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Touch is that part of the field, on either side of the ground, which is beyond the line of play. Carrying is taking more than two steps when holding the ball.

THE RUGBY UNION. The following laws, which have been framed after the model of those originally used at Rugby School, have been largely adopted by minor schools and clubs in the neighbourhood of London. They are more extensive and elaborate than those of the Football Association, and to thoroughly master them a lengthy apprenticeship is necessary. The main idea is to encourage speed of foot, and kicking is reduced almost to a minimum compared with the other code, while the objectionable frequency of the mauls, which disfigure the game invests Rugby Union rules with an atmosphere o danger almost unknown in the practice of the laws sanctioned by the Football Association ; nevertheless, the “maulers” are numerous than the “dribblers," boisterous fun having for many youngsters a greater attraction than skilful kicking of the ball.

LAWS OF THE RUGBY UNION. 1. A DROP Kick is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and

kicking it the very instant it rises. 2. A PLACE Kick is made by kicking the ball after it has been placed in

a nick made in the ground for the purpose of keeping it at rest. 3. A Punt is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it

before it touches the ground. 4. EACH GOAL shall be composed of two upright posts, exceeding 11 feet

in height from the ground, and placed 18 feet 6 inches apart, with a

cross-bar 10 feet from the ground. 5. A GOAL can only be obtained by kicking the ball from the field of play

direct (i.e., without touching the ground or the dress or person of any player of either side) over the cross-bar of the opponents' goal, whether it touch such cross-bar, or the posts, or not; but if the ball goes directly over either of the goal-posts it is called a poster, and is not a

goal. A goal may be obtained by any kind of kick except a punt. 6. A Try is gained when a player touches the ball down in his opponents' goal. 7. A match shall be decided by a majority of goals; but if the number of

goals be equal, or no goal be kicked, by a majority of tries. If no goal be kicked, or try obtained, the match shall be drawn. When a goal

is kicked from a try, the goal only is scored. 8. The ball is DEAD when it rests absolutely motionless on the ground. 9. A Touch Down is when a player, putting his hand upon the ball on

the ground, in touch or in goal, stops it so that it remains dead or

fairly so. 10. A TÁCKLE is when the holder of the ball is held by one or more

players of the opposite side. 11. A SCRUMMAGE takes place when the holder of the ball, being in the

field of play, puts it down on the ground in front of him, and all who have closed round on their respective sides endeavour to push their opponents back, and by kicking the ball to drive it in the direction of the opposite goal-line. A scrummage ceases to be a scrummage when the ball is in touch or goal,

12. A player may TAKE UP the ball whenever it is rolling or bounding,

except in a scrummage. 13. It is not lawful to take up the ball when dead (except in order to bring

it out after it has been touched down in touch or in goal) for any purpose whatever. Whenever the ball shall have been so unlawfully taken up it shall at once be brought back to where it was so taken up,

and there put down. 14. In a scrummage it is not lawful to touch the ball with the hand under

any circumstances whatever. 15. It is lawful for any player who has the ball to run with it, and if he

does so, it is called a RUN. If a player runs with the ball until he gets behind his opponents' goal-line, and there touches it down, it is

called a RUN IN. 16. It is lawful to run in anywhere across the goal-line. 17. The goal-line is in goal, and the touch-line is in touch. 18. In the event of any player holding or running with the ball being

tackled, and the ball fairly held, he must at once cry “DOWN,” and

immediately put it down. 19. A MAUL IN GOAL is when the ball is held inside the goal-line, and

one of the opposing sides endeavours to touch it down. Those players only who are touching the ball with the hand when the maul begins, and then for so long only as they retain their touch, may continue in the maul. The ball shall be touched down where the maul is concluded, and shall belong to the players of the side who first had possession of it before the maul began, unless the opposite side have gained entire possession of it, or unless it has escaped from the hold of all parties engaged, in which latter event it shall belong to the

defending side. 20. Touch IN GOAL (See plan). ---Immediately the ball, whether in the

hands of a player or not, goes into touch in goal, it is at once dead and out of the game, and must be brought out as provided by Rules

38 and 39. 21. Every player is ON side, but is put OFF side if he enters a scrummage

from his opponents' side, or, being in a scrummage, gets in front of the ball, or when the ball has been kicked, touched, or is being run with by any of his own side behind him (i.e., between himself and his

own goal-line). No player can be off side in his own goal. 22. Every player when off side is out of the game, and shall not touch the

ball in any case whatever, either in or out of goal, or in any way interrupt or obstruct any player, until he is again on side. In case any player plays the ball when he is off side the captain of the opposite side may claim that the ball be taken back and put down at the place

where it was last played before the off side play occurred. 23. A player being off side is put on side when the ball has been run five

yards with, or kicked by, or has touched the dress or person of, any player of the opposite side, or when one of his own side has run in

front of him either with the ball or having kicked it when behind him. 24. When a player has the ball none of his opponents who at the time are

off side may commence or attempt to run, tackle, or otherwise interrupt such player until he has run five yards or taken his kick. But if any player when off side tackles or in any way interferes with an

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opponent who has the ball before such opponent has run five yards or taken his kick, the captain of the opposite side may claim a free kick for the player so interfered with; such free kick shall be either a punt or a drop kick from the spot where the interference took place, and shall be taken in accordance with the conditions of Law 41 ; such free

kick shall not count a goal. 25. THROWING BACK.-It is lawful for any player who has the ball to throw

it back towards his own goal, or to pass it back to any player of his own side who is at the time behind him, in accordance with the rules of ON SIDE,

