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powerful exceptions. To be convinced of this, who will say that this doctrine is always corwe have only to direct our attention to the his rect? Who will say that, when Cæsar grasps tory of mankind ; and whether we make our the tyrant's sword, a patriot may not draw the survey of this history in the departments of re dagger of a Brutus ? Who will say that, when ligion, morals, or politics, we shall find the he is plundered of bis property and stript of most abundant exceptions to your principle. bis rights, that he is bound 10 acquiesce, bea Take, for instance, religion first; and, I say, cause common consent supports it! It was not take it first, because it is, in truth, man's first upon this principle that our ancestors acted. It and dearest concern ; because it is the nurse is not upon this principle that our declaration which sings the lullaby of repuse to him in of independence was based. No--they went the hour of affliction, and the still more try. upon a different principle. Common consent ing one of death ;-take religion, then, and was originally against them. The theory and shall we regard common consent here as al. practice of the world were against them. All ways a good argument in its favor? If so, what Europe, all Asia, all Africa, all America. will you say against the monstrous structure of except a mere speck of the continent, were Pagan superstition ! for that was supported by against them. But, they cared not for this. common consent. Again, it is by conimon con- They detected the fallacy which lurked under sent that poligamy is sustained by the follow. this proposition, and scorned to be the victim ers of Mahomet; and it is also by common con- of its wiles. They resisted common consent ; sent that the contrary is maintained by. Chris. they battered it to the ground, and triumpbed tians. It was by commun consent that the di- in the contest. We say that they were right vine Saviour of mankind was put to an ignomi- in doing this ; but if they were, was the rights nious death ; and it is by common consent that of the whole people, in this case, one whit Christians condemn the act, and call it Deicide. stronger than that of each individual who made Now, if Paganism de false-if it degrade man's a part of this people? Was it not just as much intellect and corrupt his 'heart, does common his right to judge as theirs-- just as much his to consent make it true, or in any respect change resist as theirs ? Most clearly ; and it is pre. its character ? By no means. The system, cisely upon the same principle

, to resist any whatever it is, remains what it was; and hence, law which violates his constitution, or robs bir here, at least, the argument is not good. uf bis rights. In vain may common consent be

Let us now see how this principle operates urged in its favor ; in vain may it be bolstered in morals. If true, look into the history of on men distinguished for their learning, and, if antiquity, we shall find just as great a diversi. you please, for their virtues; yet, if it be not ty in their system of morals as in those of reli. in accordance with the Constitution of the land gion. It was not against the ethics of Lycur. -if it unjustly invade the inherent rights of gus to slay the deformed children of his demo-luman, it is the act of a tyrant, and the edict of cracy ; and it was consonant with those of injustice. And who will contend, if it be such, Sparta to thieve and lie. Such were their mo- that it ought to be obeyed? Will you contend? rals, and yet common consent supported them! But I will conclude for the present. I have The feelings of nature bowed before the tyrant much more to say on this subject, and will recustum, and yet common consent supported it. serve it for my future letters.

But, let us turn our attention now 10 civil government, and see how it operates here. Extract from a letter to the editor, dated It is by common consent that these are cre,

ALBANT, 27th June, 1832. ated ; and it is by the same common consent Gen. Durc GREEN: Sir-About the 10th of that they are preserved. Yet, however diver: March, 1831, I addressed you a letter, s'ating sified may be their forms--however they may that it was contemplated here by the friends of enlarge or circumscribe the boundaries of the Mr. Van Buren, to run him for the Vice Presirights of man--however they may tend to ele. dency at the ensuing presidential election; that vate or depress the dignity of his nature, still it was then a secret with bis confidential friends, are they preserved—I speak generally--Hy or intended to be such; and that, if he should common consent. It was this which called be elected with General Jackson, the latter them into existence ; and it is upon this that would immediately resign, and leave his favo. they repose. Would you know what sustains rite, the Vice President, in possession of the despotism of the Turk-what gives ener, robes, honors, and patronage of the Presidency, gy to his will, and maintains his sway? Would in the same manner that Van Buren conferred you know what causes forty millions of men upon Enos T. Throop the executive functions to bow their suppliant knee to the tyrant .who of this state in 1828. ' You puolished the subrules them? Would you know what has caused stance of that communication in the U. S. Te. seven millions of Irishmen, brave as the lordly legraph in July following, upon which Mr. Rit. lion, and generous as that noble monarch of chie, and other consistent editors of the Van the forest, to endure for more than three Buren school, affected to treat such a plot with hundred years, the lash of unremitted and ridicule, and the venerable editor of the Richunmerited persecution! It was common mond Enquirer solemnly declared, that wbatconsent. Common consent, then, is not al. ever Mr. Van Buren's friends might wish to do ways a sufficient reason for obedience to the in relation to this matter, for his own part he law. No--common consent may be the parent should not be accessary to the "plor," nor of passive obedience and; non-resistance ; but would he (Mr. Ritchie) support Mr. Van Buren

