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parallel lines drawn from the extremities of each crease to the adjoining goal post, and by the goal itself.
3. — The two goals shall be 78 feet apart, facing each other. The creases will be then 66 feet apart.
4. --The rings shall be made of split cane, covered with leather, and shall be not less than 7 inches nor more than 8 inches in diameter measured from the inside, and not less than 3-3- ounces, nor more than 4 ounces in weight.
5. --The choice of sides and the right of serving first shall be decided by toss; provided that, if the winner of the toss choose the right to serve, the other player shall have the choice of sides, and vice versd.
7. —The game shall consist of fifteen points.
8. —The server shall score one point by sending the ring past the receiver, through his goal, provided that the ring does not touch the ground before reaching the receiver's crease.
9. —The server shall score one point if the receiver deliberately or inadvertently prevent the ring from going through the goal by stopping it with any part of his person or clothing, or by stopping it with the sticks, or turning it aside so as to miss the goal, without actually catching it.
10. —The receiver shall score one point if the ring, before it is touched by him, shall hit the ground between the two creases, or outside of the court, either by passing above the webbing or net or passing outside the goal.
11. —If the ring hit the goal-post and glance off it through the goal, it shall score a point to the server. If, however, it bound back off the post, or glance off it outside the goal, it shall score a point to the receiver as a wide throw.
12. —If the receiver catch a throw which is clearly, in the opinion of the server (or umpire) off the goal, the receiver shall score a point for it as a wide throw; but in any case where it is doubtful whether or not the ring would have passed through the goal, it shall not score against the server, the receiver having stopped it at his own risk; and if the receiver have failed to catch it, it shall score a point to the server.
13. — If in stopping a wide throw, the receiver, failing to catch it, shall turn the ring into the goal, it shall score a point to the server.
14. —The game being fifteen points, if the score shall reach thirteen all, it shall be at the option of the player who is at that moment the receiver, to "set five," i.e., to declare the score "love all," and regard the player who first scores five points as winner of the game ; and in the same manner, if the score reach fourteen all, it shall be at his option to "set three."
Note.—For ordinary play, the foregoing rules will be found sufficient, but at all tournaments and matches Rule 15 will be brought into force in place of Rules 12 and 13, having been found necessary for the sake of the umpires.
15. —The ring is in play until it has passed the goal-posts (whether inside or outside), unless it has previously touched the ground. If, therefore, the receiver be of opinion that the throw is a wide throw, he must leave it alone altogether, since by trying at it he accepts it as a "good" throw. If the receiver in trying to catch the ring touch it, but fail to catch it, it shall score a point to the server, whether the throw be wide or not, but if the ring be caught the catch is "good," and neither side scores.
Jack.—A ball (often made of white earthenware) to be played at by the respective players with their bowls.
Pegs.—Two pegs or pins, usually of bone or wood connected by a cord made fast to one peg, and working freely through a hole in the other peg. They are used for measuring.
Standard.—Some light substance (usually a straw or reed) used when a very precise "measure" is required. It can only be claimed when the bowls lie within a yard of the jack.
Measure.—Ascertaining by the aid of pegs or a standard which of two opposing bowls is the nearer to the jack after an end has been played.
Rub or Set.—When a jack or a bowl in its transit strikes or touches any object or thing on the green which alters or impedes its motion.
Footer.—A small piece of carpet or other material or thing placed to indicate the spot on which the player is to stand whilst in the act of delivering the jack or bowl.
Cast or Point.—Used in counting the game, which is called "up" when a sufficient number of casts have been scored by one side.
Dead Bowl.—A bowl played or knocked off the green, or against a bowl lying in the ditch, or an illegally played bowl. No bowl after becoming dead shall be allowed to remain on the green. If fencing be used at any part of the green, then if any bowl or the jack do touch such fencing it shall be deemed off the green.
Mark and Set A Mark.—The delivery of the jack at the beginning of each end, in and for the purpose of actual play. To constitute a mark the jack must be bowled twenty-one yards at the least from the footer, and must be on, and at least three feet from the edge of, the green. No objection can be made to a mark after a bowl has been played at it.
