia to the Red Sea,—that those passes which connect that sea with the higher portion of the Egyptian river, witnessed the earliest movements of colonists from Asia, who, in search of more fertile lands, or of mountains enriched with gold, found their
way into Abyssinia,—that a similar current in the mean time set eastward across the mouths of the Indus, carrying arts and institutions of a corresponding character into the countries which stretch from that river over the great peninsula of
in Malay, appears to be a corruption of the ,تا سيك or ,تا سك
Hindostan." This conjecture he soon advances to proof, by the striking resemblances between the usages, superstitions, arts, and even the mythology of the ancient inhabitants of western India, and those of the first settlers on the Upper Nile—by the similarity of features, both as to the style of architecture and the form of worship, which must have been practised in the temples of Nubia and those in the neighbourhood of Bombay ;-by the manifest likeness in the minor instruments of their superstition, such as the lotus, the linga, and the serpentby the remarkable resemblances between the excavated temple of Guerfeh Hassan and the cave of Elephanta, between the monolithic temples of Nubia and those of Mahabalipura, the grottos of Hajar Silsili and the caverns of Ellora. May we also add, that the sound Bek, uttered by the children shut up by Psammetichus, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, for the purpose of discovering the original tongue, which was pronounced to signify ápròs in Phrygian, is not indistinctly traced in the Sanscrit 27b'haksh, to eat, and Hai bhakta, food? that the Nile may be discerned in c, Nila, which largely enters into the names of Siva? and that its Coptic name 1&po (Heb. 1989) appears to be recognisable in 37T:, åră, swift, from which answers to péw ?
The institution of castes the author likewise thinks an evidence of the early intercourse between India and Egypt,* and we cannot imagine it to be one which will be doubted. The temples too, above the cataracts, exhibit closer similarity to those of India, than those below Syene; and the more minutely we investigate the ancient history of Egypt and Canaan, the clearer will be our proofs of a very early communication between “ the shores of India, the upper regions of the Nile, and the borders of the Holy Land.” That the arts of Asia came to Egypt by the Red Sea and the mercantile stations of Adule, Axum, and Meroë, is confirmed by the celebrity of the Ethiopians in the earliest ages,--by the veneration in which they were regarded by Homer and the ancient poets, -by the nations on the Tigris and Euphrates mingling Ethiopian legends with their own songs. Lucian describes Astronomy coming from Ethiopia and travelling to Babylon-Philosophy
* Tabri declares, that Jamshid instituted four similar castes in Persia, and ordained in like manner
تاهر کسي کار خود کنند و بار دیکري مشغول نشوند
that each should follow its own employment, and not interfere with that of the others.
declaring to Jupiter, that from the Brahmans she repaired to Ethiopia, thence to Ægypt, and afterwards to Babylon.
According to Dr. Russell's hypothesis, and some others, the. shepherd-kings, who were expelled from Egypt, were the fathers of the Philistines; and Palestine was Pali-stàn, or Shepherdland. The writer in the Asiatic Researches (vol. jii. p. 46), who serves him as an authority, states, that the remembrance of this pastoral expedition is not extinct among the tribes of central India; that in the Hindú sacred books two migrations of remote date are recorded, that of the Yadavas, or sacred race, and that of the Pali, or shepherds. The latter were a powerful people, and once governed the whole country from the Indus to the mouth of the Ganges: they were enterprising and roving, and gradually spread themselves over a great part of Asia, Africa, and Europe. One branch he identifies with the Berbers, or eastern Ethiopians, as distinguished from the western, both by Homer and Herodotus. Many, however, derive nebo the Hebrew name of Palestine, from an Ethiopic root, * which is supposed to make the term expressive of the migration of the Caphtorim and Casluchim: but in support of the preceding conjecture we quote the author's own words :-“ How extensively they afterwards spread both in Europe and Asia, appears from the cities and places which still retain their name. Thus a Palestine, or Palesthan, was founded on the banks of the Tigris, most probably their original settlement; the town of Paliputra stood on the Hellespont; the river Strymon in Thrace was denominated Palestinus: the Palestini and town Philistia were situated on the banks of the Po in Italy; and the god of shepherds among the Latins was denominated Pales."
In corroboration of all this, a Hindù legend is quoted, which records an invasion of Egypt, or Misrasthān, coinciding in all the leading particulars with the history of the shepherd-kings. The reference of this dynasty to the Philistines is in no small degree strengthened by the tradition in Herodotus of one Philitis, a shepherd, whose memory the Egyptians held in utter execration; and, as at the time of the arrival of the family and dependents of Jacob, shepherds were an abomination to the Egyptians,t it is very reasonable to conclude, that the expulsion of these foreigners
* wan: both in Ethiopic and Amharic, denotes to migrate, or move from place to place, and would therefore equally apply to the nomadic habits of shepherds. In this sense it agrees with the Sanskrit root पल् pal, or पल्ल pal. The LXX. by the term állóquiot, considered the Philistines to be foreigners, and such we may argue them to have been from the term “uncircumcised,” which seems to have been applied to them alone in the Hebrew scriptures.
+ Gen. xlvi. 34.
happened before that event. No place could be better suited to them, as a new settlement after their expulsion, than Canaan; no place can be imagined more likely to have been chosen. This hypothesis has also the advantage of solving a material difficulty, which the similarity of the Philistine idolatry to that of India would otherwise present to us; and this view of the subject, together with the Indian descent of the Ethiopic tribes, which Dr. Russell has maintained by numerous authorities, illustrates also the analogy between Hindù and Egyptian superstitions.
With respect to the Egyptian names, we shall in most cases refer the reader to Jablonski, whose works the author does not seem to have consulted. The Indian campaign of Sesostris, and other historical records, of an intercourse between Egypt and India, add their assistance to this research. The Doctor has noticed the near correspondence between the amended chronicle of Syncellus and the true epoch of the accession of the family of Mitzraim; but neither he nor any other has noticed the extraordinary evidence which is afforded to us in the name of Rameses, DDDY), which we know, from Gen. xlvii. 11, to have been a pastoral district. We are aware, that some have derived the name from Rāma, and that Jablonski has at one time thought it a compound of peu, a man, and cychc, a shepherd; at another, that he has deduced the city so called from pH, the sun, and elecycyn, a territory; but such derivations from the Coptic throw no light on the origin of the shepherd-kings, who appear to have given the name to the city and to the district. If, however, the preceding notions have any real foundation, they are wonderfully supported by the easy deduction of the term from the Sanskrit, 77491, rõmăsa, a sheep, which the book of Genesis almost renders certain.*
Through the many corruptions which evidently exist in the names of the shepherd-dynasty, it will be impossible to arrive at any thing beyond conjecture respecting them. The first,“ Salatis, or Silitis, or Nirmaryada,” may be compared with that of gry, Salyă, a king who was maternal uncle of Yud'hisht'hir, whose titular epithet may
have been tea, Naramīda, the delight of men, the r being frequently inserted or omitted in the colloquial dialects. The second, " Baion, Byon, or Babya,” may have been 27e, b’hăvyă, happy, fortunate ; the third, “ Apachnes, Pachman, or Ruchma,” may have been UEFA panchmāra (which was a name given to the son of Baladéva),
ut, panchmă, dexterous, able. Ruchma at first sight appears to