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We cannot omit another instance of correct estimate of the state of religion in England, and the foresight of what would become the duty of the true-hearted Protestants of this country, in another ornament of our episcopal bench, the present Bishop of Lincoln, who, so long back as the year 1826, wrote,—“ If we mistake not the signs of the times, the period is not far distant when the whole controversy between the English and Romish churches will be revived, and all the points in dispute again brought under review."
The prophecy has been receiving its fulfilment in due progression up to the present day : but is yet far from the measure of its complete fulfilment. The battle is yet but beginning; and strange things will transpire. Already has the attempt been made, we trust prematurely, to add to the designation of the church of England that of Protestant. There is no reason to doubt, that every sound member of our Church values highly the surname of Protestant in addition to her christian name, as pointing out her distinction from a church, which, when called upon to reform, refused. But the effect, (we must not perhaps say intention,) of that perfectly superfluous epithet, is, in the first place, to identify the church of England with, and make her responsible for, the creed and conduct of all those religious communities, good, bad, and indifferent, which choose to assume the name of Protestant.t But there is another effect, (perhaps intention.) “ The Protestant church of England"—then there is, or may be, another church of England which is not Protestant -possibly the church of England, or the Catholic church of England, meaning in either case the Roman. Our readers in general require not to be informed, that in Ireland the church of Rome has titularly, and in a great degree officially, a hierarchy with all its subordinate divisions, answering pretty nearly to those which obtain in the legitimate and national church, which, there, with some apparent reason, might be distinguished as the Protestant church ; but the reason is very insufficient, as she is a part of the United Church of England. If, indeed, any addition to the title of either were necessary or admissible, it would be that which expresses their unity. But it is not so generally known as it should be, that in the sister isle, every year is set before the world, and the papal population in particular, in what may be called the clerical almanac of Romanism in Ireland,
Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries, illustrated from the writings of Tertullian, p. 297.
+ We do not mean to speak harshly of Dissenters. But when it is known that a large portion of them have banded together with Romanists for the destruction of our Church, it appears rather unreasonable that our Church should be expected to saddle herself with their defence. They are at full liberty to defend themselves.
the Ordo Divini Officii recitandi, &c., published by authority of the Titular of Dublin, a minute and extended scheme or table of a complete organized hierarchy, from the archbishops and bishops, to the lower officials, together with the names and titles of the places pertaining to the spiritual authority of each. Here is a mass completely organized, and in full discipline, waiting only the day, when, vivified by power, and acting by means familiar to the policy of Rome-popular insurrection, or massacre-her sacred military may at once step into the place of the lawful occupants, and by due pains and penalties bring back every heretical deserter to the apostolic camp. It would be ridiculous to doubt, that in this as well as in many other instances, Ireland is intended to be an example to England ; and that the whole system just described of the former, its whole preparatory machinery, will be transferred to the latter. Dr. Murray is invited to deny that this was one main article in his mission to Rome; and that it was there a subject of consultation, whether the vicars apostolic of England should not be exchanged for titulars and officials on the model of Ireland, to be in readiness for any revolution which should enable them instantly, and without confusion, or collision of claims, to place themselves in the sees and deaneries, and canonries, and prebends, and livings, and headships of colleges, and professorships, &c. &c., of a church to be again loaded with the chains and corruptions from which she had escaped. And the heads of the papacy in this country are invited to deny, that solemn meetings have been held by them on this same point, and that in them they have consulted, how far it may be safe and advisable to adopt ways and means for introducing the desired change, and making it public in the English as in the Irish Annuals. There are certainly two views to be taken by them, and they must choose between them,-on the one hand, the confidence which publicity may add to their adherents and tools; on the other, the alarm and consequent opposition which it may excite in those whom they contemplate as their victims. We trust we are ready, and that they will find some not so yielding as they expected. “ In the name of our God will we set up our banners."
Art. III.-Proofs and Illustrations of the Attributes of God,
from the Facts and Laws of the Physical Universe, being the Foundation of Natural and Revealed Religion. By JOHN Macculloch, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. În three Volumes. London: Duncan. 1837.
THE talented writer of this inimitable work is no more; but stupendous is the monument which his genius has erected. Such an exuberance of ability flows through every part of these elaborate volumes, that it is difficult to make a selection for the purposes of a review; for the great extent to which these researches have been carried, compels us to be restricted in our remarks, and unwillingly to pass by much, which would gratify the general reader.
The existence of the Deity first claims the author's attention; and he has left the beaten track in pursuit of his investigation. He has started on an original plan, and he has undeviatingly followed it. Throwing aside the trammels which fettered his predecessors, he has ranged through creation, and exploring nature has shown in every part the Almighty hand of nature's God. Where scientific men have indulged in vain hypotheses, and where the present state of science is inadequate to the solution of a problem, he has candidly avowed it; and all his inquiries have been directed to the demonstration of the attributes of the Creator ;-to the proof, that design, not accident, is visible in the formation of the universe.
Arguments supported by mathematics have been sought from geology to establish the doctrine of the eternity of the earth; arguments, which, under the name of philosophy, have betrayed profound ignorance and unblushing presumption. These are refuted by the very discoveries which geology has made, which Dr. Macculloch has rendered the basis of very deep reasoning, drawing from them most logical and satisfying conclusions in substantiation of the contrary proposition. He grapples with this, as with every subject, with a master's hand, and by his perfect acquaintance with the whole range of sciences, overthrows the deductions of superficial inquirers, making their own admissions auxiliary to his cause.
Valuable and interesting matter starts forth from every page, as he explains the progressive operations of creation: he places before us a mine, from which we may extract what is precious without fear of an exhaustion. He shows, that in one year, in one day, and by means by which God is ever producing vast and similar effects, he might convert, not the Sahara alone, but every desert on the globe, into habitations for man, that he might render the African sands what the declivities of the Atlas are, and cover the salt plains of the Caspian with the verdure of Caucasus,—that the volcano is the power in his hands, which he has employed in the Southern Ocean, almost before our eyes, and that it has ever been his agent in this work, since thus did he form the hills and build the mountains. In the waters and in the springs, in the rocks and in the various strata, the Doctor points to the Divine foresight and arrangement; in the mountains to God's renovating and fertilizing provision for the earth, disclosing the beauty of that wonderful design, “which elevated the mountains far above the level of the plains, that the force of gravity might act readily in the distribution of the earths, which the rocks are ever producing, and that it might also continue to act through a long coming period.” The writer is strongly persuaded of the renovation of worlds, and offers geological data as the reasons of his opinion: he believes that the germs of a future earth are even now in a state of preparation beneath the ocean, ready to arise in new beauty at the fiat of the Almighty. This operation too he conceives to be a portion of the design, for which the present mountains were laid, those of a preceding earth according to his idea invariably generating a new one, as God's agents and servants in the work of creation. This branch of the inquiry is continued in a course of luminous remarks on the animal and vegetable structures and functions,—on the mechanical structure of animals,-on variations for special ends in certain parts of the animal mechanisms, in which it is rendered evident that the supreme Intelligence is boundless in his resources, neglects nothing, is deterred by no difficulty, and effects every thing in the best mode,-on the dispersion of seeds,on the systems designed for clothing the earth with plants, and on systems of variations in animals and plants, subordinate to general plans, with examples of limited general plans for specific ends.
The next division of the work relates to the knowledge of the Deity, in which omniscience and omnipresence are first considered. The argument respecting the latter from the planetary system is convincing. “Its diameter is 3,600,000,000 miles, taking Uranus as the limit, and it contains thirty spheres; while if we add the comets, it includes more than ten times that number, within a space so much larger, that astronomy does not conjecture what that may be. He, who arranged all this, must therefore have been present, at one instant, over all this enormous space; because his power or action was exerted over every body of it at once. .... And if he may be in all the universe at once, so must he be in every part of it, wherever his power is exerted: whence by extending our views to the remotest ascertained stars or nebulæ, we do not only acquire a tangible conception of the magnitude of the Divine presence, but produce a physical proof of it.” From some admirable sketches relating to the human mind, the author passes to the co-existence of ideas in the Divine mind; and his view of the Creator's simultaneous conceptions antecedent to their execution is most masterly. Naturally succeeding to this the third division is devoted to a consideration of the wisdom of the Deity, as exhibited under several heads, which are separately discussed. The first of these is the mortality and fecundity of organized beings. The second, which treats of the perpetuation of animals, is exceedingly deserving of attention from its researches into natural history, and the proofs of a divine and superintending wisdom, which it thence elicits. This is followed by a chapter on the perpetuation of plants, which is for the far greater part original, and intensely interesting, tending in every branch of the discussion to verify the point, which the author has undertaken to substantiate. The progressive improvement of the earth forms the next thesis, which is chiefly of a geological nature, and abounds with information, deep and diversified, proving by the variety of agents and means employed in the creation, that there can be but one, who is the architect, but one mind, which unites the discordant and multifarious actions “ of each one out of millions of agents into one design," but one intellect, which planned, but one will, which executes—that every thing advances progressively to the desired end: that “ the leaves may fall, but the tree lives: men die, but man survives: and that which God did not see fitting for one portion of time is consummated in another." The mental faculties of the lower animals are also examined: and it is maintained, that the repugnance commonly felt, as to the existence of a mind or soul in animals, has arisen from an unexamined association between the terms soul and immortality, as if the one implied the other. The theories of those, who oppose this doctrine, are involved in inextricable confusion and contradictions; and the philosophy of the Augustan age was more rational on this subject, as we may collect from Cicero's example of the ant, in which he remarks, “ in formicâ non modo sensus, sed etiam mens, ratio, memoria." “ The bee too has received mathematical knowledge; it puts that into action through its intellectual faculties, and the purpose is the result of its moral feelings: ... the parental affection of the bird for its young is that of the mother for its child; the adherence of the eagle to its partner is our own conjugal affection; the emulation of the singing-bird and the racehorse is but our desire of superiority.” Friendship also equally influences animals as man: the surviving individual in a cage has often pined and died from the loss of its companion : the whale has allowed itself to be killed, rather than abandon its friends, which have already suffered ;--and without regard to sex, and often without regard to species, this principle has been discovered between horses and cats or dogs,-between the latter and birds,between the lion or tiger and the dog. A power of discriminating kindness has even been observed in the lower orders of the creation. Demonstrations of jealousy are not less familiar among the domesticated animals; and pride or vanity is frequently discernible, as in the mule, which seems as vain of its trappings, as the peacock or turkey of its train. The conduct of a dog respecting forbidden or reserved food may be compared with conscientiousness; and revenge has been as often witnessed in the elephant and some beasts, as generosity and magnanimity in others. These instances, one would think, were sufficient to prove the entire analogy between the moral mind of man and