« ForrigeFortsett »
till this day, in consequence of the continued indisposition of Mr. Key, the counsel of Gov. Houston. The House then resumed the consideration of the general appropriation bill. Upon the clause granting $12,000 for the printing
of diplomatic documents of the period between!
the treaty of 1783 and the year 1789, the ayes and nays were taken, and it was carried in the affirmative—ayes, 87—noes, 68. The amendment of the Senate appropriating $5,000 for a survey of the waters of Narragansett Bay, which was rejected in committee, being considered, Mr. PEARck moved that the House do not concur in the report of the committee, and the motion was agreed to—ayes, 62—noes, 80. The next item which had been rejected in the opm. mittee, was that of $17,500 for the purchase of a bridge between the navy yard and the dry dock, at Norfolk, for the purpose of permitting access to the latter; and, after some discussion,
REPORT OF THE
Takasuny Drrantment, April 27, 1832.
SIR: In obedience to two resolutions of the House of Representatives, of the 19th January, 1832, directing the Secretary of the Treasury to collect information as to certain manufactures in the United States, and to communicate the same to the House, with such suggestions as he may think useful, with a view to the adjustment of the tariff, and with such a tariff of duties on imports, in his opinion be best adapted to the advancement of the public interest; the undersigned has the honor to report, that, for the purpose of effectually complying with the pre
it was agreed to, with an amendment proposed by Mr. Wickliffs, without a division. The other amendments of the Senate, having been disposed of, Mr. WATMough moved to recom. mit the bill to a Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union, with instructions, for the purpose of making an appropriation for the De. laware Breakwater, the delay of the work on which, he stated to have led to a loss of from $30,000 to $50,000, within the last two weeks only. Mr. Suthen LAND urged the House to vote the suspension, and read an extract from the letter of the superintendent of the work, showing the injury at present accruing to it. On a statement that an appropotiation for the object in question was contained in another bill, Mr. Watmough withdrew his proposition. Mr. Clarton, on the part of the Select Committee on the Affairs of the Bank, presented a report on that subject, and moved that it be referred to a Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union, and printed. A discussion took place on the subject of the report. Mr. McDuff IE addressed the House in explanation of some of the points contained in it which are stated to bear unfavorably towards that institution. Mr. Clartos replied, and argued that the investigation had demonstrated that the affairs of the bank had been improperly conducted, and that its operations upon the interests of the community were of a dangerous tendency. Mr. An ims disclaimed a concurrence in the sentiments expressed in the report, and animadverted on the course pursued by a majority of the committee in making the inquiry. Mr. Cambasless followed, and vindicated the conduct of the com. mittee, stating that that part of it which Mr. Apams thought most objectionable, had been adopted with the full concurrence of the President of the Bank himself. The debate was further continued by Mr. WArns, (who made an unavailing motion to postpone the subject to Monday next,) by Mr. Wicklipfe, Mr. Tho. mas, of Maryland, and Mr. Johnson, of Kentucky. The report was ultimately referred to a Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union, and ordered to be printed. The House hen adjourned.
sumed object of the House, as soon as proper
until the returns could be received, to enable
difficulties, will be received.
of the United States has been, fir many years,
ance of despatch was fully appreciated, but,"
of the country, which, with greater or less in.
ncidentaly, but so intimately connected with the growth and protection of American capital and labor, as to have raised up great national interests, indispensable to the prosperity of the country, and which cannot be lost sight of in any new adjustment of the system. How far other interests, in different portions of the Union, can be satisfied in the system now to be framed, without injury to those important inter. ests, is the question which makes a compliance with the direction of the House, a labor of great delicacy, and of still greater difficulty.
