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– HISTORY
or
THE DECLINE AND FALL
R 0 MAN E M PIR. E.
o o o o - -
o BF EDWARD GIBB0.Y, Esq.
o o o o -
o THE secost AMERICAN EDITION.
~ i. so IN EIGHT VOLUMES.

PHILADELPHIA :
**
pal NTED BY ABRAHAM sys ALL.....AND PUBLISHED BY HIM, AND M. CAREr

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PREFACE.

IT is not my intention to detain the reader by earpatiating on the variety, or the importance of the subject, which I have undertaken to treat; since the merit of the choice would serve to render the weakmess of the eacecution still more apparent, and still tess eaccusable.

The memorable series of revolutions, which, in the course of about thirteen centuries, gradually undermined, and at length destroyed, the solid fabric of huznan greatness, may, with some propriety, be divided into the three following periods.

I. The first of these periods may be traced from the age of Trajan and the flntonines, when the Roman monarchy, having attained its full strength and matuority, began to verge towards its decline; and will eartend to the subversion of the Western Empire, by the barbarians of Germany and Scythia, the rude ancestors of the most polished nations of JModern Europe. This eartraordinary revolution, which subjected Rome to the power of a Gothic conqueror, was completed about the beginning of the sixth century.

II. The second period of the Decline and Fall of Rome, may be supposed to commence with the reign of Justinian, who by his laws, as well as by his victories, restored a transient splendour to the Eastern Lmpire. It will comprehend the invasion of Italy by the Lombards; the conquest of the Asiatic and

..frican provinces by the Arabs, who embraced the religion of JMahomet; the revolt of the Ilonan peo; ple against the feeble princes of Constantinople ; and the elevation of Charlemagne, who, in the year eight hundred, established the second, or German Empire of the west.

III. The last and longest of these periods includes about sia centuries and a half; from the revival of the Western Empire, till the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, and the eactinction of a degenerate race of princes, who continued to assume the titles of Caesar and Augustus, after their dominions were contracted to the limits of a single city; in which the language as well as manners of the ancient Romans had been long since forgotten.

The reign of Justinian, and the conquests of the .Mahometans, will deserve and detain our attention, and the last age of Constantinople (the Crusades and *the Turks) is connected with the revolutions of JModern Europe. From the seventh to the eleventh century, the obscure interval will be supplied by a concise narrative of such facts, as may still appear either interesting or important.

Diligence and accuracy are the only merits which an historical writer may ascribe to himself; if any merit indeed can be assumed from the performance of an indispensable duty. I may therefore be allowed to say, that I have carefully easamined all the original materials that could illustrate the subject which I had wndertaken to treat.

The Biographers, who, under the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, composed, or rather compiled, the lives of the Emperors, from Hadrian to the sons of Carus, are usually mentioned under the names of JElius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Elius Lampridius, Vulcatius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio, and Flavius Vopiscus. But there is so much perplearity in the titles of the JMSS.; and so many disputes have arisen among the critics, (see Fabricius, Biblioth. Latin. l. iii. c. 6.) concerning their number, their names, and their respective property, that for the most part I have quoted them without distinction, under the general and well known title of the Augustan History.

March 1, 1782.

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