on the knight's square, and the rook on the bishop's; if in the queen's section, the king must be moved to the bishop's square, and the rook to the queen's. In other words, the king, in either case, must move two squares, and the rook be placed on the opposite side of him to that on which he stood before.

En Prise.—A piece is said to be en prise when under attack.

En Passant (in passing).—If your adversary has advanced one of his pawns to the fifth square, and you move one of your pawns in either of the adjoining files two squares, he is entitled to take your pawn, en passant, as though you had only moved it one square. This peculiar mode of capture can only bo effected by pawns.

Ranks and Files.—The lines of squares running from left to right arc known as ranks, and those perpendicular to them, running from one player to the other, are called files.

Passed and Isolated Pawns.—\ pawn is said to be "passed" when it is so far advanced that no pawn of the adversary's can oppose it. An isolated pawn is one that stands alone and unsupported.

Double Pawn.—Two pawns on the same file.

uJ'adoube" (signifying / adjust or / arrange) is the expression generally used when a player touches a piece to arrange it without the intention of making a move. Perhaps it is not absolutely necessary that he should say "J'adoube" but he must at any rate use an equivalent expression.

To Interpose.— This term explains itself. If your king or one of your pieces is attacked, and you move another of your pieces between the attacking piece and the piece attacked, cither for the purpose of covering check, or as a means of protection, or with any other object, you arc said to " interpose."

Winning the Exchange.—You arc said to "win the exchange" when you gain a rook for a bishop, a bishop for a knight, or, in short, whenever you gain a superior piece by giving an inferior.

Queening a Pawn.—You are said to " queen a pawn " when you advance it to the eighth square on the file. You may then claim a queen or any other rvece in exchanjc for it. Formerly the rule was, that you might substitute 'or it any piece you had previously lost, but according to the modern game you may have as many additional queens, rooks, or other pieces as v ou can queen pawns.

Gambit.—This term, which is derived f: om the Italian, describes an opening in which a pawn is purposely sacrificed at an early stage of the game, in order subsequently to gain an advantage. Several gambits arc distinguished by the names of their inventors, such as the Cochrane gambit, the Muzio gambit, the Salvio gambit, &c; there arc also the bishop's gambit, the queen's gambit, &c, &c.

Mating Power.—The force requisite to bring about a checkmate: a king and queen against king and two bishops, king and two knights, king and bishop and knight, or against king and rook, can effect checkmate. King and two bishops can mate against king and bishop, or king and knight. King with two bishops and knight can mate against king and rook. King with rook and bishop can mate against rook and king. King can always draw against king and bishop, or king and knight. King and rook against either a king and bishop, or king and knight, makes a drawn game, &c

Laws Of The Game. The following laws are in force in all the principal clubs in this country: |. If a player tough one of his men, unless, for the purpose of adjusting it, when he must say "J'adoubc" (sec Law 4), or it being his turn to

move, he must move the piece he has so touched. [Walker gives the following remark on this law: "When you touch a piece with the bond fide intention of playing it, the saying J'adoube will not exonerate you from completing the move. A chess-player's meaning cannot be misunderstood on the point; and were it otherwise, you might hold a man in your hand for five minutes, and then saying ' J'adoubc,' replace it, and move elsewhere."]

2. If the men are not placed properly at the beginning of the game, and

this is discovered before four moves have been made on each side, the game must be recommenced. If the mistake should not be found out till after four moves have been made, the game must be proceeded with.

3. Where the players are even, they must draw lots for the first move, after

which they take the first move alternately. When a player gives odds, he has the option of making the first move, and the choice of men in every game.

[In giving odds, should it be agreed upon to give a pawn, it is customary to take the K. B. P. If a piece is to be given, it may be taken from either the king's or queen's side.]

4. If a player should accidentally or otherwise move or touch one of his men

without saying "J'adoube," his adversary may compel him to move cither the man he has touched or his king" provided the latter is not in check.

5. When a player gives check, and fails to give notice by crying " Check,"

his adversary need not, unless he think proper, place his king out of check, nor cover.

[If it is discovered that the king is in check, and has been so for several moves past, the players must move the men back to the point at which they stood when check was given. If they cannot agree as to when check was first given, the player who is in check must retract his last move, and defend his king.]