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for that office. That the plot did exist at that tion shall be withdrawn from any branch of time, will be made manifest. My letter was domestic industry : ordered to be laid on the written long before the dissolution of General table and to be printed. The Committee on Jackson's first, or «unit” cabinet, and previous Pensions were discharged, on the motion of to Mr. Calhoun's appeal, and the publication Mr. Foot, from the consideration of the peti. of the subsequent correspondence between tion of Daniel Harrington. On the motion of that gentleman and General Jackson. The Mr. Foot, the resolution to indefinitely post. plot, then, being in contemplation anterior to pone the several bills from the House on the the events which might be urged as the cause subject of pensions, was taken up and agreed of it, it will preclude the possibility of Van to. Mr. FRELINGAUYSEN, trom the Committee Buren's friends availing tnemselves of the argu- on the Library, reported without amendment, ment that these events, such as the dissolution the resolution authorizing the Secretary of the of the cabinet, the rejection by the Senate, etc. Senate to purchase Rembeant Peale's portrait were the only reasons why be was now present of General Washington, to be placed in the Se. ed to the people for he Vice Presidency. itate Chamber, the price not to exceed

The whole bargain, then, appears to have dollars. It was read a first time, and ordered been this. Finding that the malign influ- to a second reading. Mr. Bibe called up the ence” could nui be made to operate successful. joint resolution, to appropriate unexpended ly, it was resolved to dissolve the cabinet. The balances from the Patent Office, to the arrang. ex-Secretary of State was to go to England for ing and indexing of the papers in the office of the residue of the Presidential term, (see Gov. the Secretary of State. Mr. MANGUM was opPoindexter's speech on Van Buren's nomina. posed to any money being appropriated for the tion,) to prepare himself for the duties expect. purpose, asserting that the necessity for it must ant, and the office in remainder, upon the re. have arisen from neglect of duty, and stating signation of the President. If his nomination it as his opinion, that less labor was done in should be confirmed, it would prove his the public offices in Washington than in any strength in the Senate if rejected, then to State in the Union. Mr, BIBB differed with avail himself of the cry of proscription, perse the Senator from North Carolina ; there was no cution, etc., and to appropriate the sympathy ground for such accusation ; the amount of la. of the people. These would be urged as the bor had not fallen off; the want of facility in cause (yet in futuro) of what was already re- referring to any particular paper, arose from solved upon. But he could not be elected un. the documents being classified in bundles ; but less first nominated, and how was this to be those bundles had no index to refer to the pardone? Isaac Hill, of New Hampshire, through licular document required. Mr. Foot observ. his trusty feudatories in that State, was charged, that he now began to see the effects of the ed with touching this spring of the machinery, removals from office that had taken place. and accordingly the "granite State" sounded Difficulties that were formerly unknown in obthe first note of preparation. According to or- taining any information desired, were now of ders, most other States came into the measure, constant occurrence. He slightly adverted to and furnished delegates to a Nalional Conven individual instances in the days of Mr. Monroe tion. The whole proceedings being arranged and Mr. Adams, where the individuals had ob long before the collegation of this delegated tained, almost instantaneously, divers informa. body of republican patriots, the work was soon tion applied for by them; and deprecated the accomplished, and Martin Van Buren was rege-employınent of clerks to assist clerks who larly nominated for the office of Vice Presi. might have effected it themselves. Mr. John. dent of the United States! So much of the plot ston, abstracting from the merits of the ques. is accomplished. Let Gen. Jackson be re-election that had been raised, thought that such an ted, and Van Buren elected to this office, and index as was contemplated would be of much the whole will be consummated.

