« ForrigeFortsett »
where nature invites more the art of man to internal improvement, under a call of the House complete her work for his accommodation and of Representatives. By turning to this report, it benefit
. These considerations are strengthen- will be seen that Mr. Calhoun carefully guarded ed, moreover, by the political effect of these against the inference that might be drawn as to facilities for internal communication, in bring- his opinion of the extent of the power. We add ing and binding more closely together the va. an extract from this report. It is as follows: rious points of our extended confederacy. Whilst the States individually, with a laudable
Extract from Mr. Calhoun's Report. enterprise and ambition avail themselves of their “In the view which has been taken, I have local advantages by new roads, ' by navigable thought it improper, under the resolution, to Canals, and by improving streams susceptible of discuss the constitutionality, or how far the sysof navigation, the General Government is more tem of internal improvement which has been urged to similar undertakings requiring nation presented may be carried into effect on the prinal jurisdiction and national means, by the pros- ciples of our government; and, therefore, the pect of this system wholly completing so inesti- | whole of the arguments which are used, and the mable a work. And it is a happy reflection measures proposed, must be considered as de. that any defect of constitutional authority, pending on the decision of that question.” which may be encountered, can be supplied in It is impossible not to see, from the above, a mode which the constitution itself has provi- that Mr. Calhoun, so far from entertaining the dentally pointed out.”
extravagant opinions as to the powers of ConIt is impossible to read this extract without i gress, in reference to internal improvement, coming to the conclusion, that, in the opinion of which have been attributed to him by Mr. RitMr. Madison, Congress had power, to a certain chie and others, has always been cautious and extent, over the subject of internal improve moderate in his views upon that subject. ment--that the power ought to, be exercised, There is another view worthy of remark. Inand that whatever defect of power there might ternal improvement has for many years been be, should be supplied by an amendment of the considered, and, we believe, correctly, as a part Constitution. It could not be but that Mr. Cal of the American system—as the means of dis houn, and the committee, considered it in this posing of the funds derived from the tariff. It light, and so considering it, it is difficult to con is certain that Mr. Calhoun has never been its ceive any exertion of power, in reference to it, supporter in this light. The plan which he prothat could be less liable to a constitutional ob posed separated it wholly from the tariff. Unjection than the bill reported by them, and 'der that plan, no portion of the money drawn which was afterwards rejected by Mr. Madison. from the tariff, or the industry of the country, That the reader may judge, we publish the bill was to be applied to internal improvement; and below. It does not even appropriate money in looking upon its wise and cautious provisions, it simply sets apart a particular fund, and pro- we feel satisfied that, had it been adopted and vides for the mode of its application,leaving it to maintained, all of the evils which have grown a future Congress to determine the extent of the out of the subsequent abuses of the system, power, on the subject which Mr. Madison had would have been prevented, and, with it, recognised as existing, or if that power should the subsequent increase of the tariff, and the be defective, to obtain it by amendment of the dangerous consequences which are likely to Constitution, as Mr. Madison proposed. Aow from it. The fixed amount of the fund,
It is difficult to imagine how such a bill and the equal manner in which it was to be apcould be unconstitutional, provided there be any plied, offered the most certain guaranty against power at all over the subject in the constitu- abuses, and against carrying the system to es. tion. Such, at least, was Mr. Calhoun's belief; and we accordingly find that, in his opening speech, and in the subsequent discussion, he
In conclusion, it is impossible not to see the avoids touching on the constitutional power. In injustice, which has been done to Mr. Calhoun, fact, it is well known that he was urged to make by carrying to excess measures which he advoa direct assertion of the power in the bil, which cated upon moderate principles. Thus, be. he declined, on the ground that it was not ne, the revenue of the country required it, he has
cause he supported the tariff of 1816, when cessary, and that he had not made his mind as to the extent of the power. It is also well been held responsible for all the subsequent known that neither he; nor any of those with and extravagant additions which have been whom he acted, had the least suspicion that made to it notwithstanding he has been oppaMr. Madison entertained any constitutional scru
sed to all of them, as extravagant, unconstitu. ples with regard to it, until the day before the tional, and unjust. Again, because he carried rejection; and that, when disclosed, it was a mat. through the bonus bili
, he has been held res ter of the greatest surprise and regret that he sponsible for all the subsequent abuses of the should be placed in a condition to be compelled system of internal improvement, although he to give his vote, and that they themselves should had not the slightest agency in passing them, be subjected to the injurious effects which it and although they have
been adopted on prin
ciples diametrically opposed to those contained subject, from which his views can be inferred, through.