6. The player who effects checkmate wins the game.

7. Stalemate constitutes a drawn game.

8. So long as you retain your hold of a piece you may move it where you


9. Should you move one of your adversary's men instead of your own, he

may compel you to take the piece you have touched, should it be en prise, or to replace it and move your king; provided, of course, that you can do so without placing him in check.

10. Should you capture a man with one that cannot legally take it, your

adversary may compel you either to take such piece (should it be en prise) with one that can legally take it, or to move the piece touched; provided that by so doing you do not discover check, in which case you may be directed to move your king.

11. Should you move out of your turn, your adversary may compel you

either to retract the move, or leave the piece where you placed it, as ho may think most advantageous.

12. If you touch the king and rook, intending to castle, and have quitted

hold of the one piece, you must complete the act of castling. If you retain your hold of both, your adversary may compel you to move either of them.

13. The game must be declared to be drawn should you fail to give checkmate in fifty moves, when you have

King and queen against king. King and pawn against king.

King and rook „ King and two pawns „

King and two bishops „ King and minor piece „

King, bishop, and kt. „

14. Drawn games of every description count for nothing.

15. Neither player may leave a game unfinished, nor leave the room without the permission of his adversary.

16. Lookers-on are not permitted to speak, nor in any way express their approbation or disapprobation while a game is pending.

17. In case a dispute should arise on any point not provided for by the laws, a third party must be appealed to, and his decision shall be final.

Hints For Commenc1ng The Game.

To open the game well, some of the pawns should be played out first. The royal pawns, particularly, should be advanced to their fourth square: it is not often safe to advance them farther. The bishop's pawns should also be played out early in the game; but it is not always well to advance the rook's and knight's pawns too hastily, as these afford an excellent protection to your king in case you should castle. Phillidor describes pawn-playing as " the soul of chess." When they are not too far advanced, and are so placed as to be mutually supporting, they present a strong barrier to the advance of your adversary, and prevent him from taking up a commanding position. If you play your pieces out too early, and advance them too far, your adversary may oblige you to bring them back again by advancing his pawns upon them, and you thus lose time.

Do not commence your attack until you are well prepared. A weak attack often results in disaster. If your attack is likely to prove successful, do not be diverted from it by any bait which your adversary may purposely put in your way. Pause, lest you fall into a snare.

Beware of giving check uselessly—i.e., unless you have in view the obtaining of some advantage. A useless check is a move lost, which may, particularly between good players, decide the game.

It is generally injudicious to make an exchange when your position is good, or when, by so doing, you bring one of your adversary's pieces into good play. Never make an exchange without considering the consequences. When your game is crowded and ill arranged and your position inferior, it is advantageous to exchange. Sometimes also, when you are much superior in force, it is worth your while to make an equal exchange.

The operation of castling often relieves a crowded game. A lost opportunity of castling, or castling at the wrong time, is a disadvantage which may be turned to account by your adversary.

Never put your queen before your king in such a way that your adversary may bring forward a bishop or rook and attack her, and the king through her. In such a case, unless you can interpose another piece, you will inevitably lose your queen.

I1 is good play to " double " your rooks— i.e., to make them mutually supporting. Don't bring your rooks into active play too soon. They can generally operate most effectively at a distance, and they are therefore of most value towards the end of a game, when the board is comparatively clear.

From time to time take a review of the game. Although an incurably tedious player is a general nuisance, it is mere folly to play without "knowing the reason why." To take an occasional review of the game gets you into a systematic habit. When near the close, take notice of the position of your adversary's pawns, and if you find that you can queen before him, make all haste to do so; if not, attack his pawns so as to prevent him from queening. If your adversary possesses a decided advantage, look out for a means ot drawing the game.

Do not stick to one opening, but learn as many as you can. Always be willing to accept odds of a better player, so that the game ma] be interesting to him. If you should lose, it is natural that you should feci inwardly chagrined, but do not let your disappointment be perceived. "Keep your temper" is a golden rule. Do not throw up the game before you are quite sure it is lost. On the other hand, you should not too hastily jump to the conclusion that you have won it.

It is necessary that you should occasionally study some of the best book games, but without actual practice proficiency can seldom be attained.

Endeavour to understand the reasons which lead to your adversary's moves, and take measures accordingly.