utility. But he feared that the mode proposed Are the people prepared for such a denoue. would only put every paper and document in ment? Are the southern States willing to aid confusion. He thought, to prevent this, the and abet such bargaining? This State will not bundles ought to be first indexed, after which -she will not give her vote for Gen. Jackson a further analysis might then be made. How. or Martin Van Buren, as time will prove. ever, he had no doubt the Secretary of State

A NEW YORKER. would have it done correctly; it was not for P. S. My former letter was subscribed, “A bis individual use, but for the benefit of the republican member of the New York Legisla- public; and as the money to be expended, was ture." I cannot pow claim that honor. a surplus from the appropriation for the Patent

Office, be had no objection to leave it at his CONGRESSIONAL

disposal. Mr. WHITE rose, seeing that the

subject was about to take up considerable time, Morpat, JUNE 25, 1832.

to move that it be laid on the table, and that In the SENATE, on Saturday, Mr. Tom. the Senate proceed to the consideration of Es. LINSON presented resolutions adopted at a ecutive business. The resolution was accord. meeting of farmers, mechanics, and other ingly laid on the table. Mr. JUANston request. citizens in Sharon, Connecticut, protesting ed hat the gentleman would for a moment sus. against any modification being made in the pend his motion to go iuto Executive business, existing tariff laws, by which adequate prolece 'in order to allow him to move that the bij

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“making appropriations for internal improve. Choale, of Massachusetts; Cambreleng, of New
ments for the year 1832" be read a third time. York, McCoy and Stewart, uf Pa.; Mercer, of
Mr. Write acquiesced. The bill was then Virginia; Foster, of Georgia; White, of Louisia-
read a third time, (on motion of Mr. Fo:t, na; Sevier, of Arcansas; Wing, of Michigan.
by its title,) and, on the question "shall The resolution presented by Mr. THOMPON,
this bill pass !” Mr. Hill asked for the yeas of Georgia, for the meeting of the House at 8
and nays. A sufficient number rising, the o'clock, A. M. and making the tariff bill the
question was decided in the affirmative, by the special order for each day at nine o'clock, was
following vote : Ayes-Messrs. Bell, Ben'on, postponed till this day.
Chambers, Clay, Clayton, Dallas, Dickerson, Mr. VERPLANCK moved the House to take up,
Dudley, Ewing, Foot, Frelingnuysen, Hen- by unanimous consent, the bill in relation to the
dricks, Holmes, Johnston, Kane, Knight, Nau- Mexican treaty, but the consent was withheld.
dain, Prentiss, Robbins, Robinson, Ruggles, Mr. Joungon, of Kentucky, moved to take
Seymour, Silsbee, Smith, Tipton, Tomlinson, up the resolution, now lying on the table, provi.
Websier, and Wilkins28. Noes—Messrs. ding for the adjournment of the present session
Bibb, Ellis, Grundy, Hayne, Mangum, Marcy, of Congress on the 25th instant.
Miller, Moore, Poindexter, Tazewell, Tyler, Mr. Boon, who presented the resolution, mo-
and White-14. So the bill was passed. Mr. ved to substitute the 20 of July tor the 25th of
Harne requested bis resolution to amend the June; but this was declared not to be in order
121h rule of their proceedings relative to the at present.
division of questions on taking the vote, &c., On the question of taking up the resolution,
should be taken up. The resolution was con. Mr. Taomson, of Ohio, asked for the ayes and
sidered and agreed 'to. After a question from nues, which were ordered and taken, when it
Mr. l'ipton, respecting a bill before the Com. was carried in the affirmative-ayes, 118; noes,
mittee on Commerce, the motion of Mr. Waits 52.
being rerewed, the Senate proceeded to the So the resolution was taken up.
consideration of Executive business. Adjourn Mr. Boon then proposed to modify the reso.

lution by fixing the lay for the 21 of July.
In the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Mr. WATMOUGH moved to postpone the fur.
after the transaction of some preliminary busi-ther consideration of the resolution till, next
ness, the consideration of the tariff question Monday.
was resumed. We have given, infanother part

Mr. MERCER rose briefly to contradict the of our paper, the bill at length, in the shape in prevailing rumor with respect to the existence, which it is now pending in the House.

