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to a great abyss,* under the crust of the earth, by means of crevices produced by the fountains of the deep being brokensuch as might arise upon a small scale by the boring of Artesian wells and to show what effect would result from the existence of such apertures in the case of a deluge, he provided himself with a large vessel of glass, that had several holes of different sizes bored in the sides, about six inches from the bottom; these he stopped with cork, and then filled the vessel with water, having previously pulverized certain portions of various substances, such as stone, coal, clay, chalk, which he permitted to subside one after the other in the water, till the whole mass reached about two inches above the level of the holes, and had settled in regular layers. He then with the assistance of another person pulled out the corks simultaneously, when the water immediately began to drive the earthy parts through the holes, and scooped out the mass, so that the deepest hollows were near the aperture, where the force was greatest, and the hollows were most shallow towards the middle part, where the force was the least; but the middle, in which there were no furrows, remained the highest, and thus answered to the high plains upon the surface of the earth; while from this middle point ran several ridges, between the furrows leading down towards the holes in the vessel, just as chains of mountains do, which are found near the middle of a continent, and diverge towards their respective outlets in the adjoining seas.” Of this experiment had Mr. Fairholme been aware, he would have seen that his theory had been partially anticipated by Catcott; while he may still claim all the merit of having shown that the epoch, from which may be dated the appearance of the Isle of Wight, as dry land, cannot be fairly extended beyond four thousand years ago; and though we cannot coincide in all his views, yet the principle on which he calculates the loss of ground at any given cliff, is too ingenious to be passed

But we have already extended this article to an unreasonable length. We cannot, however, neglect some facts produced by him to disprove the theory of myriads of ages being required for the deposition of sedimentary strata. It appears then that in the coal and some other formations, the fossil remains of lofty trees, generally deprived of branehes and roots, are found lying at different angles to the inclination of the beds, and intersecting

over.

* That such an abyss existed, he said, was proved by the fact, that although all the rivers of the earth, or nearly so, run into the sea, it is never fuller than before, even allowing for evaporation; which could not equal the influx, inasmuch as there could be no evaporation except in warm latitudes, and the quantity of water within such latitudes is very small as compared with that which is out of them.

different strata * in such a way as to show that the strata could not have assumed their present form by any gradual process; although by an earthquake the strata might perhaps have opened suddenly and closed again upon a tree that had fallen in consequence of a land-slip, such as took place in Calabria in 1783. This solution cannot, however, be applied to the proofs furnished by the foot-marks of birds and beasts; which shew that the upper surface of almost every formation was yet soft, and not, as the million-year theory would demand, hard, when the superincumbent sediments were deposited upon it. Thus we find that“ the animals have walked leisurely over a bed of soft mud or clay; for we see round each foot-print the rough and elevated ridge of clay produced by the pressure of the foot; and that upon this bed of mud a deposition of sand took place; and it is this impression in alto on the indurated sandstone that we now examine. That it was a mud bank, periodically dry, is shown from the beds of a similar character above and below it in the quarry. That it was but a short time dry, is equally clear from the freshness of the footprints. That the surrounding waters were extremely turbid, we may infer from the fresh and abundant deposits of sand on the very first subsequent flow. But where shall we look in existing nature for a situation, where we might walk on mud beds, raised two or three feet higher, after every periodical flow of the tide, and this not for one or two tides only, but for periods capable of thus accumulating sediments of some hundred feet in thickness, such being frequently the depth of the sandstone formation in which these foot-marks have been discovered!"

