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COMPLETE AND IMPARTIAL
ACCOUNTS OF THE LIVES AND WRITINGS
MOST EMINENT PERSONS IN EVERY NATION,
BUT MORE ESPECIALLY OF
Those who have signalized themselves in America.
IN FOUR VOLUMES.
Embellished with a number of PORTRAITS of the most diftinguished
By JAMES HARDIE, A. M.
Printed and Published by Johnson & Stryker,
[COPY-RIGHT SECURED ACCORDING TO LAW.]
CHURCHILL, (JOHN) Duke of Marlborough and Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, a most renowned general and statesman, was born in Devonshire, England, in 1650. A clergyman in the neighbourhood, instructed him in the first principles of literature; but his father having other views than what a learned education afforded, carried him early to court, where he was particularly favoured by James Duke of York, afterwards king James II. when only twelve years of age. In 1666, he was made an ensign of the guards, during the first Dutch war; and afterwards improved himself greatly in the military art at Tangier, which was then in the hands of the English. In 1672, the Duke of Monmouth commanding a body of English auxiliaries in the French service, Churchill attended him, and was soon after made a captain in the Duke's own regiment. At the siege of Nimeguen, which happened in that campaign, he distinguished himself so much, that he was taken notice of by the celebrated Marshal Turenne, who bestowed on him the name of the handsome Englishman. In 1673, he was at the siege at Mæstricht, where he gained such applause,
that the king of France thanked him for his behaviour at the head of the line: and the Duke of Monmouth, who had the direction of the attack, afterwards told king Charles II. that he owed his life to Mr. Churchill's bravery.
In 1681, he married Sarah Jennings, a young lady, who waited upon Anne, afterwards queen of GreatBritain; by which means, he greatly strengthened his interest at court. In 1682, he was created baron of Eymouth, in Scotland, and made colonel of the third troop of guards.
In 1685, upon the accession of James II. to the throne, he was continued in all his posts, and also honoured with a special embassy to France; and was after his return, created a peer of England, by the title of baron Churchill.
In June 1685, when the Duke of Monmouth, the natural son of Charles II. had landed in England, and got himself proclaimed king, in Somersetshire, Churchill being then lieutenant general of his Majesty's forces, was ordered into the west to suppress the rebellion, which he accomplished in less than a month, and took the Duke himself prisoner, who was beheaded on the 15th July following. When James shewed an intention of establishing the Catholic religion in Britain, Lord Churchill, notwithstanding the great obligations he owed him, thought it his duty to abandon his cause; but even then did not leave him, without acquainting him by letter of the reason of his so doing.
Lord Churchill was graciously received by the prince of Orange, and was by him first employed to re-assemble the troop of guards, at London, and afterwards to new model the army; for which purpose he was invested by him, with the rank and title of lieutenantgeneral. The prince and princess of Orange being declared king and queen of England, Feb. 16th 1689, Lord Churchill was sworn of their privy council, and soon after raised to the dignity of Earl of Marlbo