Nr. or the probanle existence, of the cholera, in a FITZGERALD moved a reconsideration of the vessel in the Potomac, near Alexandria. He vote on the clause in the 18th section, impos- compared the report 10 the well-known story of ing a duty on fossil, and crude mineral salt, the three black crows, and averred that there but the motion was negatived, after a long de- was not the slightest foundation for the state. bate, by a vote of 98 to 84. Mr. McDUFFLE ments that had been upon the subject. moved the following amendment to the third

dir. CONTER would suggest to the gentle. item of the second section.

man from Pennsylvania, (Mr. WATMOUGH,) the “That on all manufactures of cotton, not dy: propriety of modifying his motion so as to posted, colored, printed, or stained, the cost of pune the furiher consideration of this question which, at the place of exportation, shall no until Thursday. At that time, be (Mr. C.) exceed fi teen cents per square yard, there thought it possible they might be able to disshall b, levied, collected, and, paid 123, per puse of the cariff question. He had never be cent. ad valorem, and no more."

fore, since he had been a member of that This proposition likewise was negatived, House, voted wgainst an adjournment, an early

adjournment, of the long session of Congress Mr. McDufrie then moved to amend by He might attach too much importance to the striking out the works in the fifth item of the opinions of his constituents

; but thinking and second section, "not manufuclured in whole or feeling as a southern man, as he was, and we in part by rolling," and in the sixth clause of garding as he ought southern interests, he could the same section, the words " on bar and bol not give his consent for an adjournment until iron, made wholly or in part by rolling, thirty this question was settled. If it was to be adjustdollars per ton."

ed, and the people of this country quieted, The objeci of the amendment was the aboli, which he trusterl in God they might, he should tion of the discriminating duty between British be justified by the result: if it were not, be and Sweedish, and Russian iron; but the propo. would not, by his vote, throw any obstacle in sition was rejected, ayes 67, noes 114.

the way of a fair expression of the opinion of Mr. Dayis, of Massachusetts, renewed the this House. His wish and his object were to amendment formerly proposed by him in com leave the result of this question to his constitumittee on the subject of woollens; but before a ents, after having seen a fair vote taken on it

, decision was arrived at, the House, at 6 o'clock, as he could then say they had done all they

could do, but that their opponents had refusTUESDAY, JUNE 26.

ed to meet them. He concluded by expressing In the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, a hope that the modification would be accepted. yesterday, memorials were presented by Messrs.

Mr. Isacks said, that at the Housc should do

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ayes 73, noes 115.


nothing decisive on this great question--ifbe provided for by the constitution, if they did they should not or could not arrive at a satisfac. separate from those who denied them justice, tory adjustment of it, they had already sat it would be apparent that it was gross and pal. there too long for their own credit, and for the pable oppression; it would be such oppression peace and security of the country. If that most that every man could put his finger upon it; and important and desirable objeci could be ac. at all events, under these circumstances, he complished, who would hesitate to sit there should join with others, and g) all lengths with two or three weeks longer? He would, there his fellow.citizens. He (Mr. W.) repeated, fore, in the hope of being able to effect it, that he would go all lengths with the south, for cheerfully consent to procrastinate the time of the relief of his country from the turiff: but he rising still longer.

could not consent to allow the matler to be preMr. BLAIR, of South Carolina, had hoped judged by his assent to an adjournment, when that the tariff question would be satisfactorily. The most important question was coming before adjusted, but if nu disposition of it was to be them. Try it to-day and 10-morrow, and if it made satisfactory to the House, he should feel be tried in vain, try it again the next day. He no interest in remaining here one moment lon. would not despair, because so soun as they beger. He was willing to meet it then, and he gan to despond, exertion would cease, and that should be willing to adjourn to-morrow, al- seemed to be the case with his friend from South though he trusted the subject of the resolution Carolina, (Mr. Blair.), Mr. W. after making would not be postponed. The south bad now a few other remarks, concluded by declaring no cause for hope that this matter could be that he was ready to go into the detail of the brought tu a termination in a proper and equi. bill. There was no necessity of wandering table spirit, and she might prepare for the from the details of the bill, for he did believe worst.

