14. When a player strikes at the ball, his stick must not during any por

tion of the stroke rise above his shoulder. And no player may inter

fere in any way with the game unless his stick be in his hand. 15. On the occasion of a FREE HIT, no member of the offending side shall

be within five yards of the spot where such hit is made, and the striker must not play the ball again until it has touched or been hit

by another player. 16. The PENALTY for any breach of Rules 12, 13, 14 and 15, committed

outside the striking circles shall be a "free hit” by one of the opposite side on the spot where the rule was broken. For any breach of Rules 12, 13, 14 and 15 by the attacking side, committed inside the striking circle, a free hit may be claimed by the defending side. For any breach of Rules 12, 13, 14 and 15 committed by the defending side

inside the striking circle, the attacking side can only claim a “bully.” 17. When the ball passes over the “side line,” it shall be rolled out along

the ground from where it crossed the line by one of the opposite side to that of the player who last touched it in any direction except forward. No other player shall stand within five yards of the side line. The ball may be rolled out at once, and the player who rolls it out must not touch the ball again until it has touched or been hit by

another player. 18. If the ball is hit behind the goal-line by the attacking side, it shall be

brought out twenty-five yards in a direction at right angles to the goal from a point where it crossed the line and there “bullied ” ; but if the ball glance off, or is hit behind by any player of the defending side, a player of the attacking side shall have a free hit from a point on the side or base line within a yard of the nearest corner flag, and at the moment of such hit all the defending side must be behind their goal

line, and all the attacking side must be outside the striking circle. 19. Should there be no umpire or umpires appointed by the two captains,

the captains shall be arbitrators in all disputes, and should two umpires or arbitrators fail to agree, they must appoint a referee, whose decision shall be final. Where there are two umpires but no referee each umpire is to take half the field and to give his decisions in his half only. The field to be divided across by a line drawn at right angles to the side lines through the centre of the ground. The two

umpires shall not cross over at half time. NOTE.-The game is usually played for one hour and ten minutes. Half time being called after thirty-five minutes.

ROUNDERS. This is a very interesting game, not difficult to learn, yet offering ample opening for almost any amount of personal skill and address. Its requirements are not numerous, a ball being the only thing absolutely indispensable.

THE GAME IS PLAYED by first fixing on five equi-distant spots or “bases,” from fifteen to twenty yards apart, as shown in the annexed figure :In the centre of this is a spot, F, where the “feeder” stands, to toss the ball to the one who has the bat, and who stands at i in diagram. Two sides are chosen, as in football, one of which goes “in," and the other is “out,” this being decided by tossing up the ball and scrambling for it, or by “heads or

tails,” or by any other fair mode. There should not
be less than ten or twelve players in all, and 24 or 30
are not too many. The "in" side begin by standing at
position i in diagram, called “the house," one of them
takes the “bat,” while the feeder, who is one of the "out"

party, standing at his “seat,” F., tosses (not throws) a

ball at his knees or thereabouts, after calling “Play!”
The rest of the "out" party are distributed over the

field round the outside of the pentagon. When the ball is thus given, the batsman's object is to hit it far and low over the field ; and he is put out at once--first, if he fails to strike it ; secondly, if he tips it and it falls behind him; thirdly, if it is caught before it falls to the ground, or after a single hop or rebound; or, fourthly, if the ball hits him after he has left his base, and while not standing at another base. The "in" player may refuse to take for three balls consecutively; but if he attempts and fails, or if he does not strike at the fourth ball, he is out.

The Score is made by the “in” party, as follows :—Each player, after striking the ball, runs from his base to another, or to a second, third, fourth, or even all round, according to the distance he has hit the ball, and scores one for each base he touches; and if while running between the bases he is hit by the ball, he is put out. If the ball falls among nettles or other cover of the same kind, “lost ball” may be cried by the "out" party, and four only can be scored. After one of the “in” party has hit the ball and dropped the bat, another takes his place ; and, on receiving the ball as before, he strikes it, or fails, as the case may be. If the latter, he is put out ; but the previous striker or strikers, if they are standing at their bases, are not affected by his failure. If the former, he drops the bat like his predecessor, and runs round the pentagon also like him, being preceded by the previous strikers; and all being liable to be put out by a blow from the ball. The feeder is allowed to feign a toss of the ball, in the hope of touching some one of the players, who are very apt to leave their bases before the hit, in the hope of scoring an extra cne by the manœuvre.