"open1ngs" Of Games.—The principal openings are the king's gambit, the queen's gambit, the king's knight's opening, the king's bishop's opening, &c From these spring the various gambits, known as the Evans, the Muzio, the Cunningham, the Allgaier, the Cochrane, the Giuoco piano, &c, most of them deriving their names from the inventors. All these gambits have a variety of subdivisions, and openings not founded on any of them are termed irregular openings. We shall, after defining each of the most celebrated of these openings, give illustrations of them.

The King's Gambit.—In this gambit, the first player advances his K. B. P two squares at his second move.

The Queen's Gambit is when the first player, at his second move, advances his Q. I5. P. two squares.

King's Bishop's Gambit is so styled because the first player brings out the K. B. at his second move.

King's Knight's Gambit.—In this much-used opening the first player brings out his K. Kt. at his second move.

The Evans Gambit, so styled from its inventor, Captain W. D. Evans, R.N., is when the player advances Q. Kt. P. two at his fourth move, and sacrifices it, with the object of recovering at least its equivalent, at the same time obtaining a decided lead.

Besides the above, there are the queen's pawn-two-opening, the queen's bishop's pawn's opening, the Lopez gambit, the kings's pawn-one-opening, the queen's counter-gambit, the king's rook's pawn's gambit, the Allgaier gamb1t, the Muzio gambit, the Cochrane gambit, the Cunningham gambit, the bishop's gambit, the Damian's gambit, the Greco counter-gambit, &c, &c

In an article of such limited scope as the present, it would be impossible to treat at any length upon every one of these openings. We shall therefore content ourselves with making a selection which will be at once interesting and suitable for beginners. In every case we have preferred to give those variations which are considered the best and most legitimate, believing that the study and practice of such positions will be more advantageous to the learner than giving, as some writers do, inferior play and positions, and then afterwards giving the correct ones.

The King's Gambit.

White. Black.

1. K. P. 2. I. K. P. 2.

2. K. B. P. 2. 2. P. takes P.

3. K. Kt. to B. 3. 3. K. Kt. P. 2.

4. K. B. to Q. B. 4.

There has been much difference of opinion as to the move which black should now make. Some writers prefer advancing K. Kt. P., whilst Walker and a whole host of authorities think it better to place the K. B. at Kt. second; "Although," says Walker, "playing the pawn is productive of more brilliant situations." He advises both moves for practice.

King's Bishop's Opening.—This opening is considered by the great chess master, Phillidor, rs the very finest opening for the first player, as it brings out the bishop at the second move, and immediately attacks black's K. B. P., his weakest point. From this opening spring some of the finest and most difficult combinations known. It commences thus:

While. Black.

1. K. P. to K. 4. 1. P. to K. 4.

2. K. B. to Q. B. 4. 2. K. B. to Q. B. 4 (best)

3. P. to Q. B. 3. 3. Q. to K. 2 (good).

4. K. Kt. to B. 3.

Some prefer to play the Kt. to K. 2, but in our opinion this is not so good as to B. 3, because in the former case black could take K. B. P. with hi~ bishop (check); and if white K. takes bishop, black queen gives check at her B. 4, and white loses bishop.

White. Black.

4. K. Kt. to B. 3.

5. O. to K. 2. 5. P. to O. 3.

6. P. to Q. 3. 6. P. to Q. B. 3.

If black plays his Q. B., pinning Kt., white will advance R. P., which will cause black either to retire bishop (which will be losing time) or force an exchange, which will open the game to white's queen. Therefore it will be better for black to play P. to Q. B. 3, as we have given it, which will leave the game pretty equal up to this point. If black, at his third move, replies as follows—which is an inferior move—then the game proceeds thus:

White. Black.

3. K. Kt. to B. 3.

4. P. to Q. 4. 4. P. takes P.

5. P. to K. 5. 5. Kt. to K. 5.

6. Q. to K. 2. 6. Kt. to Kt. 4.

7. P. to K. B. 4. 7. Kt. to K. 3.

8. P. to K. B. 5.

If black now play 8. Kt. to K. B.,

white has the best of the game, and ought to win; but if black play Kt. to Kt. 4, white will play Q. to K. R. 5, and then P. to K. R. 4. If white at his third move should play Q. to K. 2, attacking K. B. P. and threatening ch. with Q. and capture of bishop, and if black advance Q. P. one, it may then become the Ruy Lopez gambit by white playing as his fourth move P. to K. B 4. If the gambit referred to be not properly met, it leads to strong

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