There is no official act of Mr. Calhoun on this in the bill which he advocated and carried except his report, made in 1819, on the subject of That bill is as follows:
'A BILL to set apart, as a permanent fund for favor. We expressed the opinion, and every
internal improvements, the bonus of the day, confirms its truth, that if Mr. Clay would National Bank and the United States' share of decline, a union of those opposed to General its dividends:
Jackson would take place on another candiBe it enacted by the Senate and House of Re- date ; and that, in' that case, he would not re. presentatives of the United States, in Congress
ceive thirty votes. We do not believe, that assembled, That the United States' share of the if Mr. Clay were withdrawn to-morrow, Gen. dividends of the National Bank, and the bonus Jackson could be elected. Much time has been for its charter, be, and the same are, hereby set lost; but it is not now too late. Had he been apart and permanently pledged as a fund for withdrawn six months ago, Gen. Jackson, in our constructing roads and canals; and that it be opinion, would not now have been a candidate. subject to such specified appropriation, in that If Gen. Jackson is re-elected, it will be because respect, as Congress may hercafter make.
Mr. Clay is the opposing candidate. Such is Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That the said after the re-election of Gen. Jackson, should it
our opinion; and the state of parties, six months fund be put under the care of the Secretary of the Treasury, for the time being, and that it
take place, will satisfy the most incredulous. shall be his duty, unless otherwise directed, to it asserts, that we have said that “Gen. Jack:
The Republican has no regard to truth when vest the said dividend, if not specifically ap- son could carry Mr. Barbour throuhg, and will propriated by Congress, in the stock of the secure for Mr. Van Buren 96 votes." We said United States; which stock shall accrue to, and is hereby constituted a part of, the said fund Jackson will give Mr. Barbour a single vote. If
no such thing. We do not believe that Gen. for constructing of roads and canals,
Mr. Barbour will consent to be a candidate, on Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That it shall also the only terms upon which he can be elected, be the duty of the said Secretary, unless other he will be a candidate in opposition to the wise directed, to vest the bonus for the charter wishes of Gen. Jackson; and if he is elected, it of the said bank, as it may fall due, in the stock will be in spite of the opposition, and not by of the United States; and also to lay before the aid of Gen. Jackson." As to Gen. JackCongress, at their next usual session, the condi- son's securing 96 votes for Mr Van Buren, we tion of the said fund.
never have believed that he could secure for
him one vote beyond New Hampshire. It may ? THE TARIFF.
be that he may secure enough votes to elect Public meetings are being held in Pennsylva- him ; but if he does, Philip Pendleton Barbour nia, and elsewhere, to remonstrate against Mr. must betray the south, and tamely submit to McLane's project of a tariff. Mr. Walsh speaks wear a collar, branded Amos Kendall
, Wm. B. of that lately held in Philadelphia, over which Lewis, & Co. Will he do this? We do not be. Joseph Hemphill as President, and Robert Waln, lieve that he will; and until we see that he has Matthew Carey, J. P. Wetherill, and Paul Rich- turned a traitor to the south, we will not beards, as Vice Prestdents, presided, as follows: lieve that Gen. Jackson can secure even forty
“ The Public Meeting which was held in this votes for Mr. Van Buren. Those of New York, city on Saturday afternoon, in regard to the ta we belieye, are lost. riff, was numerous beyond example, notwithstanding the extreme inclemency of the weath.
COMMUNICATIONS, &c. The Dristrict court room being too small to contain a fourth part of the multitude, the meeting was transferred to the hall of the Mu- PROPOSED REDUCTION OF THE TA-sicial Fund society. Business was transacted
RIFF. with despatch, and the utmost unanimity and
In an article which appeared in the GLOBE carnesiness." RSMARK. - These inovements go beyond the controvert the statement which appeared in the
of Monday last, an attempt has been made to tarif question. General Jackson, if he were TELEGRAPH in relation to the Treasury wise, and well informed, would see the future scheme,” for the reduction of the tariff. We in the present. coming events often cast their have examined both of these articles, and will shadows before them.
proceed to state the result. It was stated in
the Telegraph that Mr. McLane's proposed reRetreating.–Duff Green, alleged, some duction of duties amounted only to $0,310,516, time since, that the President would be driven instead of $10,976,007, as intimated in the back to the llermitage, with the votes of Ten- COMPARATIVE STATEMEST showing the amount ness only in his favor. He now admits not on- and rates of duties under the present tariff, and ly that he will be elected, but that he could that proposed by the Secretary of the Treasury, carry Mr. Barbour through, and will secure for &c.” submitted to Congress by that officer, and Mr. Van Buren 96 votes. He will have to ad- further, that instead of reducing the revenue mit, both that the President will be re-elected, to $15,394,318, (as intimated in that stateand Mr. Van Buren elected by a triumphant ment,) the Treasury scheme would probably majority. - Baltimore Republican.