When only one of the side is left in, the others being all put out, he may call for three fair hits for the rounder," which are intended to give him and his side another innings if he can effect the following feat :- The "outs," with the feeder, stand as usual, the rest of the striker's side besides himself taking no part. The feeder then tosses the ball as usual, which the striker may refuse as often as he pleases; but if he strikes at it he must endeavour to run completely round the pentagon once out of three times, he being allowed three attempts to do it in. If he is struck on the body, or caught, or if he fails in getting round, he and his party are finally out, and the other side go in; but if he succeeds in getting round, his side go in again for another innings, but have not afterwards another such chance of redeeming their play.

The "out" field are disposed on the same principles as at cricket, part for slight tips, and the remainder for long balls, and catch, stop, or return them, just as in that game.


BASEBALL. The theory of the game of base ball is that two contesting teams must endeavour to send the greatest number of men around the circuit of the bases under prescribed rules, within a limited number of innings. That is the cardinal point in the theory of the game.

Each team must invariably consist of nine men, and the game must be played upon a regularly marked or laid out field.

The field consists of a continuous runway, these runways being clay covered paths, laid out in the shape of a huge diamond. At each corner of the diamond is a base-bag of canvas, filled with curled hair or other material, and strapped securely to the ground. These bags are known as first base, second base, third base, and home plate, the distance between bases being ninety feet. The pitcher (or bowler) stands in the centre of the diamond, within prescribed lines, four feet wide by five feet four inches long, known as the pitcher's box. The forward line of the pitcher's box is fifty feet from the home plate which the pitcher faces when ready to deliver the ball, and beside which the batsman stands, as he faces the pitcher. Behind the home plate stands the catcher, it being his duty to receive the ball from and return it to the pitcher, should it not be batted by the batsman. Just behind the catcher stands the umpire, who is expected to judge every ball pitched and every play made during the game, his decision being final in every instance. At first base stands the first baseman, and at second base stand the second baseman. The short stop is stationed midway between the second and third baseman in or near the runway, and the third baseman at third base. These four men constitute the “in-field” of the team. Facing the diamond, and stationed from 100 to 125 yards from the in-field are the right, centre and left fielders. These men constitute the "out-field" of the team.

The choice of going to bat or to field for the opening inning of the game is optional with the captain of the home team-that is, the team upon whose ground the game is being played. Should he decide to send his men to the field he stations them as above indicated, while the nine players of the opposing team take their seats upon the visiting players' bench. These players go to bat in the order in which their names appear upon the score card. When the fielding team has taken its position, the first batsman of the opposing team steps to the plate, and others follow him in regular turn until three batsmen have been retired by the efforts of the opposing fielders, Then the positions of the teams are reversed, the side which was at bat going to the field, and the side which was doing fielding duty coming in to take their turn at bat in regulation order. When three of the second team's batsmen have been retired or put out by the efforts of the opposing fielders, the innings is ended, each team having sent three or more men to bat, and each having had three men retired. Nine such innings requiring from one hour and a half to two hours of play, constitute a game, and the team which has scored the most runs wins the game. Should rain or any other cause stop the game before five full innings have been played, however, the game must be contested over again before it can count in a championship record.

When the batsman steps to the plate he is expected to hit the ball so that it will pass the intercepting fielders and go to such distance in the out-field as will enable him to reach first base before the ball can be returned to the fielder stationed there. If he can reach second or third base before, or make the entire circuit of the bases before the ball has been intercepted by any one of the in-fielders, or before it has been captured by an out-fielder and returned to the in-field, so much the better, for the base runner's object is to ultimately make the circuit and touch the home plate, by which he scores a run for his side. To put a batsman out, a fielder must catch the batted ball before it has reached the ground, or must recover it in time to throw it to the base for which the base runner is making, before the base runner reaches there.

The pitcher is required by the rules to pitch the ball oz'er the plate and betwen the lince and shoulder of the batsman. Each time he tries and fails to do so the umpire calls “ball," and upon five such balls being pitched, the batsman is entitled to take first base. When three fair balls have been put over the plate, however, and the batsman has failed to hit them, the batsman is out, whether he has struck at the ball or not. For each fair ball the umpire calls “strike."