That the discussion on the general principles of Mr. MERCER said, that nearly two months the protective policy tended to rend them wider ago he had stated that he for one would not asunder in opinion than before. give lis consent to a proposition for a ljourn Mr. Blail, of South Carolina, said that it ment until the two great questions of the bank seemed he was to be rebuked for not having and the tariff have been disposed of. With re- desponded at an earlier period of the session. gard to what the gentleman from South Caro- He had desponded for a week past, and he felt lina (Mr. Blair) had said of the opinions of convinced now, that those who could still hope, the south, he must say that that was an exten- under present circumstances, that a satisfactory sive section of the country, and that no one adjustment of this question could be made, member of that House could be presumed to could hope against hope itself. For his part represent the whole of its opinions there. he repeated, that he had no hope of adjusting

Mr. Anderson asked for ihe previous ques. the details of this measure in a proper manner. tion, which was refused by the House. Ayes Till recently be had entertained a different on 75, noes 87.

pinion, and he had held up hopes, under that A message was laere received from the Se-l impression, to the people of the south, that nate with various bills.

their complaints would be listened 10, and their A message was received also from the Presi- wrongs redressed. He would hold up these dent of the U.Sta:es, transmitting a report from hopes no longer to them, fur he was convinced the Secretary of State on the subject of the ab- they were rain and futile. He certainly did not olition of discriminating duties on the tonnage sit there to express the opinion of the south, upon Spanish vessels

but he had a right to express his own opinion It was, on the motion of Mr. CAMBRELENG, as one of the south-and that opinion, he laid on the table and ordered to be printed.

thought, would be found to coincide with the Mr. Warse considered that nothing which feelings and sentiments of those who sent him had as yet been done was at all calculated to al. lo represent their interests there. lay the irritation of the south. He had seen pro

Mr. DEARBORN hoped the motion for postpositions made to that House which might have ponement would prevail. He had never doubthad that effect, and had alvocated them ; but, ed, and he did not now doubt, but that a tariff he regretted to say, without effect. Would could be adjusted, more acceptable to the the postponement of the question, he asked, country than the existing one.

He saw noquiet the soith? In what way then was it to hing in the present aspect of affairs to induce be done? By deliberately discussing the bill despondency. It was true that an excitement before them. Let the propositions most ob- prevailed on this subject, not only at the south, Doxious to southern men be tried to-day, too but at the north also; and he, (Mr. D.) was not morrow, and next day. He (Mr. W.) would, surprised at it. The present was one of the in the name and in the face of his country, pro- most important eras which had ever occurred test against any manifestation of the sense of the in the history of the Republic. The represenmajority of that House going forth, which would tatives of the people were there, and they ought indicate that the suuth had

no longer reason to to remain at their posts; the eyes of the nation hope that the question should be avljusted by a were upon them, and forbearance and compro. compromise. If there should be such a result, mise were expected from them. It was looked if their hopes were to be extinguished, they for at the right hand and the left. If at this would endeavor to obtain redress in the way crisis of the public business they should fix the provided by ilac constitution. If it should not period of adjournment, it would spread terror

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and dismay througbout the land. It was not last plank of hope, for certainly the salvation of to be expected that a tariff could be framed the Union was yet worth struggling for. He which should be satisfactory to all, but the prea had heretofore been opposed, and was now ope sent law might be so amended as to allay much posed to fixing the day of adjournment. When of the asperity that prevailed. He adjured a fitting opportunity should offer, the House them in the course of the debate upon the bill could carry an adjournment at once. Wby in its details, to dispense with the language of should they fix the day of adjournment? Would crimination and recrimination, and to allow all it accelerate their action on the subject? He angry feelings to subside. Bring to it only had other reasons why he was opposed to fix their cool judgments and the love of their coun- ing a day. He was one of those who thought try, and whatever might be the emergency, he that the arguments upon the general principle hoped they would be prepared to meet it, and of this great subject had long since been es to decide upon the matter in a spirit of patri- hausted. otism. He concluded, after some further re He thought that southern members ought not marks, by repeating the hope that the motion to speak on the subject; that the southern defor postponement would prevail.

