when men were strong, and fain to do battle for the sake of the Lord of hosts. Take, for instance, the following :

“ O holy Paul! O beloved John! full of light and love ; whose books are full of intuition, as those of Paul are books of energies; the one uttering to sympathizing angels what the other toils to convey to weaksighted yet docile men.- Luther! Calvin! Fox, with Penn and Barclay ! o Zinzendorf! and ye, too, whose outward garments only have been singed and dishonoured in the heathenish furnace of Roman apostasy, Francis of Sales, Fenelon ; yea, even Aquinas and Scotus ! -With what astoundment would ye, if ye were alive with your merely human perfections, listen to the creed of our, so called, rational religionists! Rational !—they, who in the very outset deny all reason, and leave us nothing but degrees to distinguish us from brutes ; a greater degree of memory, dearly purchased by the greater solicitudes of fear, which convert that memory into foresight. 0! place before your eyes the island of Britain in the reign of Alfred, its unpierced woods, its wide morasses and dreary heaths, its blood-stained and desolated shores, its untaught and scanty population; behold the monarch listening now to Bede, and now to John Erigena ; and then see the same realm, a mighty empire, full of motion, full of books, where the cotter's son, twelve years old, has read more than archbishops of yore, and possesses the opportunity of reading more than our Alfred himself; and then, finally, behold this mighty nation, its rulers and its wise men, listening to-Paley and to-Malthus ! It is mournful, mournful!”

We have already put in an apology for Paley; the theory of Malthus is not such as enters into the present inquiry, and may therefore be dismissed. Enough is said when we state that both authors tread the level ground of prudencewhile Coleridge is solicitous to raise his countrymen to the consideration of that wisdom which is above prudence, and to the possession of that spirit which animates the Wellingtons, the Nelsons, the Alfreds, and the men of genius of every age and clime, whether in arts or arms. His province was to insist as much and as strongly on the internal evidences of truth, as that of Paley had been to set forth the external. Both, perhaps, erred in taking too exclusive a view of the subject; and it is probable that Coleridge, at one period at least, kept too much on the merely spiritual side for practical uses. That such works as his should not have been popular, is scarcely a rational ground of complaint. It is not fit that all men should be systematic metaphysicians, and only a select few can be eminent philosophers. The immediate reception of his books was, therefore, what might have been expected; their ultimate success greater and earlier than might have been hoped. We remember, only a few years ago, being told, “ It will be time enough to write a review of Coleridge's works fifty years hence. Our children may appreciate him, but we shall not.” Within eighteen months after that decision, pronounced with and by the voice of one in authority, it became the fashion with all magazines and reviews, without exception, to teem with articles on Coleridge. Wherever a master mind arose, whether as poet or critic, there you were sure to find an admirer of Coleridge and Wordsworth. The abuse of Scotch criticism, and the neglect of English, had signally failed, in both cases, in casting the mantle of oblivion over the body of genius. It was not dead -it had only been sleeping. It was not forgotten-it had only been concealed, as a secret treasure. Only in a mystical sense had it been mangled, and its parts distributed, like that of the famed Osiris. "The votaries who thus possessed precious relics, had long been burning to exhibit their wealth; and when the time arrived, each happy owner pressed forward with his memorial, in homage to the awakening prophet. For (to use the language of Milton), "books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a progeny of life in them, to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are; nay, they do preserve as in a vial the purest efficacy and extraction of that living intellect that bred them. I know they are as lively, and as vigorously productive, as those fabulous dragons' teeth; and, being sown up and down, may chance to spring up armed men! A good book is the precious lifeblood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life.”

But Coleridge was a poet as well as a philosopher; and therefore even while dwelling in the fields of speculative abstraction, he felt a strong desire to embody the truths, that in their naked purity he was contemplating, in the sensuous forms of the common world. He had not to learn that a sense of individuality belonged always to real existence, and must be produced by the artist, whatever his line, in order to successful exhibition. Who but he declared that “one of the essentials of geometry is not less essential to dramatic excellence; and that accordingly Aristotle required of the poet an involution of the universal in the individual ?" Who but he strenuously insisted on the Miltonian rule, that poetry should not only be simple, but likewise sensuous and impassioned? In harmony with his convictions therefore, no less than with his genial predisposition, his tendency was to reduce the sublime laws and ideas which he had conceived in the abstract, to the types in nature or in society-in a word, to the phenomena by which they were to be finally represented. It is consoling to think that, in all that relates to religion and government, this subtle and profound thinker, this keen logician, and uncompromising moralist, bore testimony that the world never had nor has more excellent institutions, as the ultimate exponents of true principles, than the Church and State of England. The testimony of this man was in favour of the constitution—the Protestant constitution of England-and of her national church as by law established. In the latter especially he saw a profession fitted and made ready for the use of the

man of learning and genius-a profession, “in which he may
cherish a rational hope of being able to unite the widest schemes
of literary utility with the strictest performance of professional
duties.” Nay, it was his opinion that “ among the numerous
blessings of Christianity, the introduction of an established church
makes an especial claim on the gratitude of scholars and philo- ,
sophers.' That not only the maxims," he proceeds, “but the
grounds of a pure morality, the mere fragments of which

.-. The lofty grave tragedians taught
In chorus or iambic, teachers best
Of moral prudence, with delight received

In brief sententious precepts ;' and that the sublime truths of the divine unity and attributes, which a Plato found most hard to learn, and deemed it still more difficult to reveal ; that these should have become the almost hereditary property of childhood and poverty, of the hovel and the workshop; that even to the unlettered they sound as common-place; is a phenomenon, which must withhold all but minds of the most vulgar cast from undervaluing the services even of the pulpit and the reading-desk.”