Turning THE Jack.—A player doing any palpable act to indicate that he claims the game to be up as the bowls then he, and his opponent allowing the claim. The only period in a game at which this can be done is whert the claimant or his partner has one bowl to deliver after all the bowls of the opposite side have been played.
Void End.—When neither side can score a cast.
Call The Game.—Openly declaring in the hearing of the players the state of the score (that is, the number of casts obtained) on each side. The score of the side entitled to the jack must be first called.
Umpire.—A person appointed to mark the score, measure, call the game, and decide all questions which may arise during a game. The umpire shall not in any case give any advice to the players, and he shall not give them any information except when either player shall appeal to or ask him for information. Each side may have an umpire. If there be two umpires, and they cannot decide, they may call in a disinterested third person as referee. Every decision of the umpires or referee shall be final and binding on the players.
1. The Game.—The game may be played by several single players, or
two or more partners on each side. The players shall play alternately until each shall have delivered both his bowls. In case of partners, one on cither side shall play alternately both bowls, the others following in like manner.
2. Partners And The Lead.—At the commencement of each game the
players may cast lots or toss for partners, the lead and for the choice of the jack, which shall be one of the jacks belonging to the green, and not one belonging to an individual.
3. SETTING The Mark.—The leader shall set the mark, but he shall not
deliver the jack without allowing his opponent following the opportunity of seeing its delivery and watching its course from a point near the footer. If the leader in two trials shall fail to deliver the jack a mark, his opponent is then entitled to set the mark, but not to play first at it. The defaulter must play first, after an opponent has set the mark. If the opponent at one throw of the jack do fail to set a mark, the jack is again taken by the first defaulter or his partner, subject to the original penalty.
4. Bowls And Jack.—Each player shall have two bowls, which may be
of such size and bias as he shall think fit. The jack shall be not less than 3} inches, nor more than 3* inches in diameter. The jack shall not be changed during a game except by mutual consent of the players. The bowls may be changed, but not during the playing of an end, nor after the jack has been delivered for an end.
5. The Footer.—Each set of players shall have a footer. Every player
must place his foot on the footer whilst in the act of delivering either the jack or his bowl. If a player deliver his bowl with the right hand, his right foot must be on the footer; and if he deliver his bowl with his left hand, his left foot must be on the footer when playing. In case a bowl be played in contravention of this law, such bowl may, at the option of the opponent, be declared a dead bowl. In case a player shall have taken up the footer after playing his bowl, which by reason of a rub or set has to be replayed, the footer shall be replaced as nearly as possible in its former position, by or with the consent of an opponent.
6. Placing The Footer.—After each end is concluded, the footer shall
be placed by the last player at the jack. The leader in the succeeding end may, before playing the jack, remove the footer anywhere he pleases within the space of one yard from the spot where the jack lay at the termination of the preceding end. A void end shall be included in this provision. When the jack is knocked off the green, the footer must be placed a yard from the edge of the green, and within a yard on cither side from the spot where the jack is taken out of the ditch; provided that if more than half the bowls have not been played, the jack and the bowls actually played shall be returned, and play resumed from the spot where the footer was then placed.
7. Playing Out Of Turn.—If either play out of turn, the other side
must p'ay two following bowls if there are two to be played, but no other penalty will attach.
8. Playing Before A Previous Bowl Has Stopped.—No player shall
deliver a bowl whilst the jack or a preceding bowl is in motion, otherwise his bowl shall be deemed a dead bowl. The leader shall always follow (i.e., play the first bowl after) the jack.
9. Playing An Opponent's Bowl.—Whenever an opponent's bowl is
played by mistake he may play the other's bowl, or he may take up the wrongly played bowl and substitute the proper bowl as nearly as possible in the exact position in which the other rested.
10. Displacement Of Jack.—If a jack be displaced by a bowl belonging to another party, the end shall be deemed a void end.