26. KNOCKING ON, i.e., hitting the ball with the hand, and THROWING

FORWARD, i.e., throwing the ball, in the direction of the opponents' goal-line are not lawful. If the ball be either knocked on or thrown forward the opposite side may (unless a fair catch has been made as provided by the next rule) require to have it brought back to the

spot where it was so knocked or thrown on, and there put down. 27. A FAIR CATCH is a catch made direct from a kick or a throw forward,

or a knock on by one of the opposite side, provided the catcher makes a mark with his heel at the spot where he has made the catch, and no

other of his own side touch the ball. (See Rules 40 and 41.) 28. Touch. (See Plan).-If the ball goes into touch a player on the side

other than that whose player last touched it in the field of play must bring it to the spot where it crossed the touch line ; or if a player, when running with the ball, cross or put any part of either foot across the touch line, he must return with the ball to the spot where the line was so crossed, and thence return it into the field of play in one of the

modes provided by the following rule. 29. He must then himself, or by one of his own side, either (i.) bound the

ball in the field of play, and then run with it, kick it, or throw it back to his own side; or (ii.) throw it out at right angles to the touch line; or (iii.) walk out with it at right angles to the touch line, any distance not less than five nor more than fifteen yards, and there put it down,

first declaring how far he intends to walk out. 30. If two or more players holding the ball are pushed into touch, the ball

shall belong in touch to the player who first had hold of it in the field

of play, and has not released his hold of it. 31. If the ball be not thrown out straight, the opposite side may at once

claim to bring it out themselves, as in Law 29, sect. iii. 32. A catch made when the ball is thrown out of touch is not a fair catch. 33. KICK OFF is a place kick from the centre of the field of play, and can

not count as a goal. The opposite side must stand at least ten yards in front of the ball until it has been kicked. If the ball pitch in touch

the opposite side may claim to have it kicked off again. 34. The ball shall be kicked off (i.) at the commencement of the game ;

(ii.) after a goal has been obtained ; (iii.) after change of goals at

half time. 35. Each side shall play from either goal for an equal time. 36. The captains of the respective sides shall toss up before commence.

ment of the match ; the winner of the toss shall have the option of

choice of goals, or the kick off. 37. Whenever a goal shall have been obtained the side which has lost the

goal shall then kick off. When goals have been changed at half time, the side which did not kick off at the commencement of the game shall

then kick off. 38. KICK OUT is a drop kick by one of the players of the side which has

had to touch the ball down in their own goal, or into whose touch in goal the ball has gone (Rule 20), and is the mode of bringing the ball

again into play, and cannot count as a goal. (See Rule 44.) 39. Kick out must be a drop kick, and from not more than twenty-five

yards outside the kicker's goal-line ; if the ball when kicked out pitch in touch, the opposite side may claim to have it kicked off again. The kicker's side must be behind the ball when kicked out, and the opposite side may not obstruct such kicker within twenty-five yards

of his own goal. 40. A player who has made and claimed a fair catch shall thereupon either

take a drop kick or a punt, or place the ball for a place kick. 41. After a fair catch has been made, the opposite side may come up to

the catcher's mark, and the catcher's side retiring, the ball shall be kicked from such mark, or from a spot any distance behind it, in a

straight line parallel with the touch lines. 42. A player may touch the ball down in his own goal at any time. 43. A side having touched the ball down in their opponents' goal shall try

at goal by a place kick in the following manner-one of the players shall bring it up to the goal-line in a straight line (parallel to the touch lines) from the spot where it was touched down, and there make a mark on the goal-line (unless between the goal-posts, in which case he shall bring it up to either post), and thence walk straight out with it in a line parallel to the touch lines such distance as he thinks proper,

and there place it for another of his side to kick. 44. The defending side may charge as soon as the ball touches the ground;

the kicker's side must remain behind the ball until the try has been decided. If a goal be kicked, the game shall proceed as provided in Rule 37, but if a goal be not kicked, or if the bringer out fail to make a mark on the goal-line (except when the try was obtained between the posts) or allow any of his side to touch the ball before it has been kicked, the ball shall be dead forthwith and the game shall proceed

by a kick out, as provided in Rule 39. 45. CHARGING, i.e., rushing forward to kick the ball or tackle a player, is

lawful for the opposite side, in all cases of a place kick after a fair catch or upon a try at goal, immediately the ball touches or is placed on the ground ; and in cases of a drop-kick or punt after a fair catch, as soon as the player having the ball commences to run or offers to kick, or the ball has touched the ground ; but he may always draw back, and unless he has dropped the ball or actually touched it with his foot, they must again retire to his mark. (See Rule 46.) Except in a scrummage, it is not lawful for a player to charge against or obstruct any opponent, unless such opponent is holding the ball, or such player

is himself running at the ball. 46. In case of a fair catch the opposite side may come up to and charge

from anywhere on or behind a line drawn through the mark made and parallel to the goal-line. In all cases the kicker's side must be behind the ball when it is kicked, but may not charge until it has been kicked. If, after a fair catch, more than one player of the attacking side touch the ball before it is again kicked, the opposite side may charge

forthwith. 47. No HACKING, or HACKING OVER, or tripping up shall be allowed

under any circumstances. No one wearing projecting nails, iron plates, or gutta-percha on any part of his boots or shoes shall be

allowed to play in a match. 48. In the case of any law being broken, or any irregularity of play

occurring on the part of cither side not otherwise provided for, the opposite side may claim that the ball be taken back to the place where

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