Among the types by which the Coleridgean principles were illustrated, were these common-place” household words—the familiar beliefs taught to us at the knees of our affectionate mother. There are no new doctrines or dogmas in the writings of Coleridge, nothing properly in the manner of discussion and controversy. The author had no ambition to overturn the established religion, or to introduce a new Christianity; the old faith, the old creeds, were sufficient for him. All he sought to do, was to render what he considered to be new and better grounds for our belief than those we had hitherto indulged our indolence in embracing. New, nevertheless, not absolutely, but relatively only to the time; therefore, as not invented by him, but revived --new, accordingly, not in themselves, but to us, from our having suffered them to fall into oblivion and disuse. For both in religion and literature, in science and art, it was a principle with Coleridge, that “whatever is within us, whatever is deep within us, must be as old as the first dawn of human reason. These grounds, whatever they be, are now in a fair way of being brought prominently before the public mind, as the materials of a philosophic system,-if not such a system already, fully and completely formed, according to the requirements and ordonnances of logic. Elaborately produced, at immense self-sacrifice, and with a martyr's devotion, they demand that we should give them serious attention, that we should not hastily condemn them as unintelligible. They may be abstruse, they must be obscure ; and some of them the carnal mind will not be able even to apprehend, or, worse, will misinterpret. But these evils are accidental ; and, as

no new dogmas are started, no old truths questioned, and the creeds in which we all confide are acknowledged,-if the examination of Coleridge's grounds of belief should appear to any of us unsatisfactory, we have only to originate better for ourselves; or, even in the last extreme, to repose still, in humble confidence and pious trust, on such principles of faith and practice as have hitherto been sufficient to support us, under God, in all the trials and temptations of the present life, and to cheer us with the hope and the promise of a better life to come.

Art. III.- Fratris Rogeri Bacon, Ordinis Minorum, Opus

Majus ad Clementem Quartum, Pontificem Romanum. Ex MS. Codice Dubliniensi, cum aliis quibusdam collato, nunc primum edidit S. JEBB, M. D. Londini: Typis Gulielmi Bowyer. 1733.

IT is now six or seven years since the laureate Southey directed our attention to certain passages in the Rev. Charles Forster's Mahometanism Unveiled ; adducing parallel extracts from the works of Roger Bacon and of Lord Verulam, in support of the grave charge, that the latter took without acknowledgment the fundamental principles of his philosophy from the unpublished Opus Majus of the former; nay, that even some of the materials were thence derived. In Mr. Forster's opinion, the internal evidence suffices to prove that his lordship had access to the friar's manuscript; but, after examination, we incline to the more charitable decision, that the plagiaries are rather apparent than real: enough besides, after making all deductions, remains to leave Lord Bacon's fame without any material diminution. If we cannot altogether acquit the noble author of disingenuous silence touching his predecessor, we must still confess that his own positive merits place him in the highest rank of mental supremacy. But after conceding this, we are inclined to put in at least equal claims on behalf of the elder sage; and feel some solicitude to attract attention to his too much neglected works, in which the advantages likely to be derived from the inductive method are as clearly laid down as in those of his more fortunate successor, and sometimes nearly in the same words. No greater evidence of the unwarrantable neglect into which Roger Bacon has fallen can be rendered, than the fact that, up to this period, no correct Life of him has ever been compiled; every one that we have examined, from the Biographia Britannica downwards, being a mass of error and confusion; a fact we discovered at the time above mentioned, being then interested in making the investigation. From the gleanings we then made it is probable that we can construct a paper, certainly instructive, and perhaps amusing.

As if in anticipation, and for compensation, of the neglect into which he should afterwards fall, his earliest biographers seem to have been determined to heap upon Roger all the honours of all the Bacons, and to mix up in the events of his life those of every person who had borne the name with any celebrity. But of all these, one Robert Bacon, an eminent English divine, has been the most defrauded-of whom says Fuller, in his Worthies, “I behold this Robert as the senior of all the Bacons, which, like tributary streams, disembogued themselves, with ali the credit of their actions, into Roger, who in process of time, hath monopolized the honour of all his sirnamesakes in Oxford.” Pitts, Leland, Hearne, Cave, besides others, have confounded this Robert Bacon with the more famous Roger. It is probable, however, that Robert was the uncle of Roger Bacon; and, no doubt, it was he who was familiar with Bishop Grosetéte, to whom credit is given for having been one of Roger's earliest patrons, by Roger's biographers, without any other foundation than the identity of the sirname. Roger Bacon was about thirty-nine years of age when the bishop of Lincoln died; and whether he was intimate with him or not, clear it is that he was at all events animated by his example; for the prelate's reputation is founded no less on Roger Bacon's testimony to his genius and learning, than on the strenuous opposition which he made to the encroachments of the Roman pontiff. This testimony is all the more remarkable, as the friar was parsimonious of praise to his contemporaries; for which, however, he had reason, if Grosetéte was, as he has described him, “ the only learned man of his age." In his tendency rather to censure than to eulogize, Roger Bacon was only too much the prototype of his noble successor, whose fame, like Aaron's rod, was to swallow up his own, as his had absorbed that of his immediate predecessors and contemporaries. Among those who have thus suffered may be mentioned Bishop Grosetéte himself. For, notwithstanding the verses of Gower, now mentions the legend of the Brazen Head in connexion with Bishop Grosetéte? No; it is Friar Bacon's Brazen Head! and his only, notwithstanding the good prelate had previously enjoyed the reputation of its manu

* who

* “ For of the great clerk Grotest,

I red how redy that he was
Upon clergy an hede of brasse
To make, and force it for to tell
Of such things as befell,
And seven years' bysinesse
He layd, but for the lachesse
Of half a minute of an hour
Fro first that he began labour,
He lost all that he had doe.”


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