11. The Score.—IJefore commencing play, the number of casts to be^ scored to make the game up shall be fixed. The player or side first scoring the number so fixed, shall win the game.
12. Scoring The Game.—After an end is played, the players'side, whose howl or bowls is or are placed nearest to the jack, shall count one cast in the game for each bowl so placed. The leader must call the game before setting a fresh mark; and if he neglect to do so, his opponent may claim to have the jack returned, but this must be done before a bowl is played. If, after the game is so called, an objection be not made before the succeeding end is finished, the game shall be deemed to have been correctly called, and cannot afterwards be corrected or questioned. In case an objection be made, the question must be settled before proceeding with the game.
13. Measurement.—If any doubt arise as to which bowl or bowls is or are nearest to the jack, either side may claim a measure. In measuring, one player shall hold the measuring apparatus to his own or his partner's bowl, and the opponent shall hold it to the jack. If a standard be claimed, the party leading must make and give the standard to the opposing party. In measuring with a standard, the bowl first measured must be taken away; and if the opponent can make the standard rest on his or his partner's bowl and jack, he wins the cast. If a second standard be claimed for a second cast, the party winning the first cast by standard measure must make and give the second standard.
14. Displacement Of Bowls Or Jack In Measuring.—If during a measure or otherwise the jack be displaced by a player, he shall lose as many casts as are claimed and in question ; and if a bowl be displaced, the player displacing it shall lose the cast, provided that whenever a bowl rests on another, and the bowl rested on has to be removed to allow the other one to be measured at the point nearest the jack, such removal shall be done as carefully as possible by an opponent or his umpire, and the bowl must be measured as it settles afterwards. If it cannot be decided which of the two bowls is nearest the jack, then it is a tie, and neither counts.
15. Accidents To Jack.—Should the jack, whilst running for a mark, rub or set, or stop in the line of another party's play, it must be thrown again; but no penalty shall attach in such case.
16. Right Of Mark.—When two jacks arc sent near to the same land for a mark, the one which is first stationary can keep the place, and the other one must be returned to its party.
17. Accidents To Running Bowls.—If a running bowl, before it has reached the parallel of the jack, do rub or set on any person (not of the playing party), or on a bowl or jack belonging to another party, it can be played again; and if touched by the player or his partner it becomes a dead bowl; but if a bowl during its progress shall be stopped by an opponent before it reaches the parallel of the jack, the player shall have the option of placing the said bowl wherever he may think fit. Every bowl which shall rub or set after it has run two yards past the parallel of the jack becomes a dead bowl, except it shall rub or set on a bowl belonging to the playing party, or on an opponent, in any of which cases it shall remain at the place where it stops.
18. Striking The Jack.— If a player do strike the jack with his bowl, and if the jack do rub or set on a bowl or person not belonging to the party, the end becomes a void end ; but if the jack do rub or set on a bowl belonging to the playing party, it must remain at the place whence it is removed by the strike. When the jack is struck off the green the end is a void end. If the jack do rub or set on an opponent, it shall be the option of the striker whether the jack shall remain where it rests, or whether it shall be a void end.
19. Striking A Bowl.—If a bowl be struck and if it do rub or set on the striker's partner, the opponents shall score one point. If a bowl be struck and it do rub or set on an opponent, the striker shall score one point, and in cither case the end shall be deemed to be finished.
20. Displacement Of A Bowl.—If a bowl which has stopped after being played be displaced by an opponent or other person (except a partner), or if a bowl or jack belonging to another party do rub or set on it, such bowl shall be replaced as nearly as possible in its former position; but if such bowl be displaced by the player or his partner, it becomes .1 dead bowl.
21. If a bowl be displaced by any of the playing party after all the bowh have been played and before the casts are admitted, without the consent of his opponent, he forfeits as many points as the end would otherwise have admitted being scored.
22. Casualty In The Delivery Of A Bowl.—If a player, when in the act of delivering his bowl, let it slip, and allow it to run beyond his reach, he cannot, without the consent of his opponent, leave the