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increased labor and exertion for the burthens oppressed by the curse of misgovernment as imposed, and tv compensate for the diminish- the southern Atlantic States of this Unioa. And cd value of the taxed production, by an in- yet, Sir, when we tell the story of our wrongs creased quantity of it. And such has been pre- and our sufferings, a gentleman, who cultivates cisely the case in regard to the production of the alluvial soil and represents the sugar plantcotton. "The more heavy and oppressive the ing nabobs of Louisiana, (Mr. BULLARD,) rises duties imposed upon otir exchanges have been, up, with great complacency, and offers us the the more active and efficient has been olur ir most cruel mockery for our consolation, by teldustry; and the less the exchangeable value of ling' us of the wonderful operations of the cotton our staples, the greater has been the amount of planters in Louisiana, and that they can afford our production.

to inake cotton at three cents a pound. Pray, The property of the great body of the cotton Sir, can any reason why I should patiently subplanters consists in a soil and climate peculiarty mit to be plundered of one-third of my income adapted to produce cotton, the most valuable by the protecting system be fairly deduced staple of the earth,

and not adapted to produce from the fact, that the cost of producing cotton wheat, the other great staple of agriculture; in Louisiana is not half so great as it is in South and it consists also of a description of labor Carolina? On the contrary, is not thus the adapted only to the operations of agriculture. strongest of all reasons why the people of S. Owing to the heat and dryness of the climate, Carolina should be permitted to enjoy the soil of a given fertility will not produce much fruits of their own industry, and riot have them more than half the quantity of wheat, or of taken away by the unconstitutional exactions of other grain, that soil of the same quality will this Government, and given to the favored obproduce in the northern States. The laws of jects of its bounty, in another region of the connature, therefore, as well as their own peculiar federacy? If the cotton planters of Louisiana domestic institutions, have not only decreed are not now in a situation to feel the oppression that the people of the southern States should of the piotecting system, or if they are induced be an agricultural people; but that they should to bear it in consideration of an annual bounty pursue those branches of agriculture in which of a million and a half of dollars given to the ihey are now engued, and which depend prin- sugar planters, it certainly furnishes no sufficipally upon foreign countries for a market

. cient motive for their representatite here to The remarks wlrich have been made in relation exult in the advantages they çnjoy over the to cotton are even more applicable to rice. southern Atlantic States, and to rebuke the The value of the rice lands would be worth, people of those States because they will not comparatively, nothing for the production of tamely submit to be utterly exterminated by any other staple. If the gentleman from Vas- this system of plunder and oppression. (Here sachusetts, (Mr. Davis,) will consider these Mr. Bullard disclaimed any feeling of exultathings, lie will be at no loss to account for tation in' what he had said; he had simply statwhat seemed to him to be an incredible phed facts. ] Mr. McDuffie said: I am glad, Sir, nomenon in political economy, that South Ca- to be informed that I have mistaken the tone of rolina and Georgia should cultivate cotton in thc gentleman's remarks. I was perhaps miscompetition with the new States of the south- led by the peculiar manner and emphasis with west, when the latter can as well afford to make which he declared that his constituents had nea cotton at eiglit cents a pound as the former at ver partieipated in this false clamor about robten. "The truth is, the people of South Caroli-bery and plunder. One of the gentlemen from

na and Georgia are obliged to caltivate eotton Massachusetts, (Mr. EVERETT,) has been pleasi under all the disadvantages of a double compeed to refer the House to another proof of the

titioir, created by the legislation of this Gor- prosperity of the southern States; the increase ernment, or to do what would be worse. I say of their population. This, Šir, is a much more they are subjected to a double competition by fallible criterion of prosperity than the increase the legislation of Congress. If we consider of their productions. There is no part of this them as producers of cotton, they are exposed Union, thanks to Providence, and not to the to the wiequal competition of those who ob- wisilom of our Government, in which the pretain from the Government, at a dollar and a ventive check upon population, as Malthus exquarter, lands that are more productive than presses it, has yet begun to operate. And I those winch cost ten dollars in Sonth Carolina think the gentleman might have been induced and Georgia. If we consider them as producers to distrust the application of this theory to the of the manufactures for which their cottoir is United States, by a fact stated by himself in exchanged abroad, they are compelled by the regard to South Carolina

He said the slaves Gofernment to sustain a still more unequal had increased more rapidly than the whites; competition with the northern manufacturers; and it would folloiv, if his argument be worth for, in this case, the cost of their productions is any thing, that the slaves are also more prospeforty or fifty per cent. more than that of their rous than their masters. northern rivals, owing exclusively to the impo But the gentleman groups together the whole sitions of this government, and yet they are of the southern and southwestern States, and obliged to sell those productions for the same appeals to the increase of their aggregate poprice.

pulation as a proof of their prosperity. Now, Sir, there never was a community of men, does not the gentleman know that Alabama, who bore" the name of freemen, so ruinously Mississippi, and Louisiana, are new States, and




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The dutý, then, recommended on woollen

CONGRESSIONAL. inanufactures, was only seven and a half per cerit.; and yet, after the progress and the im. IN SENATE-Friday, July 13, 1832. provements of sixteen years, under a protection successively increased, to 25, 33), and 55.