swell the revenue to upwards of twenty millions CUXMENT:-We never did allege that Gen. of dollars. Jacks would be driven back to the Hermi It was alleged in the Telegraph, that the stones with the votes of Tennessee only in his error first above mentioned had arisen from as
FON THE TELEGRAPH.
suming the tariff of 1828 as the “present tariff," ally increasing, and cannot possibly be dimin-
, the turiff in force in 1830, should vernment for the last eight years have averaged have been used.” It is CONCEDED, THEREFORE, upwards of $13,000,000, and the public debt that the AMOUNT OF REDUCTIONS, UNDER Mn. has averaged upwards of $12,000,000, (making, McLane's BILL, WILL BE
THAN together, $26,000,000,) that when the charge $6,310,516 INSTEAD OF $10,976,007, as hereto on account of the public debt shall cease, a refore estimated, the difference ($4,665,491,) duction to the extent of twelve millions, (instead being the amount of reduction already effected of six millions, as proposed,) could be safely under the acts of 1830, on tea, coffee, cocoa, made, and still leave an amount sufficient for molasses, and salt. So Far ALL PARTIES ARE the ordinary expenses of the government, NOW AGREED. The only remaining point, there. which, we are told, is the treasury standard. To fore, to be considered is, what will be the pro- a plain man, it would seem unaccountable that, bable amount of the revenue should the reduc- when a demand for twelve millions a year, on tions proposed by Mr. McLane be carried into account of the public debt, shall be entirely reeffect." Mr. McLane's scheme proposes (as has moved, the revenue should only be reduced siz been shown) to take off no more
millions, and yet that, the expenses of the gothan
$6,310,516 vernment remaining the same, no surplus from the existing duties, and it is
should be left in the treasury. If this be so, it assumed in the "Treasury state
can only be accounted for by some extraordinament" that the amount of du
ry diminution in the imports and exports of the ties which will accrue under
country- an event certainly not to be anticipathe proposed rates, will be no
ted. If it should be objected, that it is a part more than
15,394,318 of the treasury scheme to dispense with the
revenue derived from the public lands, we will making, together, $21,704,834 merely say,in reply, that this part of the scheme from which it clearly appears, that this sum seems to be abandoned by common consent. ($21,704,834) is assumed by the Treasury De In estimating the probable receipts in future partment as the true amount of accruing duties years, calculations were presented in the Teleat the present rates. The difference between graph, founded on the actual receipts for the the amount here stated, and the $26,370,328 year 1831, and also on the estimated receipts for put down in the Treasury statement, arises from the year 1832. These authentic data exhibited there being included in the latter the sum of the following results: $4,665,491, the amount of duties repealed under Actual receipts for 1831, $28,525,588 the acts of 1830, of witch no notice is taken in [This, it will be observed, is the nett, and not that statement, and which must of course be de- the gross revenue for that year.] ducted. Mr. McLane assumes that these re Deduct amount of proposed reducpealed duties will reduce the future revenue, tions,
$6,310,516 by this amount, of $4,665,491, and makes this assumption in the face of the fact, that the du And we would have a nett revenue ties which accrued in 1831, as well as the esti- of
$22,215,072 mated duties of 1832, exceed those of 1830 by Subject only to a deduction of so much of the more than the whole amount of the duties' re- duties on tea, coffee, &c. which have been re. pealed under the acts of 1830. To show how pealed under the acts of 1830, but which may far Mr. McLane's estimate of the future revenue have entered into the receipts of 1831. is under the mark, we will merely advert to the In the annual treasury report of the present fact, that it falls near five millions short of the year, the following statements are made in reaverage of the last six years. This will be at lation to the receipts of 1832: once perceived by any one who will take up “ The duties which accrued during the first the table given below, of the actual receipts into three quarters of the present year are estimated the Treasury from customs, and add thereto at $27,319,000; and those for the fourth quarter the "expenses of collection, drawbacks, boun- at $6,000,000. Some deduction, however, ties," &c. (amounting, on an average, to up- will be made from these before they can reach wards of $5,000,000 per annum.) This calcu- the treasury, on account of the reduction in tho lation will show, conclusively, that, in spite of duties on offee, tea, 0:0, and salt
, by the the fact, that the annually accruing revenue acts of the 20th and 29th May, 1830, and which from customs is about $26,000,000, Mr." Mc- may be estimated to affect the duties on tllose Lane estimates the future revenue at only articles remaining in store on the 1st of Janua$21,000,000, when it is morally certain that
, ry, 1832, to the amount of about $750,000. under any system, not prohibitory, the imports The receipts from the public lands, during and exports of the country must go on gradu-ltbe present year, it will be perceived, have lika
wise exceeded the estimates, and, indeed, have 1830.