In the circumstances which at present requite a general reduction of the revenue, it is not believed practicable to preserve, for any length of time, the degree of protection hither. to afforded to those interests which have grown up under the past legislation. The state of public feeling throughout an important portion
tensity, calls for a revision of the existing tariff, is not to be disguised. Both patriotism and wisdom dictate that this sentiment should be respected, and, as far as may be compatible with the common weal, that it be satisfied, not stomany unworthy motive,butunder that obliga. tion of duty which requires that all be regarded with an equal eye; that all be borne upon with an equal hand; and, under that no less solemn obligation, to preserve, by any reasonable concessions, ourinestimable Union. . Fully impressed with these considerations, and in the belief that, by their resolu. tions, the House has required suggestions for a general reduction of duties on the articles comPohended in the existing tariff, the undersign*** sell it to be his isy to deal with the 'subject in that spirit, and has now the honor to oubmit the result of his investigation and re*::tion in the foim of a bill accompanying this ttler, He does not intend it so much for a perfect scheme, as to embody those suggestions which he has been called upon to make in a definite and intelligible shape; and, while looking to the patriotic object of the resolution, which holso guided his own judgment, he cheer. fully assumes the responsibility of the scheme "Presented, he will derive no less gratifica. tion if that object can be better attained by any * Platwich wiser counsels may devise. The basis of the bill now submitted, is a to. "repeal of the act of the 19th of May, 1828, from and after the third of March, 1833, and a *ion of the revenue afterwards to be rais. “, by a new system of duties, to the existing
preposed, the duties cannot be materially, if at all, reduced, consistently with that object, earlier than the period indicated. If the duties be reduced, as proposed in the bill to take effect in March, 1833, the amount which, according to the principles adopted in forming the estimates for 1832, may be estima. 'ted as the receipts from the customs in 1833, will be about $18,000,000, which sum, after providing for the payment of the debt in that year, would leave, for all other objects, $15,500,000. Should the public expenditures amount to $15,000,000 after the payment of the debt in 1833, there would be a surplus in that year of only $3,500,000. No allowance, however, is made in this estimate for the effects of a diminished importation, or an unusual re-exportation of those artiticles which may be included in the reduced tariff, and might not be necessary for the consumption of the country before the reduced tariff should go into operation. Yet, however equally a prospective reduction may enable the importers to adjust the supply to the demand, it is believed that a considerable reduction should be made for these contingencies. It is doubtful whether they would leave any surplus, but, if any, a small one. And, in carrying into effect a great change like this, it would be im. prudent to incur the risk of a scanty or defective revenue, merely to avoid the chance of a small surplus. If a reduction of $10,000,000, or upwards, should be made, to go into operation immediately, it would effect not only the future revenue, but that which has already accrued, and which forms the chief basis of the receipts into the Treasury during the present year. Whatever, amount, receivable from the customs in this year, may be now in bond, it cannot be doubted, that before those bonds become due, a re-exportation, would take place of all such articles as should be included in the reduced tariff, and be in a situation to entitle them to debenture. Such articles could not enter into competition with those imported under the reduced tariff, and would necessarily be re-exported. In regard to the proper time for the reduction to go into operation, the advantage which all parties interested—the producer, manufac. turer, importer, consumer—would derive from timely notice of any important changes in the rates of duty, is a consideration, which also, ought not to be overlooked.
*Penditures of the Government, and to such * necessary expenditures as the exigency of * Public service may require, and Con. So, in its wisdom, may authorize. The estimate which was presented in the late *"ual report from this department, of the *unt to be r. ceived into the Treasury from *toms, in the year 1832, was founded, chiefly, "Pon the importations of the year 1831; and, * the receipts from that source will not be
**ter than may be safely relied on for the
For the objects mainly intended to be provi. ded for, an annual revenue of $15,000,000 is estimated to be necessary. Of this amount, antol Congress shall otherwise determine, the sum of $3,000,000 may be estimated to be received from the public lands. Should congress here. after determine to dispense with this source of revenue...any deficiency thereby occasioned may readily be raised by a small augmentation of the duties proposed by the bill upon the class of articles which are taxed solely 'for the pur
Poyment of the public debt within the time
poses of revenue, or may be distributed among the whole.
The remaining to. it is proposed to
raise exclusively from duties on imports, in the manner particularly provided for in the bill. It is estimated that, by this mode, the whole annual revenue from customs, calculated upon the importations of the year ending on the 30th September, 1830, after deducting re-exportations, will be reduced more than $10,000,000; and, upon that portion of them commonly call'ed protected articles, more than $3,000,000: and, also, that the rate of the whole duty from customs, calculated upon the cost 3f the imported merchandise in the same year, exclusive of all charges, will be reduced from about fortyfive per cent. to about tv enty-seven per cent. The difference, howeve 1,between the rate of duties since 1830, and ‘Aat under the bill, will not be quite so great, owing to the reductions already made in the duties on tea, coffee, mo. lasses, and salt. A great number of articles of the first neces. sity, or partaking of the character of raw materials, have been relieved from duty altogether; and on many of the necessaries of life, and those principally consumed by the poorer classes, a duty almost nominal has been imposed. An opinion has been heretofore expressed by the undersigned, in favor of a prospective and gradual reduction of the existing duty on articles embraced by the protective system; but it has been departed from in the bill, in defer. ence to respectable opinions from other quarters, but principally to what is understood to be the wish of the manufacturers themselves, who prefer a system permanent in its character to one liable to change.