legation ought to have met together and ap. Mr. SPEIGAT said he was glad to hear the pointed an individual to say to the friends of sentiments expressed by the gentleman from the tariff--"We yield the subject to you; we Massachusetts, (Mr. DEARBORN,) and it would demand the right of relief from this oppression; give him still more pleasure if the votes of that we do not intend to discuss the subject; we gentleman had corresponded with what he had leave it to you, we propose to you to speak; said. He,(Mr. S.) had been an attentive observer we give you time to act on the subject to make of the course of this debate-he had remained a proposition of compromise, and give it in a silent, but had watched its progress closely, way that we can accept it. You bold in your in the hope that something might occur which hands the destinies of the republic." It might could induce an opinion favorable to the settle still be possible to do something during the ment of this agitating matter, in harmony and present session, for there seemed to be a spirit peace. But what had he seen? What had they of liberality in the House. Allow him (Mr. All seen? Every propositionjwhich had a tendency T.) to say, with perfect deference to the to relieve the oppressed south, had been in that House, that he was as much a friend of the debate, in a spirit of any thing but frankness Union as any man in it. He would tell gentle and conciliation-in any spirit, indeed, but the men, however, that they were endangering one that ought to pervade that hall. Every the Union. If this session should be closed such proposition had been voted down. He ap- without coming to a decision on this subject, pealed to the gentleman from Massachusetts, they might rely on it there would be commá. whether he himself, (Mr. DEARBORN,) had not tions in the south. Should the present state of voted against every measure that might proba-ibings be continued, and made the policy of bly conduce to a settlement of the agitation of the country, he would go on and stave of such this distracted country. He asked the gentle oppression. man to state what he would concede in, in or: Mr. Bord was anxious that the House should der that the south might understand what it had have adjourned at a reasonable and early peto expect from his good wishes,

He fully riod, but the important questions of the bank agreed with the gentleman form Tennessee, and the tariff were before them, and in his opi(Mr. Isacks) that if they were not to act upon nion their duty required an action upon them. the tariff, they had been here already too long He went on to urge the necessity of a delibera. for their own credit, and he said with him also, tive consideration and a proper decision in rela. that if there was any assurance of their coming tion to them; and for his own part he declared to a decision on the

question, he would cheer- that he respected the fair south, and bad as fully remain even till the first of August, or to dear a regard for its interests as any one could any time that might be necessary. But be have, but still he was not to be deterred from must say with the gentleman from South Caro- the performance of what he conceived to bea lina, (Mr. Blair,) that his hopes were gone, great public duty by any menaces of disunion, and that they might prepare to meet a most se. Mr. Branck observed, that he had only one rious result. It was his decided opinion, that if word to say, He would vote for an early day they parted without adjusting the question, this of adjournment, for he believed that the coun. would be the last Congress of the United States try would be in a state of more quiet and re that would meet in peace and harmony. He pose under the existing tariff, than if the one woukl vote against postpening the resolution. proposed in the bill before them shuuld be

Mr. THOMPSON, of Georgia, believed that a aggreed to. He was of opinion that it would returning sense of justice-ihat feelings of libe. be far preferable to defer the subject to the rality and generosity-would induce the sup- next session of Congress, than give to the peau porters of the tariff system to relieve the south ple the certairty of the continuance of the sys from the oppression it was suffering under, bytem by passing the bill. For this reason be the action of Congress during the present ses - was anxious for an adjournment; and be was sion. He would confess, that, like the gentle. well aware of the necessity of allaying the an man from South Carolina, (Mr. Blair,) he be-gry feelings which now prevailed. It was grs. gan now to doubt wbether the question would lifying certainly to see the small degree of perbe settled, but was still willing to cling to the sonalayimosity that was manifested; but still the

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