21,922,391 gone beyond all former example. It is believ. 1831
24,224,441 ed that, notwithstanding the large amount of Making an average for the last six scrip and forfeited land stock that may still be
years of a sorbed in payments for lands, yet, if the sur-whereas the future receipts un
$22,516,312 veys now projected be completed, the receipts der the present rates, is assumed from this source of revenue will not fall greatly by Mr. McLane to be only 17,823,358 below those of the present year.. From all the information which
Being an under estimate of no less the Department has been an
$4,692,954 ble to obtain, thc receipts into the treasury during the
Now, we will put the question fairly: is it year 1832, may be estimated
possible to suppose, that the future reccipts from
$30,100,000 customs, under the existing rates, could be viz.:
four millions and a half less than the average reCustoms, $20,500,000
ceipts for the last six years. Is it not much Public Lands, 3,000,000
more probable that it would be several millions Bank dividends, - 490,000
greater? Upon the whole, we cannot bring our In idental receipts,
minds to entertain a doubt, that the average reincluding arrears of
ceipts for the period above mentioned, may be internal duties and di
safely assumed as the very lowest standard for rect taxes, 110,000
the future receipts from customs, at the present Now, if from this amount there be taken the rates-say
$22,500,000 reduction under Mr. McLane's bill, we have To which add receipts from “old remaining a revenue of
$22,215,333 internal revenue, direct tax, But, it is objerted that these receipts, like postage, public lands, bank dithose of 1831, “will be made up, in part, and vidends, & miscellaneous," say
4,000,000 largely, too, of the duties on tea, coffee, &c. repealed by the acts of 1830.". Now, we should And we have
$26,500,000 hold it to be impossible that any large amount as the annual receipts at the derived from duties repealed in 1830 should present rates. enter into the receipts of 1832; but, whatever it From which take Mr. McLane's may be, it will be seen, from the above extract
6,310,516 from the treasury report, that the receipts of 1832 are estimated at $26,500 000 And we have
$20,199,484 After deducting “ drawback, expenses of col- as the amount which would probably come into lection, &c." and $750,000 on account of these the Treasury, under Mr. McLane's bill, leaving repealed duties on coffee, tea, cocoa, and salt.
an annual surplus, after paying the authorizBut it is denied that either of these years ed expenditures of the Government," of seren present a just standard,” by which to measure millions of dollars. the future receipts from customs. The “usual We will briefly notice one or two other oband natural level,” is assumed to be the re-jections to Mr. McLane’s “comparative stateceipts of 1830, diminished by the whole amountment.” of the duties taken off under the acts of 1830. 1st. Mr. McLane assumes as the basis of his
The Treasury estimate would therefore stand calculation, the fiscal year ending on the 30th thus :
September, 1830, instead of the calendar yeir, Gross amount of duties in 1830, $25,370,328 ending on the 31st December, 1830. His calDeduct amount of duties reduced
culations, therefore, are founded
on a revenue of by act of 1830,
4,665,491 only $26,370,328, instead of $28,382,795, there
by assuming a revenue less by two millions
21,704,837 tňan the proper amount; the period chosen beDeduct also "drawbacks,” &c.
ing one obviously influenced by the depression stated in the Treasury estimate
incident to the tariff of 1829, from which the 3,881,479 country was just beginning to recover in the last
quarter of the year 1830; and from which it. And we have no more than $17,823,358 has been recovering more and more ever since: as the estimated receipts into the Treasury, from 2d. The next objection to Mr. McLane's customs, at the present rates.
statement is, that he makes the calculations on How this can possibly be reconciled with the the accrued revenue, and not, as he should have actual receipts from customs for the last six done, on the receipts into the Treasury. The years, we are utterly unable to conceive. The object in view, certainly was, to shew the statistical tables exhibit the following results . amount of duties under the present tariff ; the Receipts from Customs.
amount that would be levied under the proposed
rates, and the amount of taxation from which the 1826
$23,341,331 people would thereby be relieved. This is at1827
19,712,283 tempted to be exhibited thus: 1828
23, 205,523 1829
22,681,965 * These amounted, in 1831, to $4,385,816.
