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2-in. brads (Fig. 30). Make a hole in the wood with a brad-awl before putting in a nail.
The front is made in the same way, but requires a hole cut for the doorway before it is nailed on. The curve at the top is cut with the compass-saw. The edges of the doorway should be rounded off; this will protect Master Pup from cutting his ribs when he runs out in a hurry. For the sides, cut six pieces 18. in. long, plane these to 10%. in. broad. Also cut pieces 18 in. long and 5 in. broad, and plane them down to 4^ in. broad. The edges of these boards must all be square and straight, so as to fit neatly together. Nail on these boards as in Fig. 31
The holes to receive the nails should be made with a brad-awl. The cross bar, Fig. 31, A, running from the front to back, is I in. square, and is screwed on from the outside of the front and back. The top is now to be made. Cut eight pieces 18 in. long and plane them to 10^ in. broad. The surface that goes outside should be planed smooth. The top is put on as in Fig. 32; B is a piece of wood half an inch square nailed on after the top is on. A skilled carpenter would "mitre" the edges together, and thus dispense with this extra piece.
With a couple of coats of paint the kennel will be finished. The kennel should not be painted inside. Three pounds of paint will be required. If Master Pup is to be chained up it is advisable not to chain him to the kennel, or perhaps some fine day he may imagine himself a horse, and cut capers with his wheclless carriage at his tail.
Fig 33 is a peg to be driven into the ground to fasten the chain to; B is a staple to be driven into the peg.
FRETWORK. Now that fretwork has become such a popular amusement among boys, it may not be out of place if we give a few hints to aid beginners in this dainty and interesting branch of carpentry It is easily learnt, and becomes a most
enjoyable employment for winter evenings, giving eNercise to the ingenuity in the making of patterns and good practice in that invaluable possession—patience.
Hand Fretsaws.—The ordinary hand fretsaw frame is usually made of steel, and can be purchased at any too[ shop at prices varying from throe shillings to eight shillings, according to size. The most useful are 16 to 18 inches in length, the frame should be as light as possible, and have tightening screws and handle. Some, however, are made of wood, but we cannot recommend these, as they break easily, and are troublesome to tighten.
Saws.—These may be purchased in all sizes from oo—6. The most useful for ordinary work are Nos. i, 2 and 3. The price of the ordinary saw is threepence per dozen, or two shillings per gross. But we strongly recommend the use of the "Star" saw, which, though fourpence per dozen (three and sixpence per gross), will be found the cheapest in the end, as they do not snap so easily. We do not think it is necessary to say anything about the fixing of the saw, as directions are always given with the frame: only be careful not to put the saw in upside down, as then your work will continually jog up, and you will find it difficult to manage.
Cutting-board.—The work to be done should rest on a piece of wood cut in the shape of a V (see Fig. 2), which is clamped or screwed to the edge of a bench or table, so that the prongs of the V project.
Practice.—The beginner should first practise cutting straight lines, curves, and turning corners.as in Lessons land 2,takingcareto preserve the inside line. Next he should try to cut out a piece from the inside (see Lesson 3). This isdone by boring a hole with a brad-awl, through which the saw is inserted and fastened: this time care should be taken to preserve the outside line. Old cigar boxes are cheap and useful for practising with, but are of no use for work, as cedar splits very easily. Great care must be taken to saw exactly at right angles to the flat of the wood, otherwise your work will not look the same on both sides when sawn out. This difficulty is obviated with a treadle machine saw, which, of course, must saw at right angles if the table is properly set. But with hand sawing it must be thoroughly mastered before any successful work can be done.
WOOd.—The best woods for use in fretwork are walnut, white holly, mahogany, rosewood and oak, and should be as free as possible from knots. The most useful thicknesses are J, ^ and \ of an inch. These can
be obtained, planed and ready for use, at most tool shops. Vulcanite, metals and ivory can also be cut with fretsaws.
PATTERNS.—These can be obtained at any tool or fretwork shop. Beginners should not choose too fine a pattern.
POLisH.—All dark woods should be polished when fretted, as it adds greatly to the beauty of the work. The requisites and directions can be obtained for u., or less, at any oil or fretwork shop; but we advise you to have the work done by a professional polisher, as first attempts almost invariably end in failure.
Fitting And Finishing.—This is where amateur fretwork so often fails. For want of a little care in the fitting, the effect of a handsome piece of fret cutting is quite spoilt. We strongly recommend you to fit your work before commencing to fret out the inside part of the pattern. This will save you the intense annoyance of breaking a finished piece of work when joining it up. Whenever it is possible, let your work be dovetailed or morticed, and, when finished, glued together; or where this method is not convenient, small size screws should be used.
Sandpaper And File.—When you have finished cutting out a piece of wood, you will find that the edges are slightly ragged on the under side. This will be easily smoothed by sandpapering. You can also file edges smooth, if required, with a small half-round file, such as are sold for the purpose. If the work is well done, there is really no need for filing.
Thin Wood.—When using very thin wood or vulcanite, it should be screwed in between two other pieces of soft common wood, so as to prevent it splitting or cracking.
Metal Work.—Special saws are sold for metal work, Nos. 1, o and 00 being preferable, also sheet metal of various thicknesses. Where the metal is thin, it should be sawn between two pieces of wood, as it if were vulcanite.
Treadle Machine.—We give an illustration (see Fig. 3) of one of these from the catalogue of Messrs. Melhuish and Sons, of 84 to 87 Fetter Lane, E.C., where good machines and all fretwork necessaries can be obtained. The machines vary in price from 20^. upwards. The points of a good machine are :— (1.) That it runs easily and without much noise. (2.) That the saw blade is easily attached and unattached.
(3.) That the blade is easily tightened and held at strong tension.
(4.) That it has a good-sized level saw table, so that a large piece of
work can rest on it. (5.) That it has an upright drilling attachment and a blower. Some machines are made with a catch to hold down the work, but we can
not recommend this, as it causes a great deal of extra trouble in shifting the blade to a new hole, and is liable to catch and snap the work.
Owing to the perfectly rectangular cut of these machines, it is possible to saw much greater thicknesses than with the hand saw. Most of them will cut soft wood J-inch thick with ease.
Where duplicate pieces have to be cut out, a great saving of labour may be effected by screwing two or three thicknesses of wood together and sawing them all out at the same time.