. per cent., we are called upon to give a protec The Senate proceeded to the consideration tion of about sixty per cent.; and gentlemen of the unfinished business of the day pre. are evidently not satisfied with that. If Alex. ceding, being the veto message to the bank ander Hamilton could be raised from the grave, bill, and the bill itself to recharter the U, S. how utterly would he disclaim the system which Bank. his disciples bave built up under the sånction Mr. BENTON, wbo was in possession of the of his name! It is, Sir, an insatiable monsters Avor, concludeil' his remarks in defence of the which literally“ derives "increase of appetite veto, and in reply to Mr. CLAY. In the course from what it feeds on." In 1816, twenty-five of his remarks, he bad characterized the speech per cent. was the utmost demand of the manu- of Mr. C. as containing language wanting in facturers, and even that was granted as a tein-courtesy, indecorous and disrespectful to the porary protection, the act providing that, in a Chief Magistrate. few years, the duty should go down to twenty Mr. CLAY rose to say a few words in regard per cent. This provision was repealed the ve- to the personal allusions made to himself by ry next year, and, in 1824, the duties were the Senator from Missouri. He would previ. raised to 334 per cent, on woollens, and pro- ously remark that the fact was now established portionately on other articles. Finally, in 1828, by that Senator; that the famous tariff of the they were raised nominally to 45 per cent., but Secretary of the Treasury which bad engaged really to between tify and sixty on woollens , so much anxious deliberation in Congress dur. and but for the extraordinary excitement in the ing his session, originated from a resolution in south, and the conviction that the people would that officer's own handwriting, presented to not submit to it, I am warranted in saying, from and adopted by the Ilouse of Representatives. what I have witnessed here, that the woollen That fact was, unaffected by any circumstances mamufacturers would now have demanded pro- which led to the draft of the resolution, and hibitory duties, and would have carried them. conclusively proves that the duty of preparing Under these circumstances, I am thoroughly the bill, if not voluntarily sought, was not reconvinced that there is no principle of reaction luctantly assumed by the Secretary. in the system itself, and that it never can be ar The Senator from Missouri has adverted to *rested until it is resisted by the sovereign pow- the fact of crowded galleries. But if impelled er of the States, whose productions it subjects by curiosity, the galleries are occasionally fillato unconstitutional and oppressive, burthens ed, when it is understood some Senators are to and whose citizens it reduces to slavery. speak, no member knows better than the bon,

I have presented these views in taking my gentleman that, when some others rige, the final leave of this painful subject; not so much galleries are quickly emptied, with whatever with the purpose of convincing the majority else the Senate Chamber may then be filled. who support this system, that I am right in the The inember ought not to be dissatisfied toopinions I have advanced, as that I am sincere, day with the presence of those who are around and candid, and honest, in the course I have him; for among them is a lady * of great literary pursued, and may pursue, in relation to it. eminence. Through the whole course of my political life, MP: CLAY continued and observed, that he I have looked steadily and exclusively to the had been accused by the Senator from Missouonly object that I regard as “worth ambition,” ri with a want of couitesy and decorun towards that honest fame which will live with posterity, the Chiet. Magistrate of the United States, in " when this busy scene shall be left to those who the comments which he had felt it, bis duty to are to come after us. While I regard, with utter make upon the President's message accompa. contempt and scorn the iniserable gewgaws and oying his veto upon the bank bill. How had ephemeral honors of mere official distinction. he rendered himself liable to this accusation! I confess, Sir, that I feel a deep soricitude A bill to recharter the bank had passed the Se. to carry, with me, in every possible vissitude, nale, with the concurrence of his (Mr. Clar's) the good opinion of those with whom I have vote as one of the majority. The President been associated in the public service, however disapproved it, and in an elaborate message widely we may be separated in our respective states at large his objections, Now what was opinions. If i have succeeded in this object, the most respectful course in regard to this I shall not regard this as an unavailing or an un message? To examine, weigh, discuss, and * profitable effort.

decide upon the objections?-orto preceed to

the reconsideration of the bill, enjoined by the THE TARIFF BILL.

constitution, in silence? Mr. Clar would ap. The bill from the House has passed the Sc- peal from the Senator to the Senate, if he had nate, with amendments that are calculated to not treated the President and his message with render it still more obnoxious to the south, all the respect which was consistent with the What will be its fate, when returned to the House of Representatives, a few days will de. * Mrs. R-1 was understood to be the per. cile,

sonage present.

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