Amount of pre- Amount of pro Difference. (being the estimated amount of the cash and auesent duties. posed duties.
tion duties, the bounty on ships, &c. &c., which $26,370,325 $15,394,318 $10,976,007 will unquestionably constitute clear additions
Now, in addition to the fact which has been to the public burdens,) so that the relief to be shewn, that $4,665,491, of this proposed reduc- afforded to the country, should Mr. M'Lane's tion, has already taken place under the acts of bill become a law, cannot be justly estimated 1830, (whereby the estimated saving is reduced at more than $3,000,000, unless the view which from ten millions to six,) there is this further we have taken of this subject, be entirely erobjection to the statement, that it is founded on roneous. the duties which accrued in the year 'selected by And should Mr. M'Lane's bill be modified as Mr. McLane, and not on the actual receipts into proposed by the Committees of Manufactnres, the Treasury, whereby the whole amount of the reductions effected, would amount almost "drawbacks, bounties to ships, expenses of|to nothing. collection," &c. has been (erroneously as we
It is admitted that the fact has been overconceive,) included in the calculation. The looked, that the reduction of $6,310,516 by Mr"drawbacks” &c. are estimated in Mr. McLane's McLane's bill, being upon a nett revenue of statement at $3,881,479. Whether this esti- twenty-two millions, the same rate of reduction mate is founded on the present or proposed du- upon a larger revenue would give a larger reties, does not clearly appear
. Assuming, howev: duction,” the difference, however, would not er,$3,881,479 to be the amount of drawbacks," be very important. On the cstimated receipts &c. on $15,394,318, at the proposed rates, then of 1832, it would not exceed a million of dol. (if there be no error in our calculation,) $5,770,- lars. We differ radically from the writer in the 479, would be about the amount of “draw-Globe, when he assumes that it may be found backs,“ &c. on $26,370,328, at the proposed rates, impracticable to raise neither more nor less reve. and as the amount of drawbacks,” &c. consti- nue than may be required; and that it, therefore, tute, of course, no part of the duties collected, becomes indispensible to raise enough--or, in and form no part of the public revenue; the other words, that to guard against the possibiliaccount for the year-selected by Mr. McLane, ty of a deficiency, we must take care to raise should stand thus, (if we are correct in the cal. an amount that could in no event fall below, but calation.)
would in all probability greatly exceed the “auAmount of present duties, deduct
thorized expenditures” of the government. We ing drawbacks,
$20,599,731 believe that a system of duties arranged on Amount of proposed duties,deduct
sound principles, can be so adjusted, as to raise ing drawbacks,
11,512,839 neither more nor less revenue than may be reDifference, being the amount 'sav
quired. We do not mean that the receipts and ed to the people,
9,086,892 expenditures shall be exactly balanced at the From which take the reductions
end of any particular year, but that, in a series under the acts of 1830,
4,665,491 of years, they shall be so adjusted that there
shall remain no surplus in the Treasury, and no $4,421,401 ordinary expenditure of the Government be un.
provided for. The unexpended balances of apAnd we have the nett ament of the proposed propriations always remaining in the Treasury reduction, less than four millions and a half. at the end of every year, would constitute a
If the amount of drawbacks be greater, the fund capable of being used in case of emergenamount of saving would be less. In every point cy, to which might be added, if necessary, an of view, it would seem to be certain, that if authority to borrow to a limited extent, should $6,310,516 be the true amount of Mr. M'Lane's an unexpected deficiency render such a meaproposed reduction, on the basis assumed, that sure necessary. We do not regard a deficienhaving formed that estimate on the duties ac- cy under such a government as ours, as an evil crued, (including the drawbacks,) instead of the at all to be deprecated, while we should considuties received, the amount of actual saving der a, surplus in the Treasury as an event greatmust be less by upwards of a million and a half ly to be feared. Besides the temptation that of dollars, than is assumed.
would thereby be held out to extravagant exIt requires no argument to show, that a duty penditures, the corrupting influence of public accruing on articles re-exported, and on which money left in the Treasury to be s rambled for, the duties are refunded, can constitute no part, and capable of being used as an instrument for either of the amount of revenue under the pre- party purposes, cannot be too carefully guardsent tariff, or of reductions under the proposed ed agunst. tariff
. The actual reduction, therefore, under With regard to the concluding suggestion of Mr. M’Lane's bill, being reduced
the writer in the Globe, “that if the duties unon account of the “ drawbacks,”
der the proposed scheme would be at first too &c., as abave stated, will leave
high, the task will remain of dis overing how a
4,421,401 greater reduction can be made from the proAs the amount of relief from the
tected articles without ruin to the vast interests public burdens, should Mr.
involved in them,” the writer of this article will M'Lane's bill,in its present form,
only say, that the Treasury scheme has been become a law; from which ought
subjected to criticism merely as a revenue ineato be deducted the further sum
sure, and the moment protection and not reveof about