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this, about 1490, Bernardino Pinturicchio painted his series of pictures, “Patient Griselda,” in which a little poodle, prettily trimmed, is not the least interesting portion of the canvas. “Stonehenge,” in his “Dogs of the British Isles,” gives a very interesting account of the poodle, the writer of which, I fancy, was Mr. Lewis Clement, who had considerable experience of the breed, especially as a sporting dog on the continent. He would divide the poodle into two grand classes, one including the dog used for sporting purposes, the other including performing, companion, and toy poodles, and each of these two classes comprises several different types. The writer then goes on to quote from “Der Hund und Seine Racen,” by Dr. Fitzinger, who says there are six very distinct varieties of poodles, viz: der gross Pudel, der mittlere Pudel, der kleine Pudel, der kleine Pintsch, der schnür Pudel, and der Schaf - Pudel, besides other and many varieties produced by crossing. The author proceeds to describe these half-dozen varieties, the first of which, the great poodle, he says, originated probably in Morocco or Algeria.
He is always larger than the largest sized spaniel, which, however, he resembles in form. He is robust in build, and has a peculiarly thick and full covering of hair. His os occipitis is well pronounced, his head is round, his forehead is strongly arched, his muzzle is short, high, and stumpy, his neck short and thick; his body is compact and cobby, his legs are comparatively short and strong, and he is more web-footed than any other breed. The hair over his body is long, thick, soft, woolly, and entirely curled, even over the face, and especially the mouth, where it forms a decided moustache. On the ears and tail the hair is more knotty and matted. Specimens of this breed are white, light liver, liver, light grey, dark grey, dark liver, or black. Sometimes the markings are peculiar, inasmuch that, on a light ground, great irregular dark grey, or black patches occur. When the dogs are liver-coloured or black, there are white spots on their muzzles and throats, on the nape of their necks, on their breasts, bellies, feet, and tail. They are seldom cropped, but are almost invariably docked. The Italians call them can barbone; the French barbels, grands barbels, barbetons caniches ; the English denominate them water dogs, water spaniels, finders, and poodles. Neither the Greeks nor the Romans appear to have known these dogs, and the old German authors of the middle ages do not mention them. In the sixteenth century they are, for the first time, mentioned by Conrad Gesner, who, in 1555, gives a description and illustration of these dogs. The great poodle is most easily trained, and his peculiar adaptation for marsh work is not found in any such high degree in any other kind of dog. His liveliness, attachment, and faithfulness, combined with his good temper, trust, and obedience, make of him a thoroughly good companion. He always looks for his master, likes to please him, and is never tired of doing all he can to further that end. He is a splendid swimmer, and the best of water retrievers. He grasps everything he is taught so readily that he is trained very quickly; hence he is a good performer in whatever pursuit his talents may be called into requisition. Der mittlere Pudel, or medium-sized poodle, is only a variety of the great poodle. He has the same qualities and properties. Size is the only difference between them; he is sometimes twothirds, and sometimes only half, the size of his greater congener. There is no difference in their colour or markings, and the mittlere Pudel is also docked. In Italy, France, or England no difference is made between this variety and the great poodle; they go by the same name. This medium-sized poodle, however, was known to the Romans, although no writing mentions it; but on certain pictures on antiques, from the time of the Emperor Augustus (last century before Christ), his portrait is found. He was not, however, known to the Germans of the middle ages. In many places he is used for finding truffles. Der kleine Pudel, or little poodle. In this mongrel race the peculiarities of their ancestors are so pronounced that they are called “half bastards of pure crossing ” (sic). They look like the medium-sized poodles, but are only half their size, and in make they are much lighter. Their heads are not so high, the muzzle is longer, the body slenderer, and the legs are comparatively thinner. The hair covering the body is long, fine, and soft; on body and legs more curled and more woolly; on head, ears, and tail it is decidedly longer and more knotty, but silky. The tail is carried straight, and sometimes its tip turns slightly upwards. On the face the hair is long, especially about the mouth. The colour is the same as for the previous classes. The Italians call the kleine Pudel barbino, the French petit barbet, and the English little barbet (?). Portraits of these dogs are also seen on antique monuments, but they are not mentioned in any German MSS. of the middle ages. The little poodle is not pure, but a mongrel. He has, however, all the winsome qualities of the larger breeds. He is used as a lapdog by ladies, and can also be employed for finding truffles. Der kleine Pintsch, or the little griffon (Aquaticus gryphus). The peculiarities of this mixed race lead to the supposition that it is a product of a cross between the little poodle and the Pomeranian (?). It has a long head, an arched forehead, a stumpy mouth, and very long hair on its body. In all other respects, and in colour, it is like other poodles. They are called barbet griffons and chiens Anglais by the French.
Der Schnür Pudel (corded hair poodle) is of pure breed, but seems to be some variation of the large poodle, from which, however, he differs in his coat. His size is quite that of the large poodle, the length of his body being sometimes 3ft. (German), and in build, in all cases, he is very much like the large poodle. The characteristic feature of this breed is the peculiar nature of its coat, which is not only of great length, but which grows in a peculiar manner—i.e., the soft woolly hair does not hang down in ringlets or in curls, or in feather, but it comes down regularly in rows of straight cords, from the skull, from the middle line of the neck, and of the back; and it hangs down on both sides of the head, neck, and body, sometimes 2 ft. long, dragging on the ground, so that the legs are invisible. From the ears and tail the hair sometimes hangs to the length of 1 ft. Only the face, muzzle, and paws are clothed in shorter hair. Generally these dogs are white; rarely are black ones to be seen.
The origin of this dog has been a matter of discussion among savants, some saying that he came from Spain or Portugal, and others from Greece. His qualities are like those of the great poodle, but he is much more valued, simply because he is very rarely met with.
Der Schaf-Pudel, or woolly-coated poodle. His similarity to the great poodle and the Calabrian (?) dog, induces Dr. Fitzinger to think that it is a double bastard, as it is a perfect link between these two breeds. He has the hair of the first; but his size and general appearance are like those of the second. He has a less arched forehead, and shorter and smaller ears, than the great poodle; his body is more tucked up, he is higher on legs, and his hair more thinly curled on the neck and belly; it is longest on the ears and shortest in front of the legs. On other parts of his body and face his coat is very woolly. His colour is generally white, and then sometimes he has a circle of bluish grey round the eyes, and the top of his nose is of a greyish or fleshy colour. Other specimens are light liver or grey, ticked or spotted, sometimes with patches of brown or black. The breed is generally found in the Campana of Rome.
The writer of the article alludes to the skill with which the poodle, when used in France for duck shooting, collects the wounded game at night-time, in which work he shows skill and intelligence simply unsurpassable, in short, he is so well adapted for that sort of work that in French his generic name caniche, is decidedly derived from duck (canard). He is also called chien canne, which is quite as much a derivation; and in some districts where the ooze abounds the name barbet is applied to him, this word being a diminutive for barboteur, i.e., a mud-lark, a dog fond of paddling about in the mud. Some writers have, on the contrary, held the barbet to be a diminutive poodle, the toy of the variety in fact, but we must accept Mr. Clement's opinion, supported as it is by “Stonehenge,” as most likely to be correct. It seems rather odd that these working poodles, which have to endure the cold water in winter, and the mud and the slush, for the most part have their jackets cut, the curls being taken closely off from the middle of the back to the hocks, and the remainder of the coat is more or less trimmed. Some of the continental fowlers likewise clip him on the face, leaving the moustache and an “imperiale,” a quaint and odd idea, which in no way can add to the utility of the