It has not been supposed practicable to of. fer any reasonable scheme of compromise, and for the adjustment of existing differences, which should not avoid the incongruity in the act of 1828, from the extravagant duty on the raw materials, and the well-founded objections to the system of minimums.
It is believed that the producer of the raw material, and especially the grower of wool, will receive an ample indemnity for the concession now required, in the constancy and steadiness of the market, which the sure and permanent success of the manufacturing establishments will not fail to afford for his commo. dity, and in the cheapening of his general supplies. Independently of these considerations, however, it will appear by the statement accompanying the bill (marked A) that, by the duty imposed by the bill on raw wool, a price not less than forty cents a pound is secured to the domestic producer of that article. Other statements, showing the operation of other parts of the bill, will be prepared and transmit. ted as they may be found necessary.
The system of minimums is regarded as imposing an unnecessary and extravagant rate of duty, and as engouraging the commission of frauds difficult, if not impossible to prevent. It is believed that the effect, already, has been to exelède the fair Alnerican importer, in a great degree. from the trade, and to leave it in
the hands of others less scrupulous as to the restraints imposed by the laws. The most plausible ground on which this system can be defended, is, the security it affords to the manufacturer against the superior capital of his foreign rival, . the occasional excessive influx of the foreign merchandise.— But an ad valorem duty of sufficient amount upon the actual value of the goods, fairly ascertained under the guards in the bill, may accomplish the same object not less effectually. From information derived principally from the statements of eminent manufacturers, a duty of 10 per cent. on the manufactured article, beyond that on the raw material, would, of itself, equalize the cost of the domestic and foreign
article, and afford a sufficient protection to the
manufacturer against foreign competition in the ordinary course of trade. If, by the reduced rate of duty on the raw materials, and the low rate of duty on all other articles of general consumption, the American manufacturer may, as is believed, bring his merchandise into market upon terms of equality in cost with the foreigner, it is not doubted that the ad valorem duty proposed by the bill, with cash payments, and a duty on sales at auction, will be fully adequate to guard against the superiority of foreign capital, and the fluctuations df trade. It is a rate of profit in ordinary times not enjoyed by any other branch of industry, not necessarily exposed to greater risk and vicissitude. The imposition of a revenue duty merely, on coarse wool not raised in the United States, and on the coarser denominations of cloths, is believed to be a concession due to the south and to the south ::... of the Union, and which may be made without serious detriment to the manufacturer. Without some concession of present advantages from all interests, any scheme of adjustment must be considered as hopeless. The bill now submitted, propbses to raise the revenue, with as littie inconvenience as possible to all parts of the Union; it designs to leave all the great national interests adequately protected, while it lessens the duty on raw materials and articles of necessity. Greater protection might be given, and the growth, both of the raw material and of the manufactures, might be more rapidly encouraged. It is believed, however, that by the scale of duties in the bill, the advancement and prosperity of each will be certainly attained; and it is for those interested to consider, whether it be not wiser and more patriotic to be content with a certain and permanent, though more gradual process, than by contending for extreme protection to endanger their own interest, and ultimately disturb the harmony of the Union. - I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Your obedient servant, LOUIS McLANE, Secretury of the Treasury. The Hon. the Speaken,
of the House of Representatives.
TARIFF-SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY'S Herons
ment to obtain information on various matters connected with the manufactures of the United States, it has been deemed proper that the Department should avail itself of competent assistance, to collect and report such facts as may be necessary to a full knowledge of the subject. It is hoped that it may suit your convenience to afford such aid in respect to the State of You will be at liberty to pursue your inquiries either by a personal examination, by correspondence with those qualified to afford the intormation, or by the employment of capable assistants. You will be allowed as a compensation for your services and expenses dollars for every twenty miles journey, which rou may find necessary to make, and a like sum for every day which may be occupied in the business, when not travelling. Such assistants as you may see fit to employ, may be engaged by you on such terms as you shall think reasonable. Any expense incurred for postage or printing, or copying, will also be allowed.
Yon will perceive that the resolutions are very comprehensive. And, as the object which they have in view is of the utmost importance to the prosperity and harmony of the people of the United States—being no less than a readjustment of the tariff on terms that may reconcile all the great interests of the country— deep solicitude is telt by the Department that these preliminary inquiries, which the House of Representatives has confided to it, shall be well and truly answered. For the purpose of directing your attention to those facts which seem necessary to a full understanding of the subject, the annexed queries have been prepared. It is not intended, however, to exlude any others that you may think pertinent. And, moreover, you will be pleased to cause it to be understood by those concerned, that any information which they may consider essential to a just view of their interests will be respectfully received. ' The great division of opinion that exists upon the subject of the resolutions, renders it difficult to carry on any inquiries relating to it in a manner satisfactory to all. But it is the especial duty of those to whom they are confided, to pursue them with the utmost practicable impartiality—seeking, without regard to their bearing upon any particular theory, such facts as, when brought together from all parts of the country, may enable Congress in its wisdom to act as the true interests of all may require. Having collected the desired information,you are requested to present it in a condensed form in a report, and to accompany the report with all the original returns and communications from which it may have been derived.