From the home plate among the runways to and past first and third bases, are drawn two chalk lines. These are known as foul lines, and any ball batted outside these lines is called a foul ball and does not count against either the pitcher or batsman, unless it should be caught by a fielder before touching the ground, in which case the batsman is out. Very frequently a swiftly pitched ball is struck at by the batsman who fails to correctly judge it, and the ball being just grazed by the bat, shoots into the catcher's hands. This is called a “foul tip," and puts the batsman out.

When the innings begin, and there are no base runners on bases, the catcher usually stands well back from the plate and takes the ball on the bound, so as to save his hands as much as possible. When three balls or two strikes have been called by the umpire, however, or when a batsınan has succeeded in reaching first base on a hit, or by other means, the catcher puts on his protecting mask and pad and stands close up behind the batsman, taking the balls as they come over the plate. This is so that he may more quickly take advantage of any opportunity that may offer to put the batsman out, or retire the base runner, who may already have reached first base.


RULE 1.-THE MATERIALS. Section 1.-.Thc ball must weigh not less than five nor more than five and one-quarter ounces avoirdupois. It must measure not less than ninc, nor more than nine and one-quarter inches in circumference. It must be composed of woollen yarn and of two horse-hide covers, inside and outside, with yarn between said covers. It shall contain one ounce of round moulded rubber, vulcanised.

Section 2.-In all games the ball or balls played with shall be furnished by the home club, and shall become the property of the winning club.

Section 3.- When the ball becomes out of shape, or cut or ripped so as to expose the yarn, or in any way so injured as to be unfit for fair use, a new ball shall be called for by the umpire at the end of an even innings at the request of either captain. Should the ball be lost during a game, the umpirc shall, at the expiration of five minutes, co!l for a new ball.

Section 4.—The bat must be round or four-sided, and must not exceed

two and onc-half inches in diameter in the widest part. It must be made wholly of wood, and shall not exceed forty-two inches in length.

Section 5.-- The bases must be four in number, and they must be placed and securely fastened upon each corner of a square, the sides of which are respectively thirty yards. The bases must be so constructed and placed as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The first, second and third bases must cover a space equal to fifteen inches square, and the home base one square foot of surface. The first, second and third bases shall be canvas bags, painted white and filled with some soft material. The home base shall be of white marble or stone, so fixed in the ground as to be even with the surface and wholly within the diamond. One corner of said base shall face the pitcher's position, and two sides shall form part of the foul lines.

Section 6.–The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the home base, and must be directly opposite the second base. The first base must always be that upon the right hand, and the third base that upon the left hand side of the striker when occupying his position at the home base. In all match games, lines connecting the home and first bases, and the home and third bases, and also the lines of the striker's and pitcher's positions, shall be marked by the use of chalk or other suitable material, so as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The line of the home base shall extend four feet on each side of the base, and shall be drawn through its centre and parallel with a line extending from first to third base. The foul lines from first and third bascs to home base shall be continued as straight lines to the limits of the field, beyond and back of said home base. The triangular space thus laid off behind the home base shall be for the exclusive use of the catcher, umpire and batsman; and no player of the side “at bat" (except the batsman) shall be permitted to occupy any portion of such triangular space.

RULE II.—THE GAME Section 1.--The game shall consist of nine innings to each side ; and nine men shall constitute a full side. Should the score at the end of the nine innings be a tie, play shall be continued until a majority of runs for one side upon an equal number of innings shall be declared, when the game shall end. All innings shall be concluded when the third hand is put out.

Section 2.—The home club shall first take the bat. The fielders of each club shall take any position in the field their captain may assign them, with the exception of pitcher, who must deliver the ball from his appointed position.

[Tne exception made in the above rule in the case of the pitcher refers only to the fact that whichever player in the field he may select to take the regular pitcher's position, such changed pitcher must deliver the ball only from the regular position. It does not prevent a change of pitchers, but only requires that the ball in all cases must be sent in from the regularly appointed position.

Section 3.- No player taking part in a game shall be replaced by another after the commencement of the second innings, except for reason of illness or injury.

Section 4.-No game shall be considered as played unless five innings on each side shall be completed. Should darkness or rain intervene before the third hand is put out in the closing part of the fifth innings of a game, the umpire shall declare “no game."

« ForrigeFortsett »