Largely as we have drawn upon Mr. Fairholme's work, we must still make two allusions to it before we dismiss him, in the language of Milton

“ Servant of God, well done; well hast thou fought

Th'unequal fight; who singly hast maintained
Against revolted multitudinous foes

The cause of truth." “ The olive branch,” says Mr. Lyell," which was brought by the dove, is as clear an indication to us that vegetation was not destroyed, as it was to Noah that dry land had appeared. For our part, we have always considered the flood, if required to admit its universality in the strictest sense of the term, as a preternatural event, far beyond the reach of philosophical inquiry, At the same time, it is evident that they who are desirous of pointing out the coincidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence of such a general catastrophe, must neglect no circumstance connected with the Mosaic history, and least of all so

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* A lithographic engraving of a tree so lying is given in Mr. Fairholme's former volume. It was found in the Cragleith quarry, and by a recent blasting of the rock a branch of the tree has been discovered. remarkable a fact, as that the olive-tree remained standing while the waters were abating.” That this sneer is levelled at some injudicious defender of the Mosaic history is evident; and we are sorry that Mr. Fairholme should have given occasion to a similar attack, by expressing an opinion that the tree was probably not antediluvian, but a new creation, similar to the vegetation on which the first formed animals were fed. It would have been surely better to confess that the whole transaction was a miracle; and that to attempt to explain a preternatural event is, as Mr. Lyell observes, " beyond the reach of philosophy"-for if it were not, it would cease to be a miracle. But before Mr. Lyell thus determined, in the language of Horacedecerptam fronti*

præponere

olivam-" it would have been well for him to have put nature to the rack, and to have ascertained as a fact, whether the olive, though it cannot stand frost, is equally affected by wet, despite its oily qualities. But whatever may be our difference with Mr. Fairholme on this point, we fully chime in with his sentiments, when he asserts that it is the height of inconsistency in the geologist, who professes to believe in the Scriptures, to suppose that the deluge was only a deluge, such as the globe had witnessed frequently before the time of Noah, and had seen not seldom since, and is destined to undergo hereafter; and this too, although the Deity himself had made a solemn covenant, that he would no more destroy the earth—a covenant which can be intelligible only on the supposition of its universality intending to convey a great moral lesson, how little soever the fact may come within the scope of the reason of the geologist; "whose science," says Sir Charles Bell, in his Bridgewater Treatise, † “ but for its alliance with anatomy, would have continued to present only a scene of confusion for the ignorant to wonder at:" while Mr. Penn, still more to our purpose, remarks that " what is called geology is only mineralogical and fossil topography, which cannot of itself detect the events of history without the aid of collateral tradition; and still less can scientific conjectures, raised

* Of course, we are aware of Markland's certain emendation, “decerptæ frondi.” But the vulgate is more to our present purpose.

+ Of this and others of the Bridgewater Treatises, we should be glad to see an abridgment, for the use of those who cannot afford to give 10l. for what the Earl of Bridgewater probably intended, by his magnificent donation of 1000l. to each writer, should be sold at a sum so low as to insure an universal circulation. The work should be executed by a person competent to detect and to avoid the conflicting opinions of the different authors,—the natural consequence of a variety of mental powers and scientific views. The whole might, we think, be comprised in three pocket volumes, for 18s., including a few of the necessary illustrations.

upon such a basis, be admitted, when in opposition to that authenticated history, which, by Divine favour, we possess."