I shal), also, be happy to receive, in a separate communication, any information that you may deem material, and any suggestions that you may think useful, whether from yourself or others, with a view to the adjustment of the tariff upon the principles of the late annual report of this Department—a copy of which is enclosed.
The information called for by the House being desired as a basis for legislation on the subject during the present session, you will excuse me for reminding you of the necessity of despatch. I am, Sir, very respectfully, Your obedient servant,
sortiary of the Treasury.
RESOLUTIONS REFERRED TO IN THE FOREGOING INSTRUCTIONS.
22d cowgress—1st SESSION. congness OF THE writin STATES,
In the House of Rep., January 19, 1832.
Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury be requested to collect such facts and infor. mation as may be in his power, of the extent and condition, generally, of the manufactures of wool, cotton, hemp, iron, sugar, salt, and such other articles as are manufactured to a considerable extent in the United States, and report the same to this House as early as may be practicable during the present session, for the use of Congress; and that he also be requested to transmit the aforesaid information, to accompany it with such a tariff of duties upon imports as, in his opinion, may be best adapted to the advancement of the public interest. Attest MW. S.T. CLAIR CLARKE,
Clerk of the House of Rep. of the U. States.
22d CONGRESS—1st SESSION., congress of the UNITED states,
In the House of Rep., January 19, 1832. Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury be directed to obtain information as to the quantities and kinds of the several articles manufactured in the United States, during the year ending the 30th September, 1831, particularly those of iron, cotton, wool, hemp, and sugar, and the cost thereof:—and, also, the quantities and cost of similar articles imported from abroad during the same year ; and that he lay the same before this House as early as may be practicable during the present session of Congress, together with such information as he may deem material, and such suggestions as he may think useful, with a view to the adjustment of the tariff. - " Attest: M. W. S.T. CLAIR CLARKE, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
1. State and county in which the manufactory is situated
2. Kind or description of the manufactory ; and whether water, steam, or other pewer
3. When established ; and . joint stock concern
4. Capital invested in ground and buildings, and water power, and in machinery
5. Average amount in materials, and in cash for the purchase of materials, and payment of wages *
6. Annual rate of profit on the capital invested, since the establishment bf the manufactory—distinguishing between the rate of profit upon that portion of the capital which is borrowed, after providing for the interest upon it; and the rate of profit upon that portion which is not borrowed 2 7. Cause of the increase (or decrease, as the case may be) of profit 8. Rates of profit on capital otherwise employed, in the same State and county? 9. Amount of articles annually manufactured since the establishment of the manufactory; description, quality, and value of each kind? 10. Quantity and value of different kinds of raw materials used—distinguishing between foreign products and domestic products” ". 11, Cost in the United States of similar articles of manufacture imported from abroad, and from what countries 12. Number of men, wenen, and children employed, and average wages of each class? 13; how many hours a day employed and what portion of the year * 14. Rate of wages of similar classes otherwise employed, in the same State and county, in other States, and in foreign countries' 15. Number of horses or other animals em." ployed 2 16. Whether the manufactures find a market at the manufactory ! If not, how far they are sent to market? 17. Whether foreign articles of the like kinds enter into competition with them at such place of sale ; and to what extent * 18, where are the manufactures consumed' 19. Whether any of the manufactures are exported to foreign countries; and if * where 20. Whether the manufacture is sold by the manufacturer for cash ; and if on credit, at what credit If bartered, for what 21. Whether the cost of the manufactured article (to the manufacturer) has increased or decreased ; and how much in each year, from the establishment of the manufactory, an whether the increase has been in the materials or the labor, and at what rate 22. The prices at which the manufactures have been sold by the manufacturer, since the establishment 23. What rate of duty is necessary to enable the manufacturer to enter into competition in ** market, with similar articles importeci : 24. Is any change necessary in levying or joins the duty on such articles, to prevent rau
25. What has been the rate of your profits, annually, for the last three years; and if it be a joint stock company, what dividends have been received, and what portion of the income of the company has been converted into fixed capital, or retained as a fund for contingent or other gojects, and therefore not divided out annually 26. What portion of the cost of your manu. factures consists of the price of the raw mate.