« ForrigeFortsett »
A The foremast
B Fore top-ma si
C Foretop gallant mast
e Fore top-sail-yard
H Main topmast
R Cross jack-yard
S The gaff
T The spanker-boom
V The main ditto [nels W The mizzen ditto
X The quarter galleries
V The chain or channel
11 11 11 Lifts of the
fore, main, and mizzen yards
12 12 12 Ditto ditto
13 13 13 Ditto ditto
14 14 Fore, main, and
mizntp. - gallant braces
15 15 Ditto ditto ditto
16 16 Fore-braces
17 17 Main-braces
18 18 Cross-jack-yard
21 Signal halyards
22 Peak or gaff" halyards
24 Fore, main, and
deck: they are used for the same purpose as the bunt-lines. Clew-garncts on the upper square sails are called clew-lines) are lines made fast to the corners of the lower sails, on the after side, and run to a block on the yard and mast, and so to the deck: they serve, in conjunction with the bunt-lines and leech-lines, to clew up the sail.
Bow-lines are sets of lines (each having an earring) on either side of the sail. Bow-line bridles arc lines passed through the earrings, and serve to keep the sail bowed when the wind is full. The main-tack and fore-tack are lines which secure the lower corners of the main and fore-sails on the windward side. The sheets secure the corners on the leeward side. Sheets and tacks are convertible terms, according to the side on which the wind is; they are applicable only to the lower sails; on all other sails these lines are called port and starboard-sheets.
All the lines enumerated above are to be secured to belaying-pins at the foot of the mast, or at the inner top side of the bulwarks.
Studding-sails, or, as they were anciently called, " wind-wooers," are sails set on booms that are run out through hoops rigged to the several yard-arms. They are bent into a small spar to which halyards are fastened, and the halyards arc passed through a block on the boom. They have also a sheet on the inside and a tack on the outside. They have also a tripping-line, which is fast to the outer lower corner of the sail, and joins the tack. The other end of it is rove through a block on the inner upper end of the yard, and so to the deck. It serves to trip up the sail when taking it in. On such an occasion, the tack is let go and runs through the boom, a haul is taken on the trippingline, and the halyards are let go; the sail is then let down to the top, and secured there.
Stay-sails are a kind of large jib. There are commonly two between the fore-mast and the main-mast. These arc the main-top-mast stay-sail and the main-topgallant stay-sail. The fore-stay-sail runs to the head of the vessel inside the standing-jib.
A Barque is in all respects rigged like a ship, excepting that the mizzenmast is schooner-rigged, as shown in the annexed drawing.
It may be as well to follow out the plan suggested by the model which was taken for the purpose of showing the construction of the hull, and to describe particularly the way in which a schooner, such as the model hull, is to be rigged. The size of masts and spars may be ascertained by reference to the tables already given; but it must be observed that the bowsprit, instead of being stepped at an angle, as in ships, is generally placed horizontally, and consists of two pieces only, joined by a cap not unlike the top-mast caps of schooners, except that it has no hounds, or halyard-hooks.
Schooners are rigged in two fashions, and are called, according to the rig adopted, Top-sail Schooners, or Fore-and-aft Schooners. It is intended in this place to describe particularly only the rig of a fore-and-aft schooner, because such a rig will be found more suitable to craft of the model size, looks better, and is moreover that most commonly adopted for schooner yachts and pleasure craft. Top-sail schooners are used for the fruit trade and as colliers, and sometimes, but seldom, as yachts. In general terms they may be thus described: they have two masts, whereof the main-mast has not any square sails on it, but is furnished with a spanker and gaff-top-sail, like any other schooner, while the fore-mast has, in addition to a try-sail, a fore-yard, a top-sail-yard, a topgallant-yard, and sometimes a royal. The fore-yard does not, however, cany a sail, and is only u^ed for the purpose of making a home for the lower part of the top-sail. If it should be wished to rig a model as a top-sail schooner, all that will be necessary will be to rig the main-mast according to the directions given below, and taking heed to what has been said as to the quantity of square sails allowed to rig the top-sail, topgallant, and royal-yards in the same way as was directed for like sails in a ship.
Fore-and-aft schooners have both masts rigged alike (see annexed figure), with the exception of a boom which belongs to the spanker, but is not allowed to the fore-sail. If she be meant for a yacht, or if she be deep, and long, and rather narrow than broad in the beam, the lower masts should be of considerable height. No exact dimensions can be given: the matter must be left to the taste and judgment of the owner; but sec table above. The lower masts having been stepped in such away that the middle line of the deck is divided between the stem and stern into—say three—equal spaces, it is necessary to fit and run up the top-masts, and set up their standing rigging.
There are not any tops in these schooners; but the top mast is rigged in two caps, which secure the end of it firmly in a double grip, as shown in Fig. 1.
The caps are best made out of lead or bone, which can easily be worked with a pen-knife; wood is not so strong, and it is very liable to break when the mast-holes arc being cut.
Dead eyes, or fixed blocks shaped thus— being fastened into the
outside of the bulwarks, parallel with the ( o o ) main and fore-ma^ts, the
shrouds, which are passed over and across ' 'the lower cap, are led down
to and secured in them, and the ratlines must be fastened across the shrouds. The small futtock-shrouds for the top-masts arc secured, through the ends of crosstrees, to a necklace of iron under the lower cap. They are, however, very slight. The main-stay is a rope leading to the head of the fore-mast; and there is a sort of back-stay which leads to the foot of the fore-mast. The forestay runs from the head of the fore-mast to the head of the vessel, and serves as a medium for carrying the fore-stay-sad where one is carried. The gear for the sails is the same as already described under the head of spanker and try-sail gear. Through the eyes, shown in the figure (Fig. 2), as secured to the mast-head, are passed the peak and throat-halyards, for hauling up or lowering the peak. Through a block halfway down the peak, and another at the throat of the gaff, are run the peak and throat-brails; and through a block on the mast, about two-thirds down, run the foot-brails. Brails are used for the purpose of taking in the sail; they are all fast to belayingpins at the foot of the mast. Two or three sets of reef-points are on both main and fore-sail. Out-hauls and down-hauls are also provided, as in the case of a spanker.
The fore and main-gaff-top-sails have each one set of halyards, no reef, and a single rope-sheet running through a block on the mast and communicating with the deck.
On the mast-head are placed five hoops: the lower hoop, <r, is made with a wide collar, to receive the shoulder of an iron outrigger, with an eye formed for the throat-halyards; this hoop is put on from two feet to two feet six