Note referred to in p. 455. As Mr. Lyell has confessed that the mammoth was probably found in England, when the temperature of our climate was not different from what it is at present, we presume he obtained his information from the following account, furnished by the Rev. James Layton to Mr. Fairholme, and published by the latter in his first work. Speaking of the fossil deposits on the coast of Norfolk, Mr. Layton says, “ In a compact blue clay is a stratum of wood, exhibiting the appearance of a forest overthrown, or crushed in situ. At Paling the stumps of trees seem now to be really standing : the roots are strong and spread abroad, and intermingled with each other. Were a torrent to sweep away the mould from the surface of a thick wood, leaving the roots bare in the ground, the appearance would be exactly the same. The phenomena occurs again at Hasborough, the line of crushed wood forming a bed of peat, that extends just above water-mark. About this stratum are found numerous remains of mammalia. The horns and bones of four kinds of deer; the ox, horse, hippopotamus, rhinosceros, and elephant. These are found at Hasborough and its vicinity: at Mundesley they are found in the cliff. The greatest mine is, however, far in the sea, some miles from land; where there is an oyster-bed on a stratum of gravel, about six fathoms deep. How far the bed extends, I cannot pretend to say; but in 1826 some fishermen, dredging for soles on the Knowl, a bank twenty miles off shore, brought up an entire tusk of an elephant, now in my possession. It is nine feet six inches long, one foot nine inches in its greatest circumference, and weighs ninety-seven pounds : it is cornuform, and resembles exactly the tusk of the mammoth, said to have been found in the ice in Siberia. I have at least seventy grinders of all sizes, from four laminæ to twenty. The oysterdredgers reported that they had fished up immense quantities, and threw them into deep water, as they greatly obstructed their nets. Amongst the fossils from the oyster-bed are some supposed to be a species of whale. In 1820 an entire skeleton of the great mastodon was found at Horstead, near Norwich, lying on its side, and stretched out between the chalk and gravel.” Upon this description Mr. Fairholme has well observed : “We have every thing we can desire in painting the effects of a great diluvial eddy, collecting in its vortex a mixture of floating animal, vegetable, and marine productions, from every climate under heaven; and we are thus led to a period in the history of our native land, when its soft and chalky surface, for the first time, showed itself above the level of the waters, and when its valleys and basins became the depositories of what we have so long speculated upon in darkness, under the guidance of a false and theoretical philosophy.”

WICH.

Art. XI.-A Sermon. By EDWARD, LORD BISHOP OF Nor

Preached at his Installation. Norwich: Fletcher. 1837. 2. A few Observations on Religion and Education in Ireland.

By the Rev. EDWARD STANLEY, A. M. Rector of Alderley. London: J. Ridgway and Sons. 1836.

IN entering upon the inquiry which the mere perusal of the titles of the two performances prefixed to our paper unavoidably suggests, we feel that the topic is a very delicate one; but however painful it may be, it is much too important for the “ Church of England Quarterly Review” to pass it over without observation. We must speak out with a degree of plainness, from which we should gladly have been excused. That such as deny the necessity of an apostolic succession in Christ's ministry will be glad to witness any procedure on the part of Government, which, in its direct results, must lower the character of Episcopacy in the estimation of the country, is what we can readily imagine ; but, with that exception, we are quite persuaded, that true Englishmen are unanimous that the several Sees should not be made the baits and the prizes of carnal, and possibly unorthodox, partizanship, but be conferred on the most pious, learned, devoted, and dignified clergymen, whom the Church, at the time of issuing a congé d'élire, is able to produce. The venerable mitres of Taylor, Butler, Tillotson, and others, were never intended to dignify the brows of surpliced parasites. There is an elevated superiority to mere party politics demanded in the distribution of appointments of this solemn description; and no administration should be allowed to make ecclesiastical patronage the source of official strength, or the allurement to clerical obsequiousness and prostitution. Professional worth, erudition, and eminence ought to constitute the essential title for preferment in the Church; and the circumstance of having perpetrated a pamphlet in favour of “ Justice to Ireland," however gratifying to the Lord-Lieutenant and his Secretary, must be a very sorry preparation, and a very unsatisfactory qualification for diocesan duties. We believe, that previous to the scandalous elevation of the Rev. E. Stanley above the eminent men whom he has left toiling behind him in unrequited and disheartening zeal, the author of the common-place Brochure, entitled “ Observations on Religion and Education in Ireland," was wholly unknown to the Church, being undistinguished by a single excellence in any one branch of clerical accomplishment, save, what we are far from undervaluing, though in the church of England, thank God, it is no such rare and remarkable occurrence; we allude to that truly amiable and christian temperament, which, however ill directed, is manifest in the pages of the Rev. E. Stanley